Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22.100
Filtrar
1.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 306-313, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020343

RESUMO

Cytokine storm in COVID-19 infection is an excessive immune response to external stimuli where the pathogenesis is complex. The disease progresses rapidly and the mortality is high. Certain evidence shows that the severe deterioration of some patients has been closely related to the strong upregulation of cytokine production in SARS-Co-V2 induced pneumonia with an associated cytokine storm syndrome. Identification of existing approaved therapy with proven safety profile to treat hyperinflammation is critical unmet need in order to reduce COVID-19 associated mortality. To date, no specific therapeutic drugs are available to treat COVID-19 infection. Preliminary studies have shown that immune-modulatory or immune suppressive treatments might be considered as treatment choices for COVID-19, particularly in severe disease. This article review the pathogenesis and treatment strategies of COVID-19 virus-induced inflammatory storm in attempt to provide valuable medication guidance for clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Gerenciamento Clínico , Imunidade Inata , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 221, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024073
3.
Can Respir J ; 2020: 1401053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934758

RESUMO

Background: The threat of contagious infectious diseases is constantly evolving as demographic explosion, travel globalization, and changes in human lifestyle increase the risk of spreading pathogens, leading to accelerated changes in disease landscape. Of particular interest is the aftermath of superimposing viral epidemics (especially SARS-CoV-2) over long-standing diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), which remains a significant disease for public health worldwide and especially in emerging economies. Methods and Results: The PubMed electronic database was systematically searched for relevant articles linking TB, influenza, and SARS-CoV viruses and subsequently assessed eligibility according to inclusion criteria. Using a data mining approach, we also queried the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). We aimed to answer the following questions: What can be learned from other coronavirus outbreaks (focusing on TB patients)? Is coinfection (TB and SARS-CoV-2) more severe? Is there a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2? How does the TB vaccine affect COVID-19? How does one diagnosis affect the other? Discussions. Few essential elements about TB and SARS-CoV coinfections were discussed. First, lessons from past outbreaks (other coronaviruses) and influenza pandemic/seasonal outbreaks have taught the importance of infection control to avoid the severe impact on TB patients. Second, although challenging due to data scarcity, investigating the pathological pathways linking TB and SARS-CoV-2 leads to the idea that their coexistence might yield a more severe clinical evolution. Finally, we addressed the issues of vaccination and diagnostic reliability in the context of coinfection. Conclusions: Because viral respiratory infections and TB impede the host's immune responses, it can be assumed that their lethal synergism may contribute to more severe clinical evolution. Despite the rapidly growing number of cases, the data needed to predict the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with latent TB and TB sequelae still lies ahead. The trial is registered with NCT04327206, NCT01829490, and NCT04121494.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Erros de Diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/fisiopatologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Vírus da SARS , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/fisiopatologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
4.
Eur J Immunol ; 50(9): 1283-1294, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910469

RESUMO

Studies on the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and humoral immunity are fundamental to elaborate effective therapies including vaccines. We used polychromatic flow cytometry, coupled with unsupervised data analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), to interrogate B cells in untreated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. COVID-19 patients displayed normal plasma levels of the main immunoglobulin classes, of antibodies against common antigens or against antigens present in common vaccines. However, we found a decreased number of total and naïve B cells, along with decreased percentages and numbers of memory switched and unswitched B cells. On the contrary, IgM+ and IgM- plasmablasts were significantly increased. In vitro cell activation revealed that B lymphocytes showed a normal proliferation index and number of dividing cells per cycle. PCA indicated that B-cell number, naive and memory B cells but not plasmablasts clustered with patients who were discharged, while plasma IgM level, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and SOFA score with those who died. In patients with pneumonia, the derangement of the B-cell compartment could be one of the causes of the immunological failure to control SARS-Cov2, have a relevant influence on several pathways, organs and systems, and must be considered to develop vaccine strategies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Pulmão/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/classificação , Linfócitos B/virologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Memória Imunológica , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 404, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948252

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is quickly spreading all over the world. This virus, which is called SARS-CoV-2, has infected tens of thousands of people. Based on symptoms, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory illness is responsible for highly homogenous coronaviruses as well as other pathogens. Evidence suggests that high inflammation rates, oxidation, and overwhelming immune response probably contribute to pathology of COVID-19. COVID-19 causes cytokine storm, which subsequently leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often ending up in the death of patients. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential stem cells that are recognized via self-renewal capacity, generation of clonal populations, and multilineage differentiation. MSCs are present in nearly all tissues of the body, playing an essential role in repair and generation of tissues. Furthermore, MSCs have broad immunoregulatory properties through the interaction of immune cells in both innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to immunosuppression of many effector activities. MSCs can reduce the cytokine storm produced by coronavirus infection. In a number of studies, the administration of these cells has been beneficial for COVID-19 patients. Also, MSCs may be able to improve pulmonary fibrosis and lung function. In this review, we will review the newest research findings regarding MSC-based immunomodulation in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Citocinas/imunologia , Imunossupressão/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
6.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 312-319, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876223

RESUMO

Disease caused by the new coronavirus (COVID-19) is characterized by fever, cough, and affection of the lower respiratory tract. It is associated with age, comorbidities and a weakened immune system. Typically, lymphopenias have been evidenced in severe cases and an excessive production of inflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm), which would explain the role of the hyperinflammatory response in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Secondary inflammatory responses from virus reinfections may induce antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a viremic phenomenon that may be an alternative mechanism of cellular infection and should be considered when designing vaccines or immunotherapies involving the stimulation of neutralizing antibodies or the use of monoclonal antibodies. Currently, no vaccines or treatments demonstrate safety and efficacy in patients with COVID-19. However, the results from phase III clinical trials which involve the application of an mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) nucleic acid vaccine and an antiviral drug (remdisivir), are yet to be concluded. For the time being, the best measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19 is by implementing social isolation, this measure has been adopted by several countries as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(28): 7685-7699, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870351

RESUMO

Pathogen-host cell interactions play an important role in many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. Several pathogens, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), and even the recent 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), can cause serious breathing and brain disorders, tissue injury and inflammation, leading to high rates of mortality and resulting in great loss to human physical and mental health as well as the global economy. These infectious diseases exploit the microbial and host factors to induce serious inflammatory and immunological symptoms. Thus the development of anti-inflammatory drugs targeting bacterial/viral infection is an urgent need. In previous studies, YojI-IFNAR2, YojI-IL10RA, YojI-NRP1,YojI-SIGLEC7, and YojI-MC4R membrane-protein interactions were found to mediate E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which activated the downstream anti-inflammatory proteins NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 2(NLRP2), using a proteomic chip conjugated with cell immunofluorescence labeling. However, the studies of pathogen (bacteria/virus)-host cell interactions mediated by membrane protein interactions did not extend their principles to broad biomedical applications such as 2019-nCoV infectious disease therapy. The first part of this feature article presents in-depth analysis of the cross-talk of cellular anti-inflammatory transduction signaling among interferon membrane protein receptor II (IFNAR2), interleukin-10 receptor subunit alpha (IL-10RA), NLRP2 and [Ca2+]-dependent phospholipase A2 (PLA2G5), based on experimental results and important published studies, which lays a theoretical foundation for the high-throughput construction of the cytokine and virion solution chip. The paper then moves on to the construction of the novel GPCR recombinant herpes virion chip and virion nano-oscillators for profiling membrane protein functions, which drove the idea of constructing the new recombinant virion and cytokine liquid chips for HTS of leading drugs. Due to the different structural properties of GPCR, IFNAR2, ACE2 and Spike of 2019-nCoV, their ligands will either bind the extracellular domain of IFNAR2/ACE2/Spike or the specific loops of the GPCR on the envelope of the recombinant herpes virions to induce dynamic charge distribution changes that lead to the variable electron transition for detection. Taken together, the combined overview of two of the most innovative and exciting developments in the immunoinflammatory field provides new insight into high-throughput construction of ultrasensitive cytokine and virion liquid chips for HTS of anti-inflammatory drugs or clinical diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases including infectious diseases, acute or chronic inflammation (acute gouty arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis), cardiovascular disease, atheromatosis, diabetes, obesity, tissue injury and tumors. It has significant value in the prevention and treatment of these serious and painful diseases. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas/instrumentação , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Vírion/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírion/imunologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/imunologia
9.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 38(3): 170-177, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990448

RESUMO

The disease course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is usually mild and self-limiting in previously healthy children, but they may also develop severe disease. Severe COVID-19 infection is especially observed in very young children or those with underlying comorbidities. Moreover, a multisystem inflammatory syndrome that mimics the Kawasaki disease shock syndrome can develop in children that are genetically predisposed to displaying an overactive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we describe the clinical phenotypes of mild and severe COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We also discuss the possible immunobiological mechanisms that may be involved in the protection of children against COVID-19 and the development of multisystem inflammatory syndrome.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/virologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ativação Linfocitária , Ativação de Macrófagos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008854, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956405

RESUMO

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of immunocompromised patient populations. Mortality is thought to be context-specific and occurs via both enhanced fungal growth and immunopathogenesis. NLRX1 is a negative regulator of immune signaling and metabolic pathways implicated in host responses to microbes, cancers, and autoimmune diseases. Our study indicates loss of Nlrx1 results in enhanced fungal burden, pulmonary inflammation, immune cell recruitment, and mortality across immuno-suppressed and immuno-competent models of IPA using two clinically derived isolates (AF293, CEA10). We observed that the heightened mortality is due to enhanced recruitment of CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) that produce elevated amounts of IL-4 resulting in a detrimental Th2-mediated immune response. Adoptive transfer of Nlrx1-/- CD103+ DCs in neutropenic NRG mice results in enhanced mortality that can be ablated using IL-4 neutralizing antibodies. In vitro analysis of CD103+ DCs indicates loss of Nlrx1 results in enhanced IL-4 production via elevated activation of the JNK/JunB pathways. Interestingly, loss of Nlrx1 also results in enhanced recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils. Chimeras of irradiated Nlrx1-/- mice reconstituted with wild type bone marrow have enhanced neutrophil recruitment and survival during models of IPA. This enhanced immune cell recruitment in the absence of Nlrx1 is mediated by excessive production of CXCL8/IL-8 family of chemokines and IL-6 via early and enhanced activation of P38 in response to A. fumigatus conidia as shown in BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells. In summary, our results point strongly towards the cell-specific and contextual function of Nlrx1 during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and may lead to novel therapeutics to reduce Th2 responses by CD103+ DCs or heightened recruitment of neutrophils.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/imunologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/genética , Aspergilose Pulmonar/patologia , Células Th2/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia
11.
Theranostics ; 10(21): 9591-9600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863947

RESUMO

Cytokine storms, defined by the dysregulated and excessive production of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, are closely associated with the pathology and mortality of several infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Effective therapies are urgently needed to block the development of cytokine storms to improve patient outcomes, but approaches that target individual cytokines may have limited effect due to the number of cytokines involved in this process. Dysfunctional macrophages appear to play an essential role in cytokine storm development, and therapeutic interventions that target these cells may be a more feasible approach than targeting specific cytokines. Nanomedicine-based therapeutics that target macrophages have recently been shown to reduce cytokine production in animal models of diseases that are associated with excessive proinflammatory responses. In this mini-review, we summarize important studies and discuss how macrophage-targeted nanomedicines can be employed to attenuate cytokine storms and their associated pathological effects to improve outcomes in patients with severe infections or other conditions associated with excessive pro-inflammatory responses. We also discuss engineering approaches that can improve nanocarriers targeting efficiency to macrophages, and key issues should be considered before initiating such studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/imunologia , Infecções/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Nanomedicina/tendências , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
12.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 17(1): 55, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912226

RESUMO

Human coronaviruses are highly pathogenic viruses that pose a serious threat to human health. Examples include the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak of 2003 (SARS-CoV-1), the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) outbreak of 2012, and the current SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. Herein, we review the neurological manifestations of coronaviruses and discuss the potential pathogenic role of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. We present the hypothesis that pre-existing vascular damage (due to aging, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension or other conditions) facilitates infiltration of the virus into the central nervous system (CNS), increasing neuro-inflammation and the likelihood of neurological symptoms. We also discuss the role of a neuroinflammatory cytokine profile in both blood-brain barrier dysfunction and macrovascular disease (e.g. ischemic stroke and thromboembolism). Future studies are needed to better understand the involvement of the microvasculature in coronavirus neuropathology, and to test the diagnostic potential of minimally-invasive screening tools (e.g. serum biomarkers, fluorescein retinal angiography and dynamic-contrast MRI).


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Microvasos/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Convulsões/imunologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Tromboembolia/imunologia , Tromboembolia/fisiopatologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872332

RESUMO

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) causes up to 40% mortality in humans and is difficult to treat. ARDS is also one of the major triggers of mortality associated with coronavirus-induced disease (COVID-19). We used a mouse model of ARDS induced by Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), which triggers 100% mortality, to investigate the mechanisms through which Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) attenuates ARDS. SEB was used to trigger ARDS in C3H mice. These mice were treated with THC and analyzed for survival, ARDS, cytokine storm, and metabolome. Additionally, cells isolated from the lungs were used to perform single-cell RNA sequencing and transcriptome analysis. A database analysis of human COVID-19 patients was also performed to compare the signaling pathways with SEB-mediated ARDS. The treatment of SEB-mediated ARDS mice with THC led to a 100% survival, decreased lung inflammation, and the suppression of cytokine storm. This was associated with immune cell apoptosis involving the mitochondrial pathway, as suggested by single-cell RNA sequencing. A transcriptomic analysis of immune cells from the lungs revealed an increase in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes following THC treatment. In addition, metabolomic analysis revealed elevated serum concentrations of amino acids, lysine, n-acetyl methionine, carnitine, and propionyl L-carnitine in THC-treated mice. THC caused the downregulation of miR-185, which correlated with an increase in the pro-apoptotic gene targets. Interestingly, the gene expression datasets from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of human COVID-19 patients showed some similarities between cytokine and apoptotic genes with SEB-induced ARDS. Collectively, this study suggests that the activation of cannabinoid receptors may serve as a therapeutic modality to treat ARDS associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/imunologia , Dronabinol/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Enterotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(10): 2115-2131, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a novel human-infecting coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, had emerged. The WHO has classified the epidemic as a "public health emergency of international concern". A dramatic situation has unfolded with thousands of deaths, occurring mainly in the aged and very ill people. Epidemiological studies suggest that immune system function is impaired in elderly individuals and these subjects often present a deficiency in fat-soluble and hydrosoluble vitamins. METHODS: We searched for reviews describing the characteristics of autoimmune diseases and the available therapeutic protocols for their treatment. We set them as a paradigm with the purpose to uncover common pathogenetic mechanisms between these pathological conditions and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we searched for studies describing the possible efficacy of vitamins A, D, E, and C in improving the immune system function. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces strong immune system dysfunction characterized by the development of an intense proinflammatory response in the host, and the development of a life-threatening condition defined as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). This leads to acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), mainly in aged people. High mortality and lethality rates have been observed in elderly subjects with CoV-2-related infection. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamins may shift the proinflammatory Th17-mediated immune response arising in autoimmune diseases towards a T-cell regulatory phenotype. This review discusses the possible activity of vitamins A, D, E, and C in restoring normal antiviral immune system function and the potential therapeutic role of these micronutrients as part of a therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/imunologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Ácido Ascórbico/imunologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/imunologia , Vitamina A/imunologia , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/imunologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/imunologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/farmacologia
15.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(10): 2141-2158, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We present evidence for a possible role of Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency in unregulated cytokine production and inflammation leading to complications in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: The time-adjusted case mortality ratio (T-CMR) was estimated as the ratio of deceased patients on day N to the confirmed cases on day N-8. The adaptive average of T-CMR (A-CMR) was calculated as a metric of COVID-19 associated mortality. A model based on positivity change (PC) and an estimated prevalence of COVID-19 was used to determine countries with similar screening strategies. A possible association of A-CMR with the mean concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in elderly individuals in countries with similar screening strategy was investigated. We considered high C-reactive protein (CRP) in severe COVID-19 patients (CRP ≥ 1 mg/dL) as a surrogate of a cytokine storm. We considered high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) in healthy subjects as hs-CRP ≥ 0.2 mg/dL. RESULTS: A link between 25(OH)D and A-CMR in countries with similar screening strategy is evidence for VitD's possible role in reducing unregulated cytokine production and inflammation among patients with severe COVID-19. We observed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.8 with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) (1.2 to 2.6) and an OR of 1.9 with 95% CI (1.4 to 2.7) for hs-CRP in VitD deficient elderly from low-income families and high-income families, respectively. COVID-19 patient-level data show an OR of 3.4 with 95% CI (2.15 to 5.4) for high CRP in severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: We conclude that future studies on VitD's role in reducing cytokine storm and COVID-19 mortality are warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Vitamina D/imunologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
16.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961897

RESUMO

Some coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses of human and veterinary medical importance. The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory symptoms coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), associated with the current global pandemic, is characterized by pneumonia, lymphopenia, and a cytokine storm in humans that has caused catastrophic impacts on public health worldwide. Coronaviruses are known for their ability to evade innate immune surveillance exerted by the host during the early phase of infection. It is important to comprehensively investigate the interaction between highly pathogenic coronaviruses and their hosts. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge about coronaviruses with a focus on antiviral immune responses in the respiratory and intestinal tracts to infection with severe coronaviruses that have caused epidemic diseases in humans and domestic animals. We emphasize, in particular, the strategies used by these coronaviruses to circumvent host immune surveillance, mainly including the hijack of antigen-presenting cells, shielding RNA intermediates in replication organelles, 2'-O-methylation modification for the evasion of RNA sensors, and blocking of interferon signaling cascades. We also provide information about the potential development of coronavirus vaccines and antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tropismo Viral
17.
Crit Rev Immunol ; 40(2): 173-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749095

RESUMO

Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are unconventional, innate-like T lymphocytes with remarkable effector and immunoregulatory functions. They are abundant in the human peripheral blood and also enriched in mucosal layers and in the lungs, SARS-CoV-2's main ports of entry. Once activated, MAIT cells produce inflammatory cytokines and cytolytic effector molecules quickly and copiously. MAIT cells are best known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, they are also activated during viral infections, typically in a cytokine-dependent manner, which may promote antiviral immunity. On the other hand, it is plausible to assume active roles for MAIT cells in infection-provoked cytokine storms and tissue damage. SARS-CoV-2 infection may be asymptomatic, mild, severe, or even fatal, depending on sex, age, the presence of preexisting morbidities, and the individual's immunological competence, or lack thereof, among other factors. Based on the available literature, I propose that MAIT cells regulate the host response to SARS-CoV-2 and constitute attractive targets in the prevention or clinical management of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and some of its complications. Unlike mainstream T cells, MAIT cells are restricted by a monomorphic antigen-presenting molecule called MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). Therefore, MR1 ligands should modify MAIT cell functions relatively uniformly in genetically diverse subjects and may be tested as immunotherapeutic agents or vaccine adjuvants in future studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3924, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764665

RESUMO

Several studies show that the immunosuppressive drugs targeting the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, including tocilizumab, ameliorate lethal inflammatory responses in COVID-19 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Here, by employing single-cell analysis of the immune cell composition of two severe-stage COVID-19 patients prior to and following tocilizumab-induced remission, we identify a monocyte subpopulation that contributes to the inflammatory cytokine storms. Furthermore, although tocilizumab treatment attenuates the inflammation, immune cells, including plasma B cells and CD8+ T cells, still exhibit robust humoral and cellular antiviral immune responses. Thus, in addition to providing a high-dimensional dataset on the immune cell distribution at multiple stages of the COVID-19, our work also provides insights into the therapeutic effects of tocilizumab, and identifies potential target cell populations for treating COVID-19-related cytokine storms.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores de Interleucina-6/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
19.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100741, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773102

RESUMO

Pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and poses an unprecedented challenge to healthcare systems due to the lack of a vaccine and specific treatment options. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to understand precisely the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this multifaceted disease. There is increasing evidence that the immune system reacts insufficiently to SARS-CoV-2 and thus contributes to organ damage and to lethality. In this review, we suggest that the overwhelming production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress is a major cause of local or systemic tissue damage that leads to severe COVID-19. It increases the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and suppresses the adaptive arm of the immune system, i.e. T cells that are necessary to kill virus-infected cells. This creates a vicious cycle that prevents a specific immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The key role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 implies that therapeutic counterbalancing of ROS by antioxidants such as vitamin C or NAC and/or by antagonizing ROS production by cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and neutrophil granulocytes and/or by blocking of TNF-α can prevent COVID-19 from becoming severe. Controlled clinical trials and preclinical models of COVID-19 are needed to evaluate this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Linfopenia/imunologia , Linfopenia/virologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/virologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(9)2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825011

RESUMO

It is proposed that the bioactive lipid, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6), can inactivate severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS-CoV-2), facilitate M1 and M2 macrophage generation, suppress inflammation, prevent vascular endothelial cell damage, and regulate inflammation resolution processes based on the timely formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) based on the context. Thus, AA may be useful both to prevent and manage coronavrus disease-2019(COVID-19).


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação , Macrófagos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Inativação de Vírus
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA