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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 98-106, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252543

RESUMO

Medicinal herbs are used for growth promotion, disease control and other health benefits in aquaculture industry. Here, we examined the effect of dietary laurel-leaf cistus (Cistus laurifolius) ethanolic extract on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, haematological profile and nonspecific immune responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition, resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection was examined. Common carp was fed diets containing 0 (Control), 0.1 (CL0.1), 0.5 (CL0.5) and 1 (CL1) g kg-1 laurel-leaf cistus extract for 45 days. After 30 days, superoxide anion production (SAP) increased in CL0.1 and CL0.5 fish groups and at the end of the study all experimental fish groups had higher SAP compared to that of the control (P ˂ 0.05). Lysozyme activity (LA) was elevated in CL0.5 and CL1 treated groups on 30th day (P < 0.05), and this increase was only observed in C0.1 fish group at the end of study compared to control (P ˂ 0.05). Myeloperoxidase activity was significantly increased in CL0.5 and CL1 fish groups at the end of study. IL-1ßgene expression was significantly increased in treated fish in a dose-depended manner. Similar results were observed for transcription of IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.05). Anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-ß were highly up-regulated in the intestine and head kidney of CL treated fish groups compared to control (P < 0.05). At the end of experiment, significantly higher final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate were obtained in CL0.1 treated fish group compared to control. However, growth was negatively affected in CL1 fish group (P < 0.05). CL1 fish group had also a significantly higher FCR. Amylase activity was significantly increased in all experimental fish groups compared to control (P ˂ 0.05). Trypsin activity was decreased in CL0.1 and CL1 fish groups (P ˂ 0.05). WBC and RBC were significantly increased (P ˂ 0.05) in CL0.5 and CL1 fish groups, whereas haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell, mean cell haemoglobin contents were no significantly changed among control and treatment groups. Result of challenge test with A. hydrophila exhibited that survival rate in all treatment groups was significantly higher than that of control. These findings demonstrated that laurel-leaf cistus at 0.1 g kg-1 can be a suitable candidate for growth promotion, immune system induction and infection control in fish.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cistus , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Carpas/sangue , Carpas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Carpas/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Etanol/química , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Rim Cefálico/citologia , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Muramidase/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes/química , Superóxidos/imunologia , Tripsina/metabolismo
2.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(4): 497-510, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196799

RESUMO

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis appears extensively in the Northern Hemisphere, where Mediterranean ecosystems constitute an important ecological area of considerable biodiversity value. Littoral sand dunes are among high-risk habitats, and ectomycorrhizal lifestyle contributes significantly to supporting life in such regions. Mallocybe heimii (Bon) Matheny & Esteve-Rav. (Inocybaceae, Basidiomycota) and the very similar M. arenaria (Bon) Matheny & Esteve-Rav. grow in poor, usually sandy soils, in association with angiosperms or gymnosperms. Basidiomata originally identified under these names were collected from littoral sand dunes of Greece, and their morpho-anatomical characteristics were examined in conjunction with material derived from other European regions. Sequences from basidiomata and root tips corresponding to the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) were obtained and analyzed. Phylogenetic results demonstrated that material identified as M. heimii or M. arenaria form a single well-supported group, while M. agardhii (N. Lund) Matheny & Esteve-Rav. is confirmed to be distinct from M. arenaria (the latter was initially described as a variety of the former, i.e., I. agardhii var. arenaria Bon). A detailed tree of the genus Mallocybe was generated on the basis of concatenated ITS and LSU sequences, and relationships of selected taxa are discussed in the light of morphological and sequence data. In addition, the first morphotype descriptions of M. heimii ectomycorrhizae with Cistus creticus L. and Pinus halepensis Miller are hereby provided. Both morphotypes exhibited the typical characteristics of Inocybe/Mallocybe ectomycorrhizae; however, differences were noted, the most significant being the presence of clamps on mantle hyphae and the type of anastomoses.


Assuntos
Cistus , Micorrizas , Pinus , Ecossistema , Micorrizas/genética , Filogenia , Areia
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071495

RESUMO

Increasing applications and markets for essential oils could bring new opportunities for cost-effective and sustainable management of unused forestry biomass; however, better knowledge of the production and application of such essential oils is necessary. The objective of this work is to contribute to greater knowledge of the essential oil production on a pilot scale from foliage biomass of wild shrubs and tree residues produced in some forestry enhancement operations and to study their antioxidant capacity (ORAC-oxygen radical absorbance capacity). Fresh biomass (twigs) of seven species (E. globulus, E. nitens, P. pinaster, P. sylvestris, R. officinalis, C. ladanifer, and J. communis) was manually collected in Spain in two different periods and was ground at 30 mm and distilled in a 30 L stainless steel still with saturated steam. The essential oil components were identified by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID, and their antioxidant activity was determined with the ORAC method. Promising results on essential oil yield were obtained with E. globulus, E. nitens, R. officinalis, and J. communis. All essential oils studied exhibited antioxidant capacity by the ORAC assay, particularly that from C. ladanifer. Moreover, oxygenated sesquiterpenes contents, one of the minor components of oils, were significantly correlated with ORAC values.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cistus , Eucalyptus/química , Florestas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Geografia , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Espanha , Árvores
4.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(6): e2100053, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932088

RESUMO

The Cistaceae family is well represented in Sardinia, and the Cistus genus is widely used in traditional medicine. Nowadays only few studies have been performed on this genus vegetating in Sardinia in spite of its ethnobotanical importance. Moreover, in the past there have been conflicting opinions among botanists for the exact assignment of the species growing in Sardinia. We started several years ago to carried out studies on this genus and in the present study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of several samples of Cistus salvifolius L., Cistus monspeliensis L., and Cistus albidus L. collected in Sardinia as antimicrobial agents against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and four Candida species and their antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. Furthermore, the phenolic content and composition of the extracts were first evaluated. Using statistical multivariate analysis on the complete metabolomics profile of all Cistus species growing wild in Sardinia, we confirmed the botanical classification, and we observed an interesting correlation between metabolomics profile and antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cistus/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/análise , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Itália , Metabolômica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Análise Multivariada , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921855

RESUMO

Cistus ladanifer is a Mediterranean native plant from which valuable products, such as essential oil, are obtained. Manual harvesting of the plants in wild shrublands is usual during short periods of time. Their mechanised harvesting could increase the volume of harvested plants and prevent fires, further storage of the plants collected being necessary. The objective of this work is to study the influence of the storage period of mechanically harvested bales on the essential oil yield and qualitative composition. The harvesting trials were carried out with an adapted commercial harvester baler and the storage of the bales was performed indoors during 1-7 days, 15-30 days and 100-120 days. Afterwards, the bales were crushed (30 mm) and distilled in a 30 litre stainless steel still with saturated steam (0.5 bar). The essential oil components were identified by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID. The storage of mechanically harvested Cistus ladanifer does not decrease the oil yield of steam distillation on a pilot scale. However, it leads to differences in the quantitative composition of the essential oils, decreasing the total monoterpene compounds content and increasing that of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, especially when the biomass is stored for 100-120 days, without affecting its qualitative composition.


Assuntos
Cistus/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/análise
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 258: 117673, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593550

RESUMO

This study's primary purpose was to develop a new technique to stabilize high value-added bioactive volatile compounds present in essential oils to ensure their usability as chemical raw materials with enhanced stability. Selective isolation and encapsulation of various volatile compounds by changing the electrospraying process parameter, including voltage, flow rate, and ß-Cyclodextrin concentration, were attributed to the formation of inclusion complexes between ß-cyclodextrin and volatile compounds. Investigations regarding the effects of independent process variables on simultaneous isolation and selective encapsulation of volatile compounds during electrospraying of ß-cyclodextrins were carried out mainly with TLC analyses. The TLC analyses were confirmed with GC, GC-MS, and 1H NMR analyses. It was possible to obtain nanoparticles with an average particle size between 25-160 nm with the designed system. Obtained data revealed that isolation and encapsulation of cumin aldehyde, camphene, isoborneol, and hexadecanoic acid, benzyl benzoate from labdanum essential oil were successfully achieved.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Benzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Canfanos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Cistus , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Nanopartículas/química , Nigella sativa/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Palmítico/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 588, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436818

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance poses a serious threat to human health worldwide. Plant compounds may help to overcome antibiotic resistance due to their potential resistance modifying capacity. Several botanical extracts and pure polyphenolic compounds were screened against a panel of eleven bacterial isolates with clinical relevance. The two best performing agents, Cistus salviifolius (CS) and Punica granatum (GP) extracts, were tested against 100 Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates, which resulted in average MIC50 values ranging between 50-80 µg/mL. CS extract, containing hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids such as myricetin and quercetin derivatives, demonstrated higher activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. GP extract, which contained mostly hydrolyzable tannins, such as punicalin and punicalagin, was more effective against methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates. Generalized linear model regression and multiple correspondence statistical analysis revealed a correlation between a higher susceptibility to CS extract with bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and quinolones. On the contrary, susceptibility to GP extract was related with bacteria sensitive to quinolones and oxacillin. Bacterial susceptibility to GP and CS extracts was linked to a resistance profile based on cell wall disruption mechanism. In conclusion, a differential antibacterial activity against S. aureus isolates was observed depending on antibiotic resistance profile of isolates and extract polyphenolic composition, which may lead to development of combinatorial therapies including antibiotics and botanical extracts.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cistus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Redução da Medicação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
8.
Planta ; 253(2): 36, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462640

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Jasmonic acid positively modulates vitamin E accumulation, but the latter can also partly influence the capacity to accumulate the jasmonic acid precursor, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, in white-leaved rockrose (Cistus albidus L.) plants growing in their natural habitat. This study suggests a bidirectional link between chloroplastic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation-derived hormones in plants. While vitamin E is well known for its antioxidant properties being involved in plant responses to abiotic stress, jasmonates are generally related to biotic stress responses in plants. Studying them in non-model plants under natural conditions is crucial for the knowledge on their relationship, which will help us to better understand mechanisms and limits of stress tolerance to implement better conservation strategies in vulnerable ecosystems. We studied a typical Mediterranean shrub, white-leaved rockrose (Cistus albidus) under natural conditions during three winters and we analyzed both α and γ-tocopherol, and the three main jasmonates forms 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). We found that JA contents positively correlated with vitamin E accumulation, most particularly with γ-tocopherol, the precursor of α-tocopherol (the most active vitamin E form). This finding was confirmed by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in leaf discs under controlled conditions, which increased γ-tocopherol when applied at 0.1 mM MeJA and α-tocopherol at 1 mM MeJA. Furthermore, a complementary meta-analysis study with previously published reports revealed a positive correlation between JA and vitamin E, although this relationship turned to be strongly species specific. A strong negative correlation was observed, however, between total tocopherols and OPDA (a JA precursor located in chloroplasts). This antagonistic effect was observed between α-tocopherol and OPDA, but not between γ-tocopherol and OPDA. It is concluded that (i) variations in jasmonates and vitamin E due to yearly, inter-individual and sun orientation-driven variability are compatible with a partial regulation of vitamin E accumulation by jasmonates, (ii) vitamin E may also exert a role in the modulation of the biosynthesis of OPDA, with a much smaller effect, if any, on other jasmonates, and (iii) a trade-off in the accumulation of vitamin E and jasmonates might occur in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants.


Assuntos
Cistus , Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Vitamina E , Cistus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistus/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Vitamina E/metabolismo
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 158: 125-135, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307424

RESUMO

Organic residues (compost) can be used as growth medium but may contain phytotoxic ions that, combined with a water deficit may alter the behavior of plants. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber with Cistus albidus in a commercial substrate, C (sphagnum peat, coconut fiber and perlite, 8:7:1) and a mixture of compost substrates, Cp (slurry compost, coconut fiber and perlite, 3:6:1). Plants were grown in pots under well-watered, maintaining values of Ψl around -0.9 MPa (WW) and water-stressed (WS) conditions, where the irrigation was removed until reached values of Ψl around -3.0 MPa (water stress period), after then, water was re-established in all plants (recovery period). Although, the well-watered plants had a leaf water potential (Ψl) around -0.9 MPa, stomatal conductance (gs) was 125 mmol m-2s-1 in the commercial substrate and 30 mmol m-2s-1 in compost. The time taken to reach the threshold value at which water stress occurs was 13 days in the commercial substrate and 53 days in compost. Water-stressed plants in the commercial substrate had significantly lower values of Ψl and gs than well-watered. Plants in compost maintained values of gs similar in both irrigation treatments (WW and WS) and accumulated less biomass than those that grown in commercial. The water stress in compost led an increase in the adaxial epidermis, parenchyma and mesophyll, whereas water stress in commercial the proportions of the different tissues decreased. Higher lipid peroxidation values were found in plants grown in both substrates under water stress. The recovery time of the plants, until manage Ψl values around -0.9 MPa, depended on the type of substrate. The restoration of irrigation in commercial substrate act as a new stress, as reflected in the photochemical mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cistus/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Água , Desidratação , Folhas de Planta/química
10.
Bull Entomol Res ; 111(2): 246-256, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355061

RESUMO

The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae), is the main vector in Europe of the recently detected plant pathogen bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. (Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae). While the ecology of continental populations is well documented, nothing is known about the insular populations of P. spumarius, such as in Corsica, where the bacterium was detected in 2015. Hence, in an epidemiological context, the ecology of P. spumarius has been studied in a maquis landscape in the Ajaccio region between 2017 and 2019. Adults and nymphs were almost exclusively collected on Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae). However, very few specimens were collected in summer, suggesting a movement of the adults to sheltered habitats. Unfortunately, despite several trapping methods used, the location of adult summer habitat remains unknown for the studied population. It might be tempting to destroy the central plant host of P. spumarius populations. However, as spittlebug nymphs are highly polyphagous on low-growing plant species and as the females can lay eggs in any dead plant tissues, such practice could have limited the impact. Instead, the strong relationship between P. spumarius and C. monspeliensis could be used to monitor spittlebug populations, to limit/concentrate the means of insect control, or in an agronomic context to lure insects away from crops. Maintaining natural arboreal vegetation around agronomic systems could help decrease insect abundance - and potentially, pathogen load - on cultivated species. Such hypotheses need to be further studied by landscape experiments.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Animais , Cistus , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos , Ecossistema , França/epidemiologia , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Hiperfagia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Controle de Pragas/tendências , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Planta Med ; 86(15): 1148-1155, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492718

RESUMO

The genus Cistus is taxonomically complex, as taxonomic classification of individual species based on morphological criteria is often difficult and ambiguous. However, specific species contain valuable natural products, especially terpenoids and polyphenols, which exert various biological effects and might therefore be used for treatment of a broad array of disorders. Hence, a fast and reliable method for clear identification of different Cistus (sub-) species is required. Approaches for analysis of secondary metabolite profiles, e.g., with NMR, might remedy the challenging classification of Cistus (sub-) species and help to identify specific markers for differentiation between them. In the present study, 678 samples from wild-growing Cistus populations, including 7 species and 6 subspecies/varieties thereof, were collected in 3 years from populations in 11 countries all over the Mediterranean basin. Samples were extracted with buffered aqueous methanol and analysed with NMR. From the resulting 1D-1H-NOESY and J-Res profile spectra, marker signals or spectral regions for the individual (sub-) species were identified with multivariate statistical tools. By examining the NMR profiles of these extracts, we were able to identify discriminators and specific markers for the investigated Cistus (sub-) species. Various influencing factors, like (sub-) species, wild harvestings of different populations from several countries, numerous collection sites, different years, and cultivation in greenhouses have been considered in this work. As the here identified markers are independent from these influencing factors, the results can be considered a robust model and might be used for future differentiation between Cistus (sub-) species.


Assuntos
Cistaceae , Cistus , Extratos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Terpenos
12.
Phytochemistry ; 176: 112402, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474264

RESUMO

The effect of environmental factors on the chemical composition of plants eventually resulting in plant growth regulation is an age-old issue in plant biology. Nowadays, the acceleration in changes in environmental conditions (e.g. global warming) can act as an incentive to investigate their correlation with metabolic changes. In this study, Cistus monspeliensis plants grown on the island of Sardinia (Italy) were used to explore the geographical-mediated metabolic variation and its repercussion on plant-fungus interactions. Samples of different ecotypes of C. monspeliensis were collected and chemically profiled by 1H NMR and HPTLC-based metabolomics and the relationship between the variations of biological activity was examined by multivariate data analysis. The ecotypes, collected from different geographical zones and altitudes, exhibited clearly distinguishable chemical profiles, particularly in their terpene and phenolic contents. In particular, multivariate data analysis revealed several diterpenes of the labdane and clerodane series among the terpenes and methoxyflavonoids to be responsible for the differentiation. The antifungal activity of the plants was used to explore the correlation between chemical variation and biological activity. Results showed that there was a strong correlation between the metabolic profiles and the antifungal activity, revealing terpenes and methoxylated flavonoids as the main involved metabolites. This demonstrated that environmental factors can influence the chemical variation of plant ecotypes, resulting in the generation of chemotypes that are potentially adapted to their niche conditions including the plant-fungal interactions.


Assuntos
Cistus , Ecótipo , Flavonoides , Fungos , Itália
13.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503115

RESUMO

This study investigates the effects of various drying methods applied to leaves of Cistus creticus L. on the contents of polyphenols and the composition of the volatile fraction. The following four drying methods were used: convection drying at a temperature of 40 °C (CD 40 °C), 50 °C (CD 50 °C), and 60 °C (CD 60 °C); vacuum-microwave (VMD 240 W); combined drying, involving convection pre-drying (50 °C) and vacuum-microwave (240 W) finish drying (CPD-VMFD) as well as freeze-drying (FD). Polyphenols in the dried leaves were determined using chromatography-photodiode detector-quadrupole/time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS). The contents of odoriferous substances in the dry material were determined by means of head space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with the use of a gas chromatograph (GC). Thirty-seven polyphenol components including 21 flavonols, eight flavan-3-ols, and eight hydrolyzed tannins in dry Pink Rock Rose material were found for the first time. The highest contents of polyphenols, totaling 2.8 g/100 g-1 dry matter (d.m.), were found in the samples subjected to the CPD/VMFD drying method. Pink Rock Rose subjected to this drying method was characterized by large quantities of odoriferous compounds, mainly eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol, which contribute to its antiseptic properties. By using CPD/VMFD methods, it is possible to obtain fine quality dry material from the leaves of C. creticus.


Assuntos
Cistus/química , Dessecação , Flavonóis/química , Liofilização/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Flavonóis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231039

RESUMO

Cistus ladanifer L. is a shrub from Cistaceae family, widespread in Mediterranean countries. Fatty acids (FA) have multiple roles in plants and are involved in adaption mechanisms to environmental conditions. This work evaluated the FA content and composition of each morphological fraction of C. ladanifer (leaves, stems, flower buds, flowers and seed heads) throughout a full year. Cistus ladanifer plants were collected in southern Portugal, during four consecutive seasons (18 plants/season), and the different morphological plant fractions (leaves, stems, flower buds, flowers and seed heads) were separated. Cistus ladanifer morphological fractions showed distinct FA compositions, being possible to discriminate three groups-the leaves that showed to be dominated by saturated FA (main 20:0) and contain branched-chain FA (iso-19:0 and iso-21:0); the stems that are composed mainly by SFA (main 22:0); and the reproductive organs that showed higher contents of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and the 16:0 as the main SFA. The FA composition of leaves changed over seasons, with replacement of the PUFA by monounsaturated FA and branched-chain FA during hot seasons. Regarding the other C. ladanifer morphological fractions, the FA composition was more stable over seasons, suggesting that leaves are more prone to adaptations to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Cistus/anatomia & histologia , Cistus/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6521, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300137

RESUMO

The growing interest of oncologists in natural compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids is encouraging the development of innovative and efficient carriers for the delivery of those drugs. This study examines carboxymethyl chitosan-based microcapsules created by spray drying as a method for delivering biologically active compounds isolated from the Cistus herb. Effects of sterilization and encapsulation on the polyphenol and flavonoid content of Cistus extract were investigated to optimize the production process. Furthermore, in vitro studies were carried out to examine the anticancer properties of sterilized polyphenols and flavonoids on glioblastoma cells isolated from oncological patients. Acquired results show high anticancer potential towards glioblastoma as well as low cytotoxicity towards non-cancer cell lines by the substances in question. Steam sterilization is shown to affect the content of biologically active compounds the least. We demonstrate that the investigated form of drug encapsulation is both efficient and potentially possible to scale up from the viewpoint of the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistus/química , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Esterilização
16.
Meat Sci ; 164: 108092, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172003

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of Cistus ladanifer L. and vegetable oils on intramuscular fat composition, muscle antioxidant status and lipid oxidative stability, and explore the mechanism by which dietary Cistus ladanifer limits the lipid oxidation. Lambs were assigned 9 diets, corresponding to 3 levels of Cistus ladanifer (50, 100 and 200 g/kg DM) and 3 levels of oil (0, 40 and 80 g/kg DM). Oil supplementation increased highly peroxidizable fatty acid content and the peroxidizability index (P < .05). Muscle phenolic content, reducing ability and radical scavenging ability were not affected by Cistus ladanifer (P > .05). The highest level of Cistus ladanifer enhanced muscle resistance to lipid oxidation (P = .006) and increased α-tocopherol content (P = .005), reducing meat lipid oxidation over 7 days of storage (P < .001). Results showed that Cistus ladanifer has a protective effect against lipid oxidation through increasing α-tocopherol concentration in the muscle.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Carne Vermelha/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Cistus , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais , Distribuição Aleatória , Carneiro Doméstico
17.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 378(2167): 20190447, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008452

RESUMO

Superhydrophobicity is a physical feature of surfaces occurring in many organisms and has been applied (e.g. lotus effect) in bionic technical applications. Some aquatic species are able to maintain persistent air layers under water (Salvinia effect) and thus become increasingly interesting for drag reduction and other 'bioinspired' applications. However, another feature of superhydrophobic surfaces, i.e. the adsorption (not absorption) and subsequent superficial transportation and desorption capability for oil, has been neglected. Intense research is currently being carried out on oil-absorbing bulk materials like sponges, focusing on oleophilic surfaces and meshes to build membranes for oil-water separation. This requires an active pumping of oil-water mixtures onto or through the surface. Here, we present a novel passive, self-driven technology to remove oil from water surfaces. The oil is adsorbed onto a superhydrophobic material (e.g. textiles) and transported on its surface. Vertical and horizontal transportation is possible above or below the oil-contaminated water surface. The transfer in a bioinspired novel bionic oil adsorber is described. The oil is transported into a container and thus removed from the surface. Prototypes have proven to be an efficient and environmentally friendly technology to clean oil spills from water without chemicals or external energy supply. This article is part of the theme issue 'Bioinspired materials and surfaces for green science and technology (part 3)'.


Assuntos
Adsorção , Biodegradação Ambiental , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Óleos/análise , Água/análise , Araceae , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Brassicaceae , Cistaceae , Cistus , Simulação por Computador , Elastômeros , Desenho de Equipamento , Química Verde , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Poluição por Petróleo , Robótica , Estreptófitas , Propriedades de Superfície , Têxteis , Fatores de Tempo , Viscosidade
18.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093396

RESUMO

Mediterranean plants biosynthesize high amounts of polyphenols, which are important health-promoting compounds. Leaf polyphenolic composition changes according to environmental conditions. Therefore, it is crucial to know the temporal variation in their production. This study aimed to: i) evaluate the monthly and daily changes in polyphenols of Phyllirea latifolia, Cistus incanus, and Pistacia lentiscus to identify their best harvesting moment, ii) verify the possible correlations between phenolic production and temperature and irradiation, iii) evaluate their antioxidant capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical (OH)scavenging assays. The extracts of leaves harvested at 8:00, 13:00 and 18:00, in May, July, and October for two years were analysed by HPLC-DAD. Both "month" and "time of the day" affected the polyphenolic content in all species. July at 13:00 was the best harvesting moment for all polyphenolic classes of P. latifolia and only for some classes of C. incanus and P. lentiscus. Environmental parameters positively correlated with the polyphenols of C. incanus and P. latifolia, while the antioxidant capacity only varied in this last species, reaching the highest value in July. Results of the study allow to determine the balsamic time for each species. Moreover, the relationship between polyphenols and environmental data can be useful for the cultivation of these plants under controlled conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cistus , Fotoperíodo , Pistacia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta , Polifenóis/química , Estações do Ano , Cistus/química , Cistus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pistacia/química , Pistacia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(8): 2305-2319, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473873

RESUMO

Arsenic is a trace element found in the environment which can be particularly toxic to living organisms. However, some plant species such as those of the genus Cistus are able to grow in soils with high As concentrations and could be used in the sustainable rehabilitation of mining areas through phytostabilization. In this work, the growth and the physiological response of Cistus salviifolius L. to As-induced oxidative stress at several concentrations (reaching 30 mg L-1) in an hydroponic system were evaluated for 30 days. Several growth parameters, chlorophyll content, chemical composition, one indicator of oxidative stress (H2O2) and two of the major antioxidative metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) were analysed. The toxic effect of As was better perceived in the plants submitted to treatments with concentrations of 20 and 30 mg As L-1. Plants subjected to these treatments had higher concentration of As in roots and shoots. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K and Fe in the plants as well as a large part of the evaluated growth parameters were also affected. Arsenic did not interfere with the ability of the plant to perform photosynthesis, as there were no significant differences in the contents of chlorophyll a, b and total between the different treatments. Plants from all treatments accumulated higher amount of As in roots than in shoots, and it was also in the roots that the concentrations of H2O2, AsA and GSH were higher. Cistus salviifolius showed high tolerance to As up to the concentration of 5 mg L-1, which makes it a species with high potential to be used in the phytostabilization of soils contaminated with As and presenting high concentrations of the element in the soil solution.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Cistus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistus/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidroponia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Meat Sci ; 160: 107945, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627117

RESUMO

Thirty-six lambs were used to evaluate the effect of three levels of Cistus ladanifer condensed tannins (CT; 0, 1.25 and 2.5%) and two ways of CT supply (C. ladanifer aerial parts and C. ladanifer CT extract) on lamb growth performance, carcass composition, meat quality and FA composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The basal diet was composed of dehydrated lucerne supplemented with 60 g/kg of soybean oil. The highest amount of CT (2.5%) had detrimental effects on growth performance, particularly when the aerial part of C. ladanifer was used. Conversely, 1.25% CT in diets did not affect growth performance and meat quality, and inclusion of C. ladanifer CT extract in diet at this level increased t11-18:1, but not c9,t11-18:2 content in fat. Feeding C. ladanifer CT extract might be a good approach for enhancing the nutritional value of ruminant fat, but further studies are needed to ensure upregulation of endogenous synthesis of c9,t11-18:2.


Assuntos
Cistus , Dieta/veterinária , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Masculino , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais , Proantocianidinas , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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