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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108964, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698093

RESUMO

Parasites induce behavioral changes in the host and obesity is a health problem affecting different animal species. Cysticercosis caused by Taenia pisiformis affects some behavior of rabbits and reproductive behavior of does. Rabbits do not escape from metabolic disorders, being long-live animals useful in breeding, research and companion animals. Here, we addressed the interaction between parasitosis and obesity, and studied how these conditions or the comorbidity affect behavioral and productive parameters in bucks infected with 3000 T. pisiformis eggs. We found that the chronic infection reduced locomotor activity by 28.5% in obese, 18.5% in infected and 47% in obese-infected group (comorbid). The exploratory activity reduced by 42% in obese, 48% in infected and 68% in comorbid rabbits (P ≤ 0.001). Chinning was not affected by obesity, while infection decreased it by 25%. Behavioral reproductive parameters like response time, the mount latency and number of ejaculates were affected by infection and obesity. Furthermore, obesity seems to increase the parasite load promoting the formation of liver granulomas (16% granulomas compared with normal weight), with a higher number of cysticerci in obese animals (86% more than normal weight). Infection decreases body weight, body mass index and the zoometric index BW/LV in obese and normal weight rabbits. In conclusion, infection with T. pisiformis altered behavioral and productive parameters, and obesity magnifies the impact caused by the infection. Also, obesity leads to major susceptibility to infection with T. pisiformis.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Cisticercose/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Exploratório , Locomoção , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Carga Parasitária , Coelhos , Distribuição Aleatória , Sêmen , Comportamento Sexual Animal
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007501, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a public health and agricultural problem in many low and middle-income countries where health education, sanitation, pig management practices and meat inspection infrastructure are insufficient. Cysticercosis affects both human and animal health and has important economic consequences. Very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the monetary burden of cysticercosis. This study aimed at estimating the 2015 costs associated with cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Mexico. METHODS: The monetary burden of human cysticercosis was estimated based on costs incurred by living with and treating epilepsy and severe chronic headaches associated with neurocysticercosis (NCC). The estimated cost of porcine cysticercosis took into consideration losses due to the reduction in the price of cysticercosis-infected animals. Epidemiologic and economic data were obtained from the published literature, government reports, and setting-specific questionnaires. Latin hypercube sampling methods were employed to sample the distributions of uncertain parameters and to estimate 95% credible regions (95% CRs). All results are reported in 2015 U.S.$. FINDINGS: The overall monetary burden associated with NCC morbidity was estimated at U.S.$215,775,056 (95% CR U.S.$109,309,560 -U.S.$361,924,224), with U.S.$436 (95% CR: U.S.$296 -U.S.$604) lost per patient. If loss of future years of income and productivity due to NCC-associated deaths was included, this value increased by U.S.$54.26 million, assuming that these individuals earned Mexico's median wage salary. An additional U.S.$19,507,171 (95% CR U.S.$5,734,782 -U.S.$35,913,487) was estimated to be lost due to porcine cysticercosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that T. solium cysticercosis results in considerable monetary losses to Mexico.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Cisticercose/economia , Doenças dos Suínos/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Cisticercose/complicações , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/economia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/parasitologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/economia , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia solium , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int Ophthalmol ; 39(5): 1151-1154, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582260

RESUMO

A 22-year-old male presented to us with complaints of sudden painful loss of vision in left eye 10 days ago along with inward deviation of the left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in right eye was 20/20 and 20/50 in left eye. Left eye showed limitation of abduction, a relative afferent pupillary defect, normal anterior segment with optic disc oedema. Contrast-enhanced MRI of the brain and orbit showed thickening of left optic nerve along with a cystic lesion near the orbital apex with a central iso- to hyperintense spot resembling a scolex. A diagnosis of left orbital apex syndrome secondary to optic nerve cysticercosis was made. Patient was treated with oral albendazole and intravenous corticosteroids for 3 days followed by oral corticosteroids. Ten weeks post-treatment, his BCVA in the left eye improved to 20/20 and colour vision and visual fields improved. Pallor of the left optic disc was noted, and ocular motility improved completely. MRI after treatment showed a decreased thickness of left optic nerve with disappearance of the cystic lesion.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/complicações , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Disco Óptico/patologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/complicações , Doenças Orbitárias/etiologia , Acuidade Visual , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Disco Óptico/parasitologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/parasitologia , Doenças Orbitárias/diagnóstico , Síndrome , Taenia solium/imunologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 43(10): 1137-1144, 2018 Oct 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of Cysticercus cellulose (C. cellulose) infection on mental health among school-aged children in Tibetan agricultural areas of Sichuan Province.
 Methods: In October 2015, all primary schools located in Tibetan agricultural areas in Yajiang, Ruoergai, and Muli county of Sichuan Province were selected as the research sites. All school-aged children at five- and six-grade were enrolled for the study by a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Antibodies against C. cellulose were detected. Mental Health Test and questionnaire survey were conducted for school-aged children to collect data. The impact of C. cellulose infection on mental health among school-aged children was analyzed with the multilevel linear regression.
 Results: A total of 2 453 school-aged children were investigated. The C. cellulose seropositive rate was 6.03% (148/2 453). There were 0.16% (4/2 453) patients with seropositive accompanied by seizure, 2.28% (56/2 453) with seropositive accompanied by headache, 2.08% (51/2 453) with seropositive accompanied by frequent weak, and 0.41% (10/2 453) were seropositive accompanied by frequent nausea. The rate of C. cellulose infection was 4.53% (111/2 453). The mean score of the mental health test was 6.59±2.61. There were significant difference in score of mental health test in children whose demographic characteristics were different. The mental health scores of school-aged children were clustered at the school level. After controlling the factors of demographic characteristics, the result of multilevel model demonstrated that the factor of school-aged children with C. cellulose seropositive accompanied by headache was statistically significant (ß=1.14, P=0.017).
 Conclusion: The status of C. cellulose infection among school-aged children in Tibetan agricultural areas is not optimistic. C. cellulose infection has impacted on mental health of local school-aged children. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of C. cellulose infection in epidemic area.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/complicações , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cysticercus , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Animais , Criança , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tibet/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(3): e0005153, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28267746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We reviewed studies that analyzed cysticercosis (CC), neurocysticercosis (NCC) and epilepsy across Latin America, Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, to estimate the odds ratio and etiologic fraction of epilepsy due to CC in tropical regions. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on cysticercosis and epilepsy in the tropics, collecting data from case-control and cross-sectional studies. Exposure criteria for CC included one or more of the following: serum ELISA or EITB positivity, presence of subcutaneous cysts (both not verified and unverified by histology), histology consistent with calcified cysts, and brain CT scan consistent with NCC. A common odds-ratio was then estimated using meta-analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 37 studies from 23 countries were included (n = 24,646 subjects, 14,934 with epilepsy and 9,712 without epilepsy). Of these, 29 were case-control (14 matched). The association between CC and epilepsy was significant in 19 scientific articles. Odds ratios ranged from 0.2 to 25.4 (a posteriori power 4.5-100%) and the common odds ratio was 2.7 (95% CI 2.1-3.6, p <0.001). Three subgroup analyses performed gave odds ratios as: 2.2 (EITB-based studies), 3.2 (CT-based studies), 1.9 (neurologist-confirmed epilepsy; door-to-door survey and at least one matched control per case). Etiologic fraction was estimated to be 63% in the exposed group among the population. SIGNIFICANCE: Despite differences in findings, this meta-analysis suggests that cysticercosis is a significant contributor to late-onset epilepsy in tropical regions around the world, and its impact may vary depending on transmission intensity.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/complicações , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/etiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 62(8): 725-727, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27992011

RESUMO

Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by a worm of the Cestoda class. The most prevalent form affects the nervous system. This case report is from a 78-year-old female patient evaluated at Clínica Mult Imagem, in the city of Santos, Brazil, who presented a form of the disease that differed from the classic neurocysticercosis, in this case muscular cysticercosis. This and other forms of manifestation justify further studies to ensure adequate recognition, diagnosis and treatment of this parasitic disease.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Calcinose/parasitologia , Cisticercose/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Musculares/parasitologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26763526

RESUMO

A male, 12-year-old Cairn terrier suffering from Cushing's syndrome with two therapy-resistant inflammatory subcutaneous lesions was examined pathomorphologically and parasitologically. Within the subcutaneous tissue, there was a suppurative to necrotizing and histiocytic inflammation present with the formation of caverns. Intralesional whitish-grey cysts with a diameter of 1-4 mm were detected. Molecular investigations of the cysts confirmed the preliminary morphological identification as Cysticercus longicollis. The adenohypophysis showed an infiltrative growing carcinoma. Cysticercus longicollis is the metacestode of Taenia (T.) crassiceps, a tapeworm of foxes and coyotes. Small rodents are typical intermediate hosts, in which the metacestode develops within the body cavities as well as in the subcutis. Subcutaneous cysticercosis after infection with eggs of T. crassiceps is also described in different domestic animal species and in humans, who represent aberrant intermediate hosts. Immunosuppression due to Cushing's syndrome, probably caused by the tumor of the adenohypophysis, may have played a role in the pathogenesis of the present case.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/veterinária , Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Síndrome de Cushing/parasitologia , Cisticercose/complicações , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Cães , Masculino
15.
J Neurol Sci ; 359(1-2): 392-5, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26320098

RESUMO

Human taeniasis as well as porcine and human cysticercosis--caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium--are ancient diseases. The fact that pigs were considered impure in the ancient Greece and that the Koran prohibited the consumption of pork, were likely related to the knowledge that cysticercosis may affect swine. Evidence suggests that human cysticercosis was also present in the ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Renaissance, the causative agent was properly identified and human cases were recognized. Confirmation that both taeniasis and cysticercosis were caused by the same parasite was provided during the 19th Century by German pathologists. During the 20th Century, bouts of human cysticercosis in non-endemic regions left us valuable lessons on the mechanisms of disease acquisition and spread. These included a large series of neurocysticercosis cases in the United Kingdom that occurred after the return of troops stationed in India (which demonstrated that symptoms may occur years after infection), the epidemic of cysticercosis-related epilepsy in the Ekari people of Papua New Guinea occurring after the gift of pigs with cysticercosis received from Indonesia (demonstrating the fast establishment of endemic transmission and the impact of cysticercosis in epilepsy frequency), and the occurrence of neurocysticercosis among members of an Orthodox Jewish community of New York City, related to Latin American Taenia carriers working in their houses (highlighting the fact that cysticercosis transmission do not require the presence of infected pigs). These lessons of history have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on this disease.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/história , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Taenia solium/patogenicidade , Animais , Cisticercose/complicações , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Antiga , Humanos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(30): e1026, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26222841

RESUMO

Ocular cysticercosis refers to parasitic infections in humans. Most cases were treated by medicine. The case we reviewed was rarely reported with successful surgical intervention treatment.This case report describes a patient with cysticercosis existing in superior oblique tendon. The main symptom of the patient was recurring history of painless orbital swelling and double vision in upgaze. Ocular motility examination revealed a restriction of the right eye in levoelevation. A contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan of the orbit revealed the presence of a well-defined hypodense cystic lesion within the right superior oblique muscle.The patient was diagnosed with orbital space-occupying mass with acquired Brown syndrome. Surgical exploration of the superior oblique muscle was performed, and the cyst was removed from the eye and confirmed by histopathological examination. After surgery, an ocular motility examination revealed orthotropia in the primary position and downgaze, with mild restriction in levoelevation.Surgical removal could substitute for medical therapy when the cysticercosis is lodged in the superior oblique muscle, although, prior to surgery, important factors, such as patient requirements, surgical skills of the surgeon, and cyst placement, should be considered.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/cirurgia , Cysticercus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/cirurgia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/etiologia , Músculos Oculomotores/parasitologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Doenças Orbitárias/cirurgia , Adulto , Animais , Cisticercose/complicações , Cisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/complicações , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/cirurgia , Músculos Oculomotores/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Doenças Orbitárias/complicações , Doenças Orbitárias/parasitologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Trop Med Int Health ; 20(4): 546-52, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. METHODS: Three Peruvian populations (n = 985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n = 200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n = 196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. RESULTS: Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P < 0.05). A similarly increasing pattern of higher seroprevalence was observed among migrants by age at migration. In rural villagers, there was strong evidence of an association between positive serology and having seizures (P = 0.011) but such an association was not observed in long-term migrants or in urban residents. In the entire study population, compared with seronegative participants, those with strong antibody reactions (≥ 4 antibody bands) were more likely to have epilepsy (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is not only international migration that affects cysticercosis endemicity; internal migration can also affect patterns of endemicity within an endemic country. The neurological consequences of cysticercosis infection likely outlast the antibody response for years after rural-to-urban migration.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , População Rural , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Taenia solium , Migrantes , População Urbana , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Cisticercose/sangue , Cisticercose/complicações , Epilepsia/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Convulsões/complicações , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Taenia solium/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 8(9): e3121, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25188395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1(+) patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients (601) were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4(+) cell count and antiretroviral regimen). Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9%) were women and 223 (37.1%) were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475) patients (79%) were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Neither age nor the CD4(+) count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4(+) between 200-500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant antiretroviral therapy is needed.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Cisticercose/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1 , Esquistossomose/complicações , Toxocaríase/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Benzodiazepinas , Clobazam , Estudos Transversais , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/complicações , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia
20.
Vaccine ; 32(42): 5405-10, 2014 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25131738

RESUMO

Pneumonia is the leading killer of children and disproportionately affects developing countries. Vaccination campaigns against Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of pneumonia, have recently been launched with a new conjugate vaccine in Africa. Using a mouse model, we assessed the potential role that the high burden of helminth infections in the countries targeted for vaccine might have on vaccine effectiveness. Mice vaccinated with either commercial conjugate or purified polysaccharide vaccines had impaired antibody responses if they were chronically infected with Taenia crassiceps. This translated to increased susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia and high mortality compared to helminth-negative vaccinated animals, which were fully protected from disease and death. Antibodies taken from Taenia-infected, vaccinated mice were unable to effectively opsonize S. pneumoniae for killing by alveolar macrophages, and did not protect against pneumococcal challenge when adoptively transferred into naïve animals. These data may have implications for vaccination programs in countries endemic with helminths.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/complicações , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Cisticercose/complicações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Macrófagos Alveolares/citologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fagocitose , Taenia , Falha de Tratamento , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
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