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1.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(7): 595-600, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537243

RESUMO

Objective To observe the effect of esculentoside A (EsA) on Th17 cell-related factors in psoriasis-like mouse model. Methods A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, Tuiyin decoction group [66.60 g/(kg.d)], low-, middle- and high-dose groups of EsA [5, 10, 20 mg/(kg.d), respectively], 8 mice in each group. Psoriasis mouse model was induced by imiquimod. Pathological changes of skin lesions in mice were assessed by psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and HE staining. ELISA was used to detect the changes of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-22, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Results Compared with the model group, the skin lesions, pathological changes and PASI scores were improved after the treatments with either Tuiyin decoction or EsA, among which the PASI score of Tuiyin decoction group and high-dose group of EsA decreased significantly. The expression of Th17 cell-related factors of the model group was obviously higher than that of the blank control group. Each treated group had obviously lower expression than the model group, and the expression of IL-6 of high-dose group of EsA was close to the blank control group. Conclusion EsA may improve the skin lesions of the psoriasis-like mice by down-regulating the expression of Th17 cell-related cytokines.


Assuntos
Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Saponinas/farmacologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Dermatite/imunologia , Feminino , Imiquimode , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Distribuição Aleatória , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17019, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517821

RESUMO

The role of cytokines in the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is now well established. This is in keeping with the role of the SIR in tumorigenesis, malignant spread, and the development of cachexia. However, the relationship between performance status/systemic inflammation frameworks and cytokine profiles is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Eastern cooperative oncology group performance status/modified Glasgow prognostic score (ECOG-PS/mGPS) and cooperative oncology group performance status/neutrophil platelet score (ECOG-PS/NPS) frameworks and their cytokine profile in patients with advanced cancer.This was a retrospective interrogation of data already collected as part of a recent clinical trial (NCT00676936). The relationship between the independent variables (ECOG-PS/mGPS and ECOG-PS/NPS frameworks), and dependent variables (cytokine levels) was examined using independent Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests where appropriate.Of the 40 patients included in final analysis the majority had evidence of an SIR assessed by mGPS (78%) or NPS (53%). All patients died on follow-up and the median survival was 91 days (4-933 days). With increasing ECOG-PS there was a higher median value of Interleukin 6 (IL-6, P = .016) and C-reactive protein (CRP, P < .01) and lower albumin (P < .01) and poorer survival (P < .001). With increasing mGPS there was a higher median value of IL-6 (P = .016), Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, P = .010), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, P < .01) and poorer survival (P < .01). With increasing NPS there was a higher median value of TGF-ß (P < .001) and C-reactive protein (P = .020) and poor survival (P = .001). When those patients with an ECOG-PS 0/1 and mGPS0 were compared with those patients with an ECOG-PS 2 and mGPS2 there was a higher median value of IL-6 (P = .017) and poorer survival (P < .001). When those patients with an ECOG-PS 0/1 and NPS0 were compared with those patients with an ECOG-PS 2 and NPS1/2 there was a higher median value of IL-6 (P = .002), TGF-ß (P < .001) and poorer survival (P < .01).In patients with advanced cancer IL-6 was associated with the ECOG-PS/mGPS and ECOG-PS/NPS frameworks and survival in patients with advanced cancer. Therefore, the present work provides supporting evidence that agents targeting IL-6 are worthy of further exploration.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
3.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 214: 109902, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378221

RESUMO

Autoantibodies against cytokines have been associated with immunodeficiency, susceptibility to infectious diseases, autoimmunity and inflammation in humans, but have not yet been investigated in the Veterinary field so far. The aim of the current study was to determine the presence of anti-cytokine autoantibodies in canines suffering from various conditions including recurrent infections, autoimmune diseases and cancer in comparison to healthy controls. This is the first report of the presence of autoantibodies against cytokines in dogs. A total of 101 serum samples (51 patients and 50 clinically healthy dogs) from the state of Mexico and surroundings were analysed using a multiplex bead-based flow cytometry assay. Results show significant levels of various anti-cytokine autoantibodies in diseased dogs but not in healthy controls. In addition we show distinct associations of various disease types to the specificity of anti-cytokine autoantibodies and to response complexities. Apart from the direct functional/causal implication of anti-cytokine auto-antibodies on disease processes, this findings point to the possibility to use anti-cytokine response patterns as diagnostic tools.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/veterinária , Citocinas/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/veterinária , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Incidência , Masculino , México , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/veterinária
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1165: 443-454, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399978

RESUMO

Preclinical studies point to a key role for immune cells in hypertension via augmenting renal injury and/or hypertensive responses. Blood pressure elevation in rheumatologic patients is attenuated by anti-inflammatory therapies. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension by modulating renal sodium balance, blood flow, and functions of the vasculature and epithelial cells in the kidney. Monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes are pivotal mediators of hypertensive responses, while dendritic cells and B lymphocytes can regulate blood pressure indirectly by promoting T lymphocytes activation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and interferon-γ (IFN), amplify blood pressure elevation and/or renal injury. By contrast, interleukin-10 (IL-10) protects against renal and vascular function when produced by T helper 2 cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg). Thus, understanding the renal effects of cytokines in hypertension will provide targets for precise immunotherapies to inhibit targeted organ damage while preserving necessary immunity.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Células Th2
5.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(2): 66-71, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406045

RESUMO

Cytokine signal is essential for the biological function including development, maintenance of homeostasis and progression of disease. There are growing evidences that signaling via pro-inflammatory cytokines underlie a variety of immunological diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic syndromes, in which cytokine signals are known as a potential therapeutic target of antibody drugs. In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokines, which is represented by IL-10, largely contribute to suppression of inflammation and restoration of injured tissues. IL-19 is a member of IL-10 cytokine family, which comprises IL-20 cytokine subfamily with IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26. IL-19 is produced by myeloid and epithelial cells with stimulation of bacterial components and cytokines. Although IL-19 has been originally recognized as a potential Th2-related cytokine, in recent researches, it has been reported that this cytokine upregulates Th17 response to reflect and promote progression of Th17-related disease including psoriasis. On the other hand, IL-19 has anti-inflammatory effects on inflammatory diseases such as infectious skin disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, IL-19 may exert pleiotropic effects dependent on the pathological mechanism of inflammatory diseases. In this review, we summarize recent studies about IL-19 and introduce the pathophysiological and therapeutic role of IL-19 in inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Interleucinas/imunologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
6.
Egypt J Immunol ; 26(1): 55-67, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332996

RESUMO

Diabetes Mellitus (D.M.) is a disease with a high and increasing prevalence. The Insulin- producing Cells (IPCs) derived from the Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord transplantation was thought to be the most promising strategy for treating Diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate IPCs immune modulatory changes occurred after transplanted through two different routes and the effect of these changes on their therapeutic efficiency in relation to transplantation microenvironment. Insulin Producing Cells was induced to differentiate from human Umbilical Cord-Mesenchymal Stem Cells and characterized by morphology under phase contrast inverted microscope and staining of secretory granules by DTZ (diphenylthiocarbonazone) stain, then therapeutic effect was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo through glucose challenge test and hyperglycemia correction in STZ (streptozotocin)- induced diabetic rats. Immune-modulatory changes evaluated by cell- mediated lysis assay and Syber green quantification of immune inflammatory cytokines (IFN- , TGF- ß and IL-10) gene expression by real-time PCR. We observed that in spite of the weak immunogenicity of induced IPCs derived from HUC-MSCs in vitro, but when transplanted in vivo especially through the intra portal vein they could induce an immune response when interact with the disease microenvironment resulting in different degree of inflammatory response. Therefore, the relationship between disease microenvironment and immune alteration should be examined before transplantation therapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Insulinas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Geleia de Wharton/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Ratos , Cordão Umbilical/citologia
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8138-8148, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294563

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to compare various glycated ovalbumin (OVA)-monosaccharides, including OVA-mannose (Man), -glucose, -ribose, and -fructose, in the attenuation of OVA-induced allergic response in a BALB/C mouse model and the potential mechanisms of immunological modulation. The glycated OVA forms were prepared by Maillard reactions. OVA-Man significantly reduced the frequency of allergic signs. Mouse mast cell protease enzyme concentration was significantly reduced in the OVA-Man group (549.80 ± 84.67 ng/mL, p < 0.05). The OVA-Man group also had a lower histamine concentration (30.96 ± 1.12 ng/mL) as compared with the positive control OVA group (44.43 ± 0.71 ng/mL, p < 0.05). Both specific IgG and IgE were significantly reduced in the OVA-Man-treated group (p < 0.05). The OVA-Man group exhibited decreased concentrations of IL-4 (67.98 ± 3.11 pg/mL) and IL-17 (67.98 ± 3.11 pg/mL) and an increased concentration of IL-12 (336.70 ± 18.69 pg/mL, p < 0.05) compared with the positive control. Mannosylation played a vital role in allergen recognition, implicating deleterious downstream Th2 cell activation, cytokine secretion, and IgE production. This result indicates that different glycans target specific DC receptors, and differential DC processing, antigen presentation, and T cell response leads to altered variation in allergic response. OVA-Man exhibited minimal DC internalization, DC processing, MHC antigen presentation, and antigen-specific T cell activation, resulting in an attenuated allergic response and validating its efficacy as a potential immunotherapeutic candidate to treat egg allergy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Monossacarídeos/química , Ovalbumina/química , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/etiologia , Feminino , Glicosilação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Reação de Maillard , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2924, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266950

RESUMO

Fas induces apoptosis in activated T cell to maintain immune homeostasis, but the effects of non-apoptotic Fas signaling on T cells remain unclear. Here we show that Fas promotes TH9 cell differentiation by activating NF-κB via Ca2+-dependent PKC-ß activation. In addition, PKC-ß also phosphorylates p38 to inactivate NFAT1 and reduce NFAT1-NF-κB synergy to promote the Fas-induced TH9 transcription program. Fas ligation exacerbates inflammatory bowel disease by increasing TH9 cell differentiation, and promotes antitumor activity in p38 inhibitor-treated TH9 cells. Furthermore, low-dose p38 inhibitor suppresses tumor growth without inducing systemic adverse effects. In patients with tumor, relatively high TH9 cell numbers are associated with good prognosis. Our study thus implicates Fas in CD4+ T cells as a target for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Furthermore, simultaneous Fas ligation and low-dose p38 inhibition may be an effective approach for TH9 cell induction and cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Receptor fas/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/imunologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteína Quinase C beta/genética , Proteína Quinase C beta/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Receptor fas/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia
9.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(6): 563-568, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292062

RESUMO

Melatonin (MLT) is an amine hormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland. The main physiological function of MLT is to regulate the circadian rhythm. Recent studies have shown that MLT could affect the immune system through several ways to regulate the function of immune system. In infectious diseases, MLT can regulate the number of immune cells and the expression of cytokines. Moreover, MLT may enhance the function of the immune system by reducing the secretion of inflammatory factors, down-regulating the adhesion of leukocytes and anti-oxidation, which may reduce the pathology caused by inflammation damage. Meanwhile, MLT could play a role against pathogens infection by directly inhibiting the replication and proliferation of pathogens. Therefore, MLT may be considered as a novel target and a new method for the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. This article reviews the progress of the effects and mechanisms of MLT in regulating the immune system and the important role in infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/fisiopatologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Melatonina/fisiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262112

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of 18ß-sodium glycyrrhetinic acid on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis (AR) rats. Methods: One hundred Wistar rats,half male and half female,were randomly divided into 5 groups by random number table method: control group, AR model group,budesonide group,18ß-sodium glycyrrhetinic acid at dose of 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg groups, with 20 rats in each group. AR animal models were established by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization in the other four experimental groups. After successful modeling, budesonide and 18ß-sodium glycyrrhetinic acid were given in each group,and the detection time points were 2 weeks and 4 weeks. The distribution of TSLP in rat nasal mucosa was detected by immunohistochemistry,and the expression of TSLP in rat nasal mucosa was determined by Western blot at the protein level. The expression of TSLP-mRNA in rat nasal mucosa was detected and compared by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) at mRNA level. The concentrations of IL-4 and OVA-sIgE in rat serum were measured and compared by ELISA. One-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference method were used for the comparison among groups, LSD t test was used for the comparison between the two groups,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Results: Immunohistochemistry confirmed existence of TSLP in rat nasal mucosa, especially in epithelial cells,endothelial cells and epithelial cilia. Western blot and RT-PCR suggested that the expression of TSLP and TSLP-mRNA in nasal mucosa of AR model group was significantly higher than that of control group (2 weeks TSLP: 1.795 9±0.131 4 vs 0.990 5±0.164 2, 4 weeks TSLP: 1.809 7±0.253 4 vs 0.870 3±0.124 4; 2 weeks TSLP-mRNA:4.582 9±0.697 7 vs 1.108 7±0.081 1, 4 weeks TSLP-mRNA:4.814 4±0.662 8 vs 1.001 0±0.155 3; all P<0.05). After 2 weeks and 4 weeks of drug intervention,the expression of TSLP and TSLP-mRNA was inhibited in nasal mucosa of budesonide group,18ß-sodium sodium glycyrrhetinic acid at dose of 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg group,which was significantly different from that of AR model group (2 weeks TSLP: (0.897 8±0.081 8)/(1.072 1±0.113 6)/(1.396 6±0.133 9) vs 1.795 9±0.131 4; 4 weeks TSLP: (1.191 0±0.161 3)/(1.141 0±0.152 3)/(1.200 5±0.189 6) vs 1.809 7±0.253 4; 2 weeks TSLP-mRNA: (1.175 6±0.100 9)/(1.254 4±0.078 2)/(2.037 2±0.559 2) vs 4.582 9±0.697 7; 4 weeks TSLP-mRNA: (1.158 3±0.104 3)/(1.224 0±0.034 0)/(1.275 2±0.099 6) vs 4.814 4±0.662 8; all P<0.05), and not significantly different from control group. With the inhibition of TSLP, the concentrations of IL-4 and OVA-sIgE in rat serum were also decreased. Conclusion: 18ß-sodium glycyrrhetinic acid has obvious inhibitory effect on TSLP in nasal mucosa of AR rats, which can control Th2 type immune inflammatory reaction.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Ácido Glicirretínico/farmacologia , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/análise , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2387, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160572

RESUMO

Senescent cells accumulate in human tissues during ageing and contribute to age-related pathologies. The mechanisms responsible for their accumulation are unclear. Here we show that senescent dermal fibroblasts express the non-classical MHC molecule HLA-E, which interacts with the inhibitory receptor NKG2A expressed by NK and highly differentiated CD8+ T cells to inhibit immune responses against senescent cells. HLA-E expression is induced by senescence-associated secretary phenotype-related pro-inflammatory cytokines, and is regulated by p38 MAP kinase signalling in vitro. Consistently, HLA-E expression is increased on senescent cells in human skin sections from old individuals, when compared with those from young, and in human melanocytic nevi relative to normal skin. Lastly, blocking the interaction between HLA-E and NKG2A boosts immune responses against senescent cells in vitro. We thus propose that increased HLA-E expression contributes to persistence of senescent cells in tissues, thereby suggesting a new strategy for eliminating senescent cells during ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Derme/citologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Nevo Pigmentado/congênito , Nevo Pigmentado/imunologia , Nevo Pigmentado/patologia , Fenótipo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2402, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160588

RESUMO

Platelet-leukocyte interactions amplify inflammatory reactions, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. CLEC5A and CLEC2 are spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-coupled C-type lectin receptors, abundantly expressed by leukocytes and platelets, respectively. Whereas CLEC5A is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) to flaviviruses and bacteria, CLEC2 is the receptor for platelet-activating snake venom aggretin. Here we show that dengue virus (DV) activates platelets via CLEC2 to release extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes (EXOs) and microvesicles (MVs). DV-induced EXOs (DV-EXOs) and MVs (DV-MVs) further activate CLEC5A and TLR2 on neutrophils and macrophages, thereby induce neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and proinflammatory cytokine release. Compared to  stat1-/- mice, simultaneous blockade of CLEC5A and TLR2 effectively attenuates DV-induced inflammatory response and increases survival rate from 30 to 90%. The identification of critical roles of CLEC2 and CLEC5A/TLR2 in platelet-leukocyte interactions will support the development of novel strategies to treat acute viral infection in the future.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/imunologia , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Exossomos/imunologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Ativação Plaquetária , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 124-132, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176398

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Although cattle are usually the maintenance hosts of serovar Hardjo, Pomona is the most frequent serovar circulating in Argentina. The understanding of bovine innate immune response and the virulence of this serovar is important for future control measures. This work compares infection of bovine macrophages with the virulent L. interrogans sv Pomona strain AKRFB (P1) and its attenuated counterpart (P19). First, we confirmed attenuation in the hamster model. Mortality and lung hemorrhages occurred after P1 inoculation, while the survival rate was 100% in P19-infected animals. Cells infected with both strains showed statistically upregulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα. The level of expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was statistically different between strains. Increased expression of IL-10 was observed only in P1-infected cells. For the first time, we describe macrophages extracellular traps induced by infection of bovine macrophages (bMETs) with both, the virulent and attenuated Leptospira interrogans Pomona strains. P1 was found higher internalized when the phagocytosis was inhibited, suggesting a cell entrance of this strain also by an independent-phagocytosis pathway. Furthermore, P1 was higher colocalized with acidic and late endosomal compartments compared with P19. This data emphasizes the importance to deepen in Leptospira bovine macrophages particular invasion mechanisms and, furthermore, underline the value of studying the main hosts.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona/patogenicidade , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Animais , Argentina , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Cricetinae , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Sorogrupo , Virulência
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 85-92, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176417

RESUMO

Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes serious immunodeficiency in the intestinal mucosa, although the underlying histopathological mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we investigated the impact of MDRV infection on intestinal morphology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immune-related cells were also quantified by staining with hematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue, and periodic acid-Schiff stain, or by immunohistochemistry and cytochemistry for lectin. Similarly, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were quantified by flow cytometry, and the expression of several immune-related molecules was quantified by radioimmunoassay. We found that MDRV clearly damaged the intestinal mucosa, based on tissue morphology, villus length, villus width, intestinal thickness, villus height/crypt depth ratio, and villus surface area. MDRV also altered the density or distribution of lymphocytes, mastocytes, and goblet cells in the small intestinal mucosa, as well as microfold cells in Peyer's patches. In addition, MDRV markedly depleted CD4+ cells from the intestinal mucosa and lowered the CD4+:CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood. Moreover, MDRV diminished the levels of secretory IgA and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (p < 0.01), but elevated those of histamine and nitric oxide (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Finally, MDRV significantly suppressed IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-8 levels (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) mid-infection. Collectively, our data suggest that MDRV severely damages the structure and function of the intestinal mucosa by modulating immune cells and immune-related factors, thus leading to local immunodeficiency. Our findings lay the foundation for further research on the pathogenesis of MDRV.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestino Delgado/virologia , Orthoreovirus Aviário/imunologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Citocinas/imunologia , Patos/virologia , Duodeno , Fibroblastos/virologia , Histamina/análise , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/análise , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Orthoreovirus Aviário/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/patologia , Carga Viral
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 93-101, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176418

RESUMO

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are both important pathogens of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC), which results in significant worldwide economic losses. Recently, PCV2 and APP coinfection has been described in the worldwide pork industry, and represents an extremely complex situation in veterinary medicine. However, the mechanism of their coinfection has not been investigated. In this study, we found that PCV2 promoted APP adhesion to and invasion of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) during coinfection. Additionally, PCV2 suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by inhibiting cytomembrane NADPH oxidase activity, which was beneficial for APP survival in PAMs in vitro. During coinfection, PCV2 weakened the inflammatory response and macrophage antigen presentation by decreasing TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-4 expression, and reduced clearance of the invading bacteria. The host-cell experimental results were verified in a mouse model. The findings provide a deeper and novel understanding of porcine coinfection, and will be extremely helpful for the design of strategies for PRDC control.


Assuntos
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/fisiologia , Circovirus/fisiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Macrófagos Alveolares/microbiologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Infecções por Actinobacillus/imunologia , Infecções por Actinobacillus/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Apresentação do Antígeno , Aderência Bacteriana , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Viabilidade Microbiana , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Suínos
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7485-7495, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180669

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium, contaminating in a wide variety of foods and feeds. Mycotoxins, including OTA, could cause immunosuppression in almost all previous studies in vivo. However, the vast majority of results in vitro showed that mycotoxins caused immunostimulation. Why the results of studies in vitro are contrary to studies in vivo is unknown. Our study aims to explore the underlying reason and mechanism of the paradoxical effect. In this study, porcine alveolar macrophage cell line 3D4/21 was chosen as an in vitro model and treated with 1.0 µg/mL OTA for different times. Some indexes, such as expression of inflammatory cytokines, migration, phagocytosis, macrophage polarization, autophagy-related proteins, and Akt1 phosphorylation, were detected. The results showed that pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, migration, and phagocytosis were increased, with macrophage polarization to the M1 phenotype at 24 h of OTA exposure. Surprisedly, anti-inflammatory cytokine expression was increased, cell phagocytosis and migration were decreased, and macrophage polarization was switched from M1 to M2 at 72 h of OTA exposure. Furthermore, we found that long-time exposure of OTA also suppressed autophagy, and the autophagy activator blocked the OTA-induced immunosuppression. Phosphorylation of Akt1 plays a positive role in autophagy inhibition. In conclusion, long-time instead of short-time exposure of OTA in vitro induced immunosuppression. The immunosuppression mechanism of OTA in vitro involved inhibition of autophagy through upregulating p-Akt1. Our results provide new insight into research on the mechanism of mycotoxin-induced immunosuppression in vitro.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Ocratoxinas/administração & dosagem , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/imunologia , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2681, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213606

RESUMO

Although chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies have demonstrated considerable success in treating hematologic malignancies, they have simultaneously been plagued by a cytokine release syndrome (CRS) that can harm or even kill the cancer patient. We describe a CAR T cell strategy in which CAR T cell activation and cancer cell killing can be sensitively regulated by adjusting the dose of a low molecular weight adapter that must bridge between the CAR T cell and cancer cell to initiate tumor eradication. By controlling the concentration and dosing schedule of adapter administration, we document two methods that can rapidly terminate (<3 h) a pre-existing CRS-like toxicity and two unrelated methods that can pre-emptively prevent a CRS-like toxicity that would have otherwise occurred. Because all four methods concurrently enhance CAR T cell potency, we conclude that proper use of bispecific adapters could potentially avoid a life-threatening CRS while enhancing CAR T cell tumoricidal activity.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/prevenção & controle , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Engenharia Celular/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/imunologia , Fluoresceína/metabolismo , Receptores de Folato com Âncoras de GPI/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/etiologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/metabolismo , Síndrome , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/transplante , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 212: 27-37, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213249

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can effectively stimulate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and are anticipated to be promising adjuvants in combination with inactivated vaccines. In this study, the adjuvant potential of three different TLR-agonists were compared with an oil-in-water (O/W) adjuvant in combination with inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (iPRRSV) applied by different administration routes: intramuscular (i.m.) or into the skin using dissolving microneedle (DMN) patches. Pigs received a prime vaccination followed by a booster vaccination four weeks later. TLR1/2 (Pam3Cys), TLR7/8 (R848) or TLR9 (CpG ODN) agonists were used as adjuvant in combination with iPRRSV strain 07V063. O/W adjuvant (Montanide™) was used as reference control adjuvant and one group received a placebo vaccination containing diluent only. All animals received a homologous challenge with PRRSV three weeks after the booster vaccination. Antibody and IFN-γ production, serum cytokines and viremia were measured at several time-points after vaccination and/or challenge, and lung pathology at necropsy. Our results indicate that a TLR 1/2, 7/8 or 9 agonist as adjuvant with iPRRSV does not induce a detectable PRRSV-specific immune response, independent of the administration route. However, the i.m. TLR9 agonist group showed reduction of viremia upon challenge compared to the non-vaccinated animals, supported by a non-antigen-specific IFN-γ level after booster vaccination and an anamnestic antibody response after challenge. Montanide™-adjuvanted iPRRSV induced antigen-specific immunity after booster combined with reduction of vireamia. Skin application of TLR7/8 agonist, but not the other agonists, induced a local skin reaction. Further research is needed to explore the potential of TLR agonists as adjuvants for inactivated porcine vaccines with a preference for TLR9 agonists.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/prevenção & controle , Receptor Toll-Like 9/agonistas , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Masculino , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Suínos , Receptor Toll-Like 9/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Viremia
19.
Nature ; 571(7764): 265-269, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207605

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T cells are essential mediators of protective immunity to viral infection and malignant tumours and are a key target of immunotherapy approaches. However, prolonged exposure to cognate antigens often attenuates the effector capacity of T cells and limits their therapeutic potential1-4. This process, known as T cell exhaustion or dysfunction1, is manifested by epigenetically enforced changes in gene regulation that reduce the expression of cytokines and effector molecules and upregulate the expression of inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell-death 1 (PD-1)5-8. The underlying molecular mechanisms that induce and stabilize the phenotypic and functional features of exhausted T cells remain poorly understood9-12. Here we report that the development and maintenance of populations of exhausted T cells in mice requires the thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box (TOX) protein13-15. TOX is induced by high antigen stimulation of the T cell receptor and correlates with the presence of an exhausted phenotype during chronic infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice and hepatitis C virus in humans. Removal of its DNA-binding domain reduces the expression of PD-1 at the mRNA and protein level, augments the production of cytokines and results in a more polyfunctional T cell phenotype. T cells with this deletion initially mediate increased effector function and cause more severe immunopathology, but ultimately undergo a massive decline in their quantity, notably among the subset of TCF-1+ self-renewing T cells. Altogether, we show that TOX is a critical factor for the normal progression of T cell dysfunction and the maintenance of exhausted T cells during chronic infection, and provide a link between the suppression of effector function intrinsic to CD8 T cells and protection against immunopathology.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Timócitos/citologia , Timócitos/imunologia , Transcrição Genética
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5870-5880, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a set of serious organic manifestations caused by an infection, whose progression culminates in exacerbated inflammation and oxidative stress, poor prognosis, and high hospital costs. Antioxidants used against sepsis have been evaluated, including essential oils such as ß-caryophyllene (BCP), and polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the association of these two compounds. RESULTS: Treatment with BCP-DHA, at a dose of 200 µL/animal, significantly inhibited the migration of neutrophils in a Cg-induced peritonitis model. After Staphylococcus aureus infection, in the groups treated with BCP-DHA there was a significant decrease in the total and differential count of leukocytes, increased expression of cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ in treated groups, an increase of IL-4 and IL-5 in B/D and B/D + SA groups, and an augmentation of IL-6 and IL-12 groups in B/D + SA groups. Histological and bacterial analysis revealed lower neutrophil migration and lower bacterial load in the infected and treated groups. CONCLUSION: In general, the BCP-DHA association presented anti-inflammatory activity against two different models of acute inflammation and infection, showing promising potential as a therapeutic adjuvant in sepsis. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Peritonite/genética , Peritonite/imunologia , Peritonite/microbiologia , Sepse/genética , Sepse/imunologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
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