Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.122
Filtrar
1.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1403-1410, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish cytarabine-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines and investigate its possible resistant mechanism. METHODS: Low-concentration cytarabine (Ara-C) continuously induced and cultured Jurkat and Nalm-6 cells to construct cytarabine-resistant cell lines Jurkat/Ara-C and Nalm-6/Ara-C. The cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay, and the distribution of cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of multidrug resistant gene and Ara-C metabolic enzymes. The expression levels of cyclin were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Jurkat/Ara-C and Nalm-6/Ara-C drug-resistant cell lines were successfully established, the resistance index of which was 1 973.908±161.163 and 7 231.643± 1 190.624, respectively. Drug-resistant cell lines had no cross-resistance to commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs, such as doxorubicin. Flow cytometry showed that the ratio of G0/G1 phase in Jurkat/Ara-C cells increased but G2/M phase decreased (P<0.05), while the cell cycle distribution of Nalm-6/Ara-C cells did not change in comparison with Nalm-6 cells. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed that the expression of deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) and cytidine deaminase (CDA) were significantly down-regulated in drug-resistant cells (P<0.05), MRP was up-regulated in Nalm-6/Ara-C cells (P<0.05), while MDR1, LRP and BCRP did not increase in comparison with parental cells. Western blot analysis revealed that cyclinB1 was significantly under-expressed in drug-resistant cells (P<0.05), while cyclinD1 did not change, when compared with parental cells. CONCLUSION: Cytarabine-resistant ALL cell lines are successfully established by using low concentration continuous induction method, and its drug-resistant mechanism may be related to the deficiencies of DCK and cyclinB1.


Assuntos
Citarabina , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Linhagem Celular , Citarabina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias
2.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 167: 106039, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644599

RESUMO

Stringent formulation requirements are defined to intrathecally administer drug substances, avoiding neurological complications. In case of pediatric patients, these are further complicated due to the limited volumes of the celebrospinal fluid and, therefore, high concentrated solutions of methotrexate (MTX), cytarabine and corticosteroids (i.e., methylprednisolone or hydrocortisone) are prepared based on the patient's age. This work aims to assess the chemical and physical stability of triple intrathecal mixtures differing in volume and composition by a bracketing approach and to identify possible stress causes and mitigation strategies. Low solubility of MTX was the main factor limiting the physical stability of triple mixtures. Regarding solutions containing methylprednisolone, the amount of MTX remaining was about 95% in the solution at highest concentrations with the concomitant formation of a visible particulate sizing bigger than 1 µm after 24 h of storage at 25 °C. This behavior was mainly driven by the pH reduction due to the pH value of the cytarabine solution used; the shear stress also induced drug precipitation. In the case of the hydrocortisone based mixtures, the precipitate formation occurred at a slow rate. To improve the physical stability, a better control of the mixture pH (optimal value ≈ 7) is required or, as an alternative, the addition of the cytarabine solution to a pre-mixed binary mixture containing MTX and a corticosteroid should be preferred.


Assuntos
Citarabina , Pediatria , Criança , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Injeções Espinhais , Metotrexato
3.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(3): 475-479, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic karyotyping analysis is routinely used in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) clinics. Categorization of patients into risk stratified groups (favourable, intermediate and unfavourable) according to cytogenetic findings can serve as a valuable independent prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to assess the one-year disease free survival rate in AML patients after induction remission presenting at tertiary care hospital of Karachi. METHODS: It was a longitudinal study conducted at the department of Medical oncology of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi from Jun 2017-Jan 2019. Ninety-three diagnosed cases of AML of age 15-55 years of either gender were included in the study. All patients received the first cycle of "3+7" regime for induction chemotherapy. This includes Daunorubicin 45 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3 and Cytarabine in a dose of 100 mg/m2 from day 1-7. Marrow response was assessed on the 21th day of induction therapy. If the bone marrow includes lesser than five percent blast cells then it was labelled as complete remission (CR). The patients who achieved CR and normal haematopoiesis were eligible to receive 4 cycles of consolidation therapy with cytarabine 3 mg/m2 every 12 hour on days 1, 3 and 5. Consolidation cycles were monthly administered. All the patients who achieved CR were follow up for the duration of one year for disease free survival. On follow up monthly visits, outcomes were assessed using CBC report and physical examination. RESULTS: After 1 year, out of 72 AML patients, 19 patients remained in complete remission, 5 patients lost to follow up, 3 relapses, 19 showed persistent disease & 28 died during consolidation. According to cytogenetic status, CR was achieved in 6 patients (50%) with favourable cytogenetic, 14 patients (28%) with intermediate cytogenetic and 2 patients (20%) with unfavourable cytogenetic status. The highest median survival time was observed in patients with favourable cytogenetic status as 5.23 months. However, there was no significant difference was observed in survival time with respect to cytogenetic status. CONCLUSIONS: The "3+7" regime of Daunorubicin & Cytarabine is effective in inducing induction remission and increases 1 year survival, however chemotherapy related morality rate was high in unfavourable cytogenetic group.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Citarabina , Daunorrubicina , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7884-7893, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis was performed to examine the clinical efficacy of drugs in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). METHODS: combinations of terms of "acute myeloid leukemia", "fludara", "cytarabine", "cladribine", "aclacinomycin", "granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)", and "hyaluronic acid" were searched in Chinese databases. "acute myelogenous leukemia", "fludara", "cytarabine", "cladribine", "aclacinomycin", "granulocyte colony-stimulating factor", and "hyaluronic acid" were searched in English databases. Review Manager 5.3 was employed for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Ultimately, 12 articles were included. Most of the articles had a low-risk bias, and were of medium or high quality. The complete remission rates were tested for heterogeneity [chi-square test (Chi2) =4.10, degrees of freedom (df)=10, I2=0%; P=0.94]. The fixed effect model analysis showed that the difference between experimental participants and controls was considerable [Z=13.15, odds ratio (OR) =12.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): (8.77, 18.76); P<0.01]. The overall effective rates were tested for heterogeneity (Chi2=1.58, df=7, I2=0%; P=0.98), and difference between experimental participants and controls was considerable [Z=10.70, OR =1.32, 95% CI: (7.32,17.89); P<0.01]. The overall adverse reaction rates were tested for heterogeneity (Chi2=0.42, df=5, I2=0%; P=0.99), and the difference between experimental participants and controls was considerable [Z=5.00, OR =0.38, 95% CI: (0.26, 0.55); P<0.01]. The circles of some studies in the funnel diagrams were symmetrical with the midline, the accuracy of included trials was high, the publications were not biased, and the final conclusions were reliable. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed that drug treatments of AML can improve complete remission and total effective rates and reduce adverse reaction rates, and thus are worthy of clinical promotion.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(4): 1071-1079, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of different doses of daunorubicin combined with a standard dose of cytarabine as induction chemotherapy in newly diagnosed primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. METHODS: The clinical data and outcome were retrospectively analyzed in 86 newly diagnosed primary AML patients who were under 65 years old and treated with daunorubicin combined with cytarabine (DA regimen) at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2017 to June 2019. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the dose of daunorubicin they received, 35 cases in the escalated-dose group ï¼»75 mg/(m2·d)ï¼½ and 51 cases in the standard-dose group ï¼»60 mg/(m2·d)ï¼½. And then the effects of different doses of daunorubicin on complete remission (CR) rate, minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative CR rate, relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events were analyzed. RESULTS: Median follow-up time of all the patients was 15 months. The CR rate and MRD- CR rate of the escalated-dose group was 88.5% and 71.4%, respectively, which were higher than 64.7% and 41.2% of the standard-dose group (P=0.029, P=0.008). The estimated 2-year RFS of the escalated-dose group was 68.4%, which was higher than 38.5% of the standard-dose group (P=0.015), but estimated 2-year OS showed no statistically significant difference (77.1% vs 66.7%, P=0.059), as well as grade 3-4 adverse events. The escalated dose of daunorubicin had prolonged RFS (13 months vs not reached, P=0.022) and OS (23 months vs not reached, P=0.029) in the FLT3-ITD- AML patients. CONCLUSION: The escalated dose of daunorubicin can induce higher complete remission rate, deeper remission and longer duration of remission without increasing adverse events in newly diagnosed primary AML patients.


Assuntos
Daunorrubicina , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(7): 721-726, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349054

RESUMO

A 38-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of fever, general malaise, and abnormal blood count. The white blood cell count was 19,500/µl, with 72% lymphoblast. Bone marrow examination showed increased cellularity with 94% lymphoblast. Flow cytometry revealed the following T-cell lineages: cyCD3 (+), CD5 (+), CD7 (+), and CD34 (+). Chromosome analysis revealed hypodiploidy. The patient was diagnosed with early T-cell precursor lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL). After two cycles of induction chemotherapy, she achieved complete remission, but the disease relapsed after one cycle of consolidation therapy. At the time of relapse, leukemic cells were myeloperoxidase positive and showed a loss of T-cell surface antigen, suggesting that a lineage switch occurred. The patient did not respond to the second induction therapy. She subsequently received 3+7 (idarubicin+cytarabine) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but she deceased due to refractory leukemia. At the time of relapse, genome sequencing was performed and mutations of NRAS, TP53, and MLLT-PICALM fusion genes were revealed. Here, we report a case of ETP-ALL who relapsed with a lineage switch to AML in concordance with refractory disease.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/genética , Recidiva
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 572: 65-71, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358965

RESUMO

Previously, we reported that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a binding partner of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) in neuroblastoma NB-1 cells and that the POP inhibitor, SUAM-14746, inhibits cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C)-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH and protects against Ara-C cytotoxicity. To carry out a more in-depth analysis of the interaction between POP and GAPDH, we generated POP-KO NB-1 cells and compared the nuclear translocation of GAPDH after Ara-C with or without SUAM-14746 treatment to wild-type NB-1 cells by western blotting and fluorescence immunostaining. Ara-C did not induce the nuclear translocation of GAPDH and SUAM-14746 did not protect against Ara-C cytotoxicity in POP-KO cells. These results indicate that the anticancer effects of Ara-C not only include the commonly known antimetabolic effects, but also the induction of cell death by nuclear transfer of GAPDH through interaction with POP.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citarabina/farmacologia , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Prolil Oligopeptidases/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citarabina/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/farmacologia , Prolil Oligopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Prolil Oligopeptidases/deficiência , Tiazolidinas/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
J Control Release ; 338: 244-252, 2021 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416320

RESUMO

CPX-351 is a liposome encapsulating cytarabine and daunorubicin for treating Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) patients. To what extent differences in cytidine deaminase (CDA) activity, the enzyme that catabolizes free cytarabine in the liver, can affect the pharmacokinetics of liposomal cytarabine as well, is unknown. We have studied the pharmacokinetics (PK) of released, liposomal and total cytarabine using a population-modeling approach in 9 adult AML patients treated with liposomal CPX-351. Exposure levels and PK parameters were compared with respect to the patient's CDA status (i.e., Poor Metabolizer (PM) vs. Extensive Metabolizer (EM)). Overall response rate was 75%, and 56% of patients had non-hematological severe toxicities, including one lethal toxicity. All patients had febrile neutropenia. A large (>60%) inter-individual variability was observed on pharmacokinetics parameters and subsequent drug levels. A trend towards severe toxicities was observed in patients with higher exposure of cytarabine. Results showed that liposomal CPX-351 led to sustained exposure with reduced clearance (Cl = 0.16 L/h) and prolonged half-life (T1/2 = 28 h). Liposomal nanoparticles were observed transiently in bone marrow with cytarabine levels 2.3-time higher than in plasma. Seven out of 9 patients were PM with a strong impact on the PK parameters, i.e., PM patients showing higher cytarabine levels as compared with EM patients (AUC: 5536 vs. 1784 ng/mL.h), sustained plasma exposure (T1/2: 33.9 vs. 13.7 h), and reduced clearance (Cl: 0.12 vs. 0.29 L/h). This proof-of-concept study suggests that CDA status has a major impact on cytarabine PK and possibly safety in AML patients even when administered as a liposome.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Farmacogenética , Adulto , Citarabina , Daunorrubicina , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética
10.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 437, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare inherited disease characterized by extreme hypersensitivity to ultraviolet rays and predisposing to cutaneous malignancies that can appear in childhood. These manifestations are often associated with ocular lesions and sometimes with neurological disorders. The association of xeroderma pigmentosum with internal neoplasms such as acute myeloblastic leukemia is not reported with great frequency, which confirms the rarity of this occurrence. CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old Moroccan women, xeroderma pigmentosum patient, was diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia with a complex karyotype. Due to the adverse risk of the xeroderma pigmentosum association with acute myeloblastic leukemia and the profile of acute myeloblastic leukemia with complex karyotype and monosomy 7, which constitute factors of poor prognosis, as well as the absence of studies conceding the tolerance of the chemotherapy by patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum, our patient was put under low-dose cytarabine protocol with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Unfortunately, she died on the tenth day of chemotherapy by acute pulmonary edema of cardiogenic pace complicated by tamponade. CONCLUSION: According to reports, it is the second case showing association of xeroderma pigmentosum with acute myeloblastic leukemia. The management of these patients remains a challenge. Studies focusing on xeroderma pigmentosum patients developing hematological malignancies are necessary to better understand the most appropriate strategies and precautions for this specific case.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Xeroderma Pigmentoso , Adulto , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/complicações
11.
Ann Hematol ; 100(11): 2763-2771, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357435

RESUMO

The efficacy and clinical significance of pre-conditioning intervention (PCI) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) not in remission remain inconclusive. The purpose of this multicenter retrospective study was to clarify the clinical significance of PCI before HCT in patients with non-remission ALL. Patients with non-remission ALL who received HCT between 2005 and 2015 at 16 institutions were included. PCI was objectively defined and classified to three groups according to the intensity of PCI (no, intensive, or moderate). The study cohort consisted of 104 patients with a median age of 38 (range 17-68). A significant decrease of blast percentage in the peripheral blood (PB) was confirmed in both PCI groups, suggesting that PCIs were effective to stabilize the disease activity. The group with moderate PCI had higher nucleated cell count in the BM compared to the group with intensive PCI or the group without PCI. The overall survival (OS) rates of groups with intensive and no PCI showed comparable and significantly better compared to the group with moderate PCI (P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the OS of moderate PCI group was significantly worse compared to that of intensive PCI group (HR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.32-4.14, P = 0.004), while the OS of intensive PCI group was comparable to that of the group without PCI. These results suggest that the intensity of PCI rather than the response to PCI may contribute to improve the transplant outcome in patients with ALL not in remission.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitoxantrona/administração & dosagem , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
Blood Adv ; 5(13): 2775-2787, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251414

RESUMO

Overexpression of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) renders acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells resistant to chemotherapy and has been associated with unfavorable outcomes. Oblimersen (G3139) is a phosphorothioate 18-mer antisense oligonucleotide directed against the first 6 BCL2 codons. In a phase 1 study of AML patients treated with G3139, cytarabine, and daunorubicin induction with cytarabine consolidation, no antisense-related toxicity was reported, and BCL2 downregulation occurred in patients achieving complete remission. In this phase 3 trial, untreated older AML patients were randomized to cytarabine (100 mg/m2 per day on days 4-10) and daunorubicin (60 mg/m2 per day on days 4-6) followed by cytarabine consolidation (2000 mg/m2 per day on days 4-8) with (arm A) or without (arm B) G3139 (7 mg/m2 per day on days 1-10 [induction] or days 1-8 [consolidation]). A total of 506 patients were enrolled. No differences in toxicity were observed between arms. Estimated overall survival (OS) at 1 year was 43% for arm A and 40% for arm B (1-sided log rank P = .13), with no differences in disease-free (DFS; P = .26) or event-free survival (P = .80). Subgroup analyses showed patients age <70 years in arm A had improved OS by 1 month vs those in arm B (P = .04), and patients with secondary AML in arm A had better DFS vs those in arm B (P = .04). We conclude that addition of G3139 to chemotherapy failed to improve outcomes of older AML patients. However, more effective means of inhibiting BCL2 are showing promising results in combination with chemotherapy in AML. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00085124.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Tionucleotídeos/uso terapêutico
13.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(10): 1805-1811, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addition of cytarabine to high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) chemotherapy improves outcome of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL); however, the combination therapy increases toxicity. Sequential chemotherapy and cranial radiation may decrease toxicity without altering efficacy. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of consecutive newly diagnosed immunocompetent PCNSL patients treated with HD-MTX (5 cycles of 3 g/m2 every 2 weeks) followed by consolidation whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and cytarabine (2 cycles of 3 g/m2/d for 2 days every 3 weeks) from January 2013 to December 2020. Initial WBRT before HD-MTX was allowed in patients with significant disability or brain edema at presentation. Primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS). Key secondary outcomes were response rate, treatment-related toxicity, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of 41 patients, 25 patients had a complete response (CR) and ten patients had a partial response, inferring an overall response rate (ORR) of 85.4% and a CR rate of 60.9%. More than 90% of patients were able to tolerate and complete the HD-MTX. The incidence of ≥ grade 3 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were 4.8% and 17.1%, respectively. Treatment-related mortality rate was 2.4%. There was no difference in toxicity between patients with age < 60 and ≥ 60 years. At the median follow-up duration of 39.8 months, the median PFS was 35.2 months (95% CI 12.4-69.3) and median OS was 46.5 months (95% CI 21.8-NR). CONCLUSION: High-dose methotrexate followed by consolidation whole-brain radiotherapy and cytarabine has acceptable efficacy, great tolerability, and low toxicity in newly diagnosed PCNSL patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Linfoma , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/radioterapia , Estudos de Coortes , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma/radioterapia , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int J Pharm ; 606: 120849, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216770

RESUMO

Cancer treatment remains unsatisfactory with high rates of recurrence and metastasis. Immunomodulatory agents capable of promoting cellular antitumor immunity while inhibiting the local immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment could greatly improve cancer treatment. We have developed a multi-targeted mannosylated cationic liposome delivery system containing muramyl dipeptide (DS) and low doses of the chemotherapeutic agent cytarabine (Ara-C). Immunomodulation of primary immune cells and immortalized cancer cell lines by Ara-C/DS was assessed by measuring cytokine levels and surface marker expression. As a proof of concept, the generation of targeted cellular immunity was investigated in the context of responses to viral antigens. This report is the first demonstrating that Ara-C combined with DS can modulate immune responses and revert immunosuppression as evidenced by increased IFN-γ and IL-12p40 without changes in IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and increased CD80 and decreased CD163 on immunosuppressive macrophages. Furthermore, Ara-C/DS increased MHC class I expression on cancer cells while increasing the production of antigen-specific IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells in viral peptide-challenged lymphocytes from both humans and vaccinated mice. Taken together, these results are the first to document immunomodulatory properties of Ara-C linked with recognition of antigens and potentially the generation of antitumor immune memory.


Assuntos
Citarabina , Lipossomos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Imunidade Celular , Imunomodulação , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Camundongos
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14071, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234243

RESUMO

In many stem cell transplant centres, BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (BEAM) high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) has been replaced by the more economic and available bendamustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan (BeEAM) regimen. However, there is a paucity of information on the efficacy and safety of BeEAM HDCT. We describe our experience with BeEAM HDCT in terms of safety, efficacy and cost-savings. We compare overall and progression-free survival to a cohort of patients previously transplanted at our institution with the older BEAM regimen. We performed a retrospective chart review of 41 lymphoma patients undergoing BeEAM HDCT at the Royal University Hospital in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan between 2015 and 2019 to elicit regimen safety in the first 100 days post-transplant. Furthermore, we calculated overall and progression-free survival and constructed corresponding Kaplan-Meier curves, comparing the results to a historical cohort of BEAM patients (n = 86). Finally, we conducted an economic analysis using the financials available at our centre's pharmacy. With regards to BeEAM HDCT, we report a 100-day transplant-related mortality of 2.4%. Additionally, we report acceptable rates of typhlitis (27%), grade III-IV mucositis (4.9%) and grade III-IV nephrotoxicity (2.4%). In terms of overall and progression-free survival, we found no statistical difference between BeEAM and BEAM (p = 0.296; 0.762, respectively). Finally, our economic analysis revealed a net savings of $21,200 CAD per transplant when BeEAM is used in replacement of BEAM. The acceptable safety profile of BeEAM and its comparable efficacy to BEAM are encouraging for the perseverance of this cost-effective HDCT regimen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carmustina , Citarabina , Etoposídeo , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Melfalan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Podofilotoxina , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos
16.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 110, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CPX-351 (United States: Vyxeos®; Europe: Vyxeos® Liposomal), a dual-drug liposomal encapsulation of daunorubicin and cytarabine in a synergistic 1:5 molar ratio, is approved by the US FDA and the EMA for the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes. In a pivotal phase 3 study that evaluated 309 patients aged 60 to 75 years with newly diagnosed high-risk/secondary acute myeloid leukemia, CPX-351 significantly improved median overall survival versus conventional 7 + 3 chemotherapy (cytarabine continuous infusion for 7 days plus daunorubicin for 3 days), with a comparable safety profile. A Quality-adjusted Time Without Symptoms of disease or Toxicity (Q-TWiST) analysis of the phase 3 study was performed to compare survival quality between patients receiving CPX-351 versus conventional 7 + 3 after 5 years of follow-up. METHODS: Patients were randomized 1:1 between December 20, 2012 and November 11, 2014 to receive induction with CPX-351 or 7 + 3. Survival time for each patient was partitioned into 3 health states: TOX (time with any grade 3 or 4 toxicity or prior to remission), TWiST (time in remission without relapse or grade 3 or 4 toxicity), and REL (time after relapse). Within each treatment arm, Q-TWiST was calculated by adding the mean time spent in each health state weighted by its respective quality-of-life, represented by health utility. The relative Q-TWiST gain, calculated as the difference in Q-TWiST between treatment arms divided by the mean survival of the 7 + 3 control arm, was determined in order to evaluate results in the context of other Q-TWiST analyses. RESULTS: The relative Q-TWiST gain with CPX-351 versus 7 + 3 was 53.6% in the base case scenario and 39.8% among responding patients. Across various sensitivity analyses, the relative Q-TWiST gains for CPX-351 ranged from 48.0 to 57.6%, remaining well above the standard clinically important difference threshold of 15% for oncology. CONCLUSIONS: This post hoc analysis demonstrates that CPX-351 improved quality-adjusted survival, further supporting the clinical benefit in patients with newly diagnosed high-risk/secondary acute myeloid leukemia. Trial registration This trial was registered on September 28, 2012 at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01696084 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01696084 ) and is complete.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Daunorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(8): e552-e561, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addition of the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax to lower intensity therapy has been shown to improve overall survival in older (aged 75 years or older) and unfit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of venetoclax combined with intensive chemotherapy in patients aged 65 years or younger with acute myeloid leukaemia. METHODS: This cohort study was done at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in the USA, as part of the single-centre, single arm, phase 2, CLIA trial. Here we report on the independent cohort investigating the safety and activity of venetoclax added to intensive chemotherapy (the CLIA regimen [cladribine, high-dose cytarabine, idarubicin]). Eligible patients were aged 18-65 years with a new diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia, mixed phenotype acute leukaemia, or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (≥10% blasts or International Prognostic Scoring System ≥2 [intermediate]), who received no previous potentially curative therapy for leukaemia. Patients received cladribine (5 mg/m2) and cytarabine (1·5 g/m2 for patients aged <60 years, 1 g/m2 for patients aged ≥60 years) intravenously on days 1-5 and idarubicin (10 mg/m2) intravenously on days 1-3. Consolidation was cladribine (5 mg/m2) and cytarabine (1 g/m2 for patients aged <60 years and 0·75 g/m2 for patients aged ≥60 years) on days 1-3 and idarubicin (8 mg/m2) on days 1-2. Venetoclax (400 mg) was given on days 2-8 with each course. Patients with a known FLT3-ITD or FLT3-TKD mutation received midostaurin or gilteritinib. The primary outcome was composite complete response (complete response plus complete response with incomplete blood count recovery). Secondary outcomes were overall response, duration of response, event-free survival, overall survival, and safety. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02115295. FINDINGS: Between Feb 25, 2019, and March 23, 2021, 77 patients were assessed for eligibility, 50 of whom were enrolled. Median age was 48 years (IQR 37-56). 47 (94% [95% CI 83-98]) patients had composite complete response, with the same proportion also having an overall response; two (4% [1-14]) patients did not respond, and one (2% [0-11]) patient died during induction. 37 (82% [95% CI 68-92]) of 45 patients had undetectable measurable residual disease (MRD). At a median follow-up of 13·5 months (IQR 6·4-19·5), the median duration of response, event-free survival, and overall survival were not reached. At 12 months, the estimated duration of response was 74% (95% CI 60-92), event-free survival was 68% (54-85), and overall survival was 85% (75-97). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or worse were febrile neutropenia (42 [84%] patients), infection (six [12%]), and alanine aminotransferase elevations (six [12%]). There was one death during induction in a patient treated with CLIA-venetoclax plus a FLT3 inhibitor. Two patients died of infectious complications while in complete response in consolidation cycles, both of whom had FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia and were receiving combined therapy with a FLT3 inhibitor. No deaths were deemed to be treatment related. INTERPRETATION: Venetoclax added to CLIA was safe and active in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, producing high rates of durable MRD-negative remissions and encouraging event-free survival and overall survival. FUNDING: MD Anderson Cancer Center.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Cladribina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Idarubicina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Risco , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 51(9): 1372-1382, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a multinational phase 3 trial (VIALE-C), venetoclax plus low-dose cytarabine prolonged overall survival vs placebo plus low-dose cytarabine in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia ineligible for intensive chemotherapy, although it was not statistically significant. Herein, we assess the benefit of venetoclax plus low-dose cytarabine in the Japanese subgroup of VIALE-C patients (n = 27). METHODS: VIALE-C, a randomized (2:1), double-blind study (NCT03069352), enrolled untreated patients (≥18 years) with acute myeloid leukaemia. Patients received venetoclax (600 mg days 1-28, 4-day ramp-up in cycle 1) or placebo in 28-day cycles with low-dose cytarabine (20 mg/m2 days 1-10). The primary endpoint was median overall survival. RESULTS: In the Japanese subgroup, at a 6-month follow-up from the primary analysis, median overall survival for venetoclax (n = 18) and placebo (n = 9), plus low-dose cytarabine, was 4.7 and 8.1 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.928, 95% confidence intervals : 0.399, 2.156). The rate of complete remission plus complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery was higher with venetoclax plus low-dose cytarabine (44.4%) vs placebo plus low-dose cytarabine (11.1%). All patients experienced at least 1 adverse event. The most common grade ≥3 adverse events with venetoclax or placebo, plus low-dose cytarabine, were febrile neutropenia (50.0% vs 44.4%, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (27.8% vs 44.4%, respectively). Serious adverse events were reported in 50.0 and 33.3% of patients in the venetoclax and placebo, plus low-dose cytarabine arms, respectively; pneumonia was the most common (22.2% each). CONCLUSIONS: Limited survival benefit in the Japanese subgroup can be attributed to small patient numbers and to baseline imbalances observed between treatment arms, with more patients in the venetoclax plus low-dose cytarabine arm presenting poor prognostic factors. Venetoclax plus low-dose cytarabine was well tolerated in Japanese patients with acute myeloid leukaemia ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Citarabina , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Japão , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas
20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 89: 158-160, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119261

RESUMO

Intracranial myeloid sarcoma (IMS) is a rare central nervous system manifestation of hematopoietic neoplasms of myeloid origin. We report the first case of IMS treatment with an isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH-2) inhibitor, Enasidenib, following surgical resection, whole-brain radiation, and consolidation Etoposide/Cytarabine therapy. A 42-year-old female was diagnosed with IMS after a 10-year remission of her acute myeloid leukemia (AML). She underwent surgical debulking and had postoperative resolution of her visual symptoms. She received adjuvant radiation and medical management, and continues to show no evidence of recurrence or progression at 17 months postoperatively. This case is notable for an isolated IMS presentation in a patient with a very distant history of AML remission, and without evidence of concurrent bone marrow relapse. The goals of neurosurgical intervention should be symptomatic relief of mass effect and pathological diagnosis, due to the sensitivity of IMS to adjuvant radiation and medical management such as IDH-2 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Sarcoma Mieloide/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma Mieloide/terapia , Adulto , Aminopiridinas/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Triazinas/administração & dosagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...