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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068008

RESUMO

A major contributing factor in triple-negative breast cancer progression is its ability to evade immune surveillance. One mechanism for this immunosuppression is through ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), which facilitates myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) recruitment in tumors, which generate cytokines TGF-ß and IL-10 and induce regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which are immunosuppressive and enhance tumor progression. Hence, enhancing the immune system in breast tumors could be a strategy for anticancer therapeutics. The present study evaluated the immune response of atovaquone, an antiprotozoal drug, in three independent breast-tumor models. Our results demonstrated that oral administration of atovaquone reduced HCC1806, CI66 and 4T1 paclitaxel-resistant (4T1-PR) breast-tumor growth by 45%, 70% and 42%, respectively. MDSCs, TGF-ß, IL-10 and Tregs of blood and tumors were analyzed from all of these in vivo models. Our results demonstrated that atovaquone treatment in mice bearing HCC1806 tumors reduced MDSCs from tumor and blood by 70% and 30%, respectively. We also observed a 25% reduction in tumor MDSCs in atovaquone-treated mice bearing CI66 and 4T1-PR tumors. In addition, a decrease in TGF-ß and IL-10 in tumor lysates was observed in atovaquone-treated mice with a reduction in tumor Tregs. Moreover, a significant reduction in the expression of RPS19 was found in tumors treated with atovaquone.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Atovaquona/farmacologia , Imunossupressão , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Células Supressoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068193

RESUMO

In this study, we investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a novel antimicrobial peptide, YD1, isolated from Kimchi, in both in vitro and in vivo models. We establish that YD1 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via up-regulation of the Nrf2 pathway, resulting in the production of HO-1, which suppresses activation of the NF-κB pathway, including the subsequent proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. We also found that YD1 robustly suppresses nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by down-regulating the expression of the upstream genes, iNOS and COX-2, acting as a strong antioxidant. Collectively, YD1 exhibits vigorous anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, presenting it as an interesting potential therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/metabolismo , Edema/patologia , Edema/prevenção & controle , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063554

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) afflicts approximately 200,000 patients annually and has a 40% mortality rate. The COVID-19 pandemic has massively increased the rate of ALI incidence. The pathogenesis of ALI involves tissue damage from invading microbes and, in severe cases, the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). This study aimed to develop a therapy to normalize the excess production of inflammatory cytokines and promote tissue repair in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Based on our previous studies, we tested the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and BTP-2 therapies. IGF-I was selected, because we and others have shown that elevated inflammatory cytokines suppress the expression of growth hormone receptors in the liver, leading to a decrease in the circulating IGF-I. IGF-I is a growth factor that increases vascular protection, enhances tissue repair, and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is also required to produce anti-inflammatory 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. BTP-2, an inhibitor of cytosolic calcium, was used to suppress the LPS-induced increase in cytosolic calcium, which otherwise leads to an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. We showed that LPS increased the expression of the primary inflammatory mediators such as toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), IL-1ß, interleukin-17 (IL-17), TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which were normalized by the IGF-I + BTP-2 dual therapy in the lungs, along with improved vascular gene expression markers. The histologic lung injury score was markedly elevated by LPS and reduced to normal by the combination therapy. In conclusion, the LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines, vascular injuries, and lung injuries were all improved by IGF-I + BTP-2 combination therapy.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Anilidas/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , COVID-19/complicações , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tiadiazóis/uso terapêutico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065735

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still an ongoing global health crisis. Immediately after the inhalation of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles, alveolar type II epithelial cells harbor and initiate local innate immunity. These particles can infect circulating macrophages, which then present the coronavirus antigens to T cells. Subsequently, the activation and differentiation of various types of T cells, as well as uncontrollable cytokine release (also known as cytokine storms), result in tissue destruction and amplification of the immune response. Vitamin D enhances the innate immunity required for combating COVID-19 by activating toll-like receptor 2. It also enhances antimicrobial peptide synthesis, such as through the promotion of the expression and secretion of cathelicidin and ß-defensin; promotes autophagy through autophagosome formation; and increases the synthesis of lysosomal degradation enzymes within macrophages. Regarding adaptive immunity, vitamin D enhances CD4+ T cells, suppresses T helper 17 cells, and promotes the production of virus-specific antibodies by activating T cell-dependent B cells. Moreover, vitamin D attenuates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by CD4+ T cells through nuclear factor κB signaling, thereby inhibiting the development of a cytokine storm. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells after its spike proteins are bound to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Vitamin D increases the bioavailability and expression of ACE2, which may be responsible for trapping and inactivating the virus. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) is responsible for tissue destruction, inflammation, and organ failure related to SARS-CoV-2. Vitamin D inhibits renin expression and serves as a negative RAS regulator. In conclusion, vitamin D defends the body against SARS-CoV-2 through a novel complex mechanism that operates through interactions between the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity, ACE2 expression, and inhibition of the RAS system. Multiple observation studies have shown that serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. The evidence gathered thus far, generally meets Hill's causality criteria in a biological system, although experimental verification is not sufficient. We speculated that adequate vitamin D supplementation may be essential for mitigating the progression and severity of COVID-19. Future studies are warranted to determine the dosage and effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation among different populations of individuals with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066226

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is now a worldwide challenge for healthcare systems. Although the leading cause of mortality in patients with COVID-19 is hypoxic respiratory failure due to viral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, accumulating evidence has shown that the risk of thromboembolism is substantially high in patients with severe COVID-19 and that a thromboembolic event is another major complication contributing to the high morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Endothelial dysfunction is emerging as one of the main contributors to the pathogenesis of thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Endothelial dysfunction is usually referred to as reduced nitric oxide bioavailability. However, failures of the endothelium to control coagulation, inflammation, or permeability are also instances of endothelial dysfunction. Recent studies have indicated the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect endothelial cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 pathway and that endothelial dysfunction caused by direct virus infection of endothelial cells may contribute to thrombotic complications and severe disease outcomes in patients with COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of relationships between SARS-CoV-2 infection, endothelial dysfunction, and pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Endotélio Vascular/virologia , Tromboembolia/virologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Tromboembolia/complicações
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067872

RESUMO

Inflammation is a key mechanism for the clearance of infective agents and other inflammatory triggers and is pivotal for the repairing processes of the affected tissues. Inflammation is a multistep process driven by a great number of mediators which regulate specific aspects of the inflammatory response, in agreement with a well-defined chronobiological program. A great number of inflammation-related diseases show a deeply altered immune chronobiology (e.g., COVID-19-related cytokines storm). This aspect highlights the need for a deeper understanding of the inflammatory phenomenon. It is fundamental to study inflammation as a multilevel phenomenon. Of particular interest is the low-grade chronic inflammation, which is an etiological factor of many chronic diseases. Nowadays, the therapeutic approach to low grade chronic inflammation is one of the great challenges of traditional pharmacology. Currently, no drugs specifically designed for the treatment of chronic inflammatory forms are available. Today, bioregulatory systems medicine (BrSM) and low dose medicine (LDM), two pharmacological paradigms grounded in systems medicine, potentially represent new tools for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. Scientific research has assessed the effectiveness and safety of both these therapeutic approaches, in particular for the management of chronic inflammatory conditions and chronic immunological dysregulations.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Análise de Sistemas , Doença Aguda , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 3613-3631, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079253

RESUMO

Purpose: Anti-inflammation is essential for dry eye disease. Traditional anti-inflammation agent corticosteroids applied in dry eye disease (DED) treatment could result in high intraocular pressure, especially in long-term treatment. Thus, we have prepared a liposome loading 1-bromoheptadecafluorooctane and tetrandrine (PFOB@LIP-Tet) to treat DED via anti-inflammation that hardly affects intraocular pressure in this study, which provided another therapy strategy for dry eye disease. Methods: We firstly detected the physicochemical properties of PFOB@LIP-Tet. Next, we tested the biosafety of synthesized liposomes for corneal epithelium. Then, we explored the accumulations and distribution of PFOB@LIP-Tet both in cellular and animal models. And then, we assessed the therapeutic effects of PFOB@LIP-Tet formulations by laboratory and clinical examinations. Last, we examined the changes in eye pressure before and after treatment. Results: PFOB@LIP-Tet and Tet showed a characteristic absorption peak at 282 nm while PFOB@LIP did not. Large amounts of PFOB@LIP-Tet remained on the ocular surface and accumulated in the corneal epithelial cells in DED rabbits. Corneal staining scores of DED rabbits respectively treated by ATS, PFOB@LIP-ATS, Tet-ATS and PFOB@LIP-Tet-ATS for seven days were 3.7±0.5, 3.2±0.4, 1.5±0.5 and 0.5±0.5. The expressions of related cytokines were correspondingly downregulated significantly, indicating that the inflammation of DED was successfully suppressed. The intraocular pressure changes of DED rabbits before and after treatment by PFOB@LIP-Tet showed no statistical significance. Conclusion: We successfully synthesized PFOB@LIP-Tet, and it could effectively treat dry eye disease via anti-inflammation but hardly affected the intraocular pressure.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Nanomedicina , Animais , Benzilisoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Benzilisoquinolinas/efeitos adversos , Benzilisoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Medicamentosas , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Síndromes do Olho Seco/patologia , Epitélio Anterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Anterior/patologia , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipossomos , Coelhos
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection provides a critical host-immunological challenge. AIM: We explore the effect of host-genetic variation in interferon-lambda-3 rs12979860, Tolloid Like-1 (TLL1) rs17047200 and Discoidin domain receptor 1(DDR1) rs4618569 on host response to respiratory viral infections and disease severity that may probe the mechanistic approach of allelic variation in virus-induced inflammatory responses. METHODS: 141 COVID-19 positive patients and 100 healthy controls were tested for interferon-lambda-3 rs12979860, TLL1 rs17047200 and DDR1 rs4618569 polymorphism by TaqMan probe-based genotyping. Different genotypes were assessed regarding the COVID-19 severity and prognosis. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the studied cases and control group with regard to the presence of comorbidities, total leucocytic count, lymphocytic count, CRP, serum LDH, ferritin and D-dimer (p < 0.01). The CC genotype of rs12979860 cytokine, the AA genotype of TLL1 rs17047200 and the AA genotype of the rs4618569 variant of DDR1 showed a higher incidence of COVID-19 compared to the others. There were significant differences between the rs4618569 variant of DDR and the outcome of the disease, with the highest mortality in AG genotype 29 (60.4%) in comparison to 16 (33.3%) and 3 (6.2%) in the AA and GG genotypes, respectively (p = 0.007*), suggesting that the A allele is associated with a poor outcome in the disease. CONCLUSION: Among people who carry C and A alleles of SNPs IFN-λ rs12979860 and TLL1 rs17047200, respectively, the AG genotype of the DDR1 rs4618569 variant is correlated with a COVID-19 poor outcome. In those patients, the use of anti-IFN-λ 3, TLL1 and DDR1 therapy may be promising for personalized translational clinical practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interferons/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Metaloproteases Semelhantes a Toloide/genética , Alelos , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 659419, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079547

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic virus infections usually trigger cytokine storms, which may have adverse effects on vital organs and result in high mortalities. The two cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ play key roles in the generation and regulation of cytokine storms. However, it is still unclear whether the cytokine with the largest induction amplitude is the same under different virus infections. It is unknown which is the most critical and whether there are any mathematical formulas that can fit the changing rules of cytokines. Three coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2), three influenza viruses (2009H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9), Ebola virus, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, West Nile virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and enterovirus 71 were included in this analysis. We retrieved the cytokine fold change (FC), viral load, and clearance rate data from these highly pathogenic virus infections in humans and analyzed the correlations among them. Our analysis showed that interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 are the most common cytokines with the largest induction amplitudes. Equations were obtained: the maximum induced cytokine (max) FC = IFN-γ FC × (IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC) (if IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC > 1); max FC = IL-4 FC (if IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC < 1). For IFN-γ-inducible infections, 1.30 × log2 (IFN-γ FC) = log10 (viral load) - 2.48 - 2.83 × (clearance rate). The clinical relevance of cytokines and their antagonists is also discussed.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Imunológicos , Viroses/complicações , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Carga Viral/imunologia , Viroses/sangue , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia
10.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(5): 51-75, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027650

RESUMO

In 2020, a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) has led to a significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As of the date of this writing, a total of 116 M cases has been diagnosed worldwide leading to 2.5 M deaths. The number of mortalities is directly correlated with the rise of innate immune cells (especially macrophages) in the lungs that secrete inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-6) leading to the development of "Cytokine Storm Syndrome" (CSS), multi-organ-failure and death. Given that currently the treatment of this condition is rare and release of effective vaccine might be months away, here, we review the plants and their pharmacologically active-compounds as potential phytopharmaceuticals for the virus induced inflammatory response. Experimental validation of the effectiveness of these natural compounds to prevent or reduce the cytokine storm might be beneficial as an adjunct treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , /efeitos dos fármacos , /imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , /patogenicidade , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência/imunologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946824

RESUMO

Red blood cells (RBCs) serve a variety of functions beyond mere oxygen transport both in health and pathology. Notably, RRx-001, a minimally toxic pleiotropic anticancer agent with macrophage activating and vascular normalization properties currently in Phase III trials, induces modification to RBCs which could promote vascular adhesion similar to sickle cells. This study assessed whether RBCs exposed to RRx-001 adhere to the tumor microvasculature and whether this adhesion alters tumor viability. We next investigated the biomechanics of RBC adhesion in the context of local inflammatory cytokines after treatment with RRx-001 as a potential mechanism for preferential tumor aggregation. Human HEP-G2 and HT-29 tumor cells were subcutaneously implanted into nu/nu mice and were infused with RRx-001-treated and Technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled blood. RBC adhesion was quantified in an in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) assay under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions with administration of either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα) to mimic the known inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. One hour following administration of 99mTc labeled RBCs treated with 10 mg/kg RRx-001, we observed an approximate 2.0-fold and 1.5-fold increase in 99mTc-labeled RBCs compared to vehicle control in HEPG2 and HT-29 tumor models, respectively. Furthermore, we observed an approximate 40% and 36% decrease in HEP-G2 and HT-29 tumor weight, respectively, following treatment with RRx-001. To quantify RBC adhesive potential, we determined τ50, or the shear stress required for 50% disassociation of RBCs from HUVECs. After administration of TNF-α under normoxia, τ50 was determined to be 4.5 dynes/cm2 (95% CI: 4.3-4.7 dynes/cm2) for RBCs treated with 10 µM RRx-001, which was significantly different (p < 0.05) from τ50 in the absence of treatment. Under hypoxic conditions, the difference of τ50 with (4.8 dynes/cm2; 95% CI: 4.6-5.1 dynes/cm2) and without (2.6 dynes/cm2; 95% CI: 2.4-2.8 dynes/cm2) 10 µM RRx-001 treatment was exacerbated (p = 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that RBCs treated with RRx-001 preferentially aggregate in HEP-G2 and HT-29 tumors, likely due to interactions between RRx-001 and cysteine residues within RBCs. Furthermore, RRx-001 treated RBCs demonstrated increased adhesive potential to endothelial cells upon introduction of TNF-α and hypoxia suggesting that RRx-001 may induce preferential adhesion in the tumor but not in other tissues with endothelial dysfunction due to conditions prevalent in older cancer patients such as heart disease or diabetic vasculopathy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular , Cisteína/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/química , Agregação Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Eritrocítica/química , Células HT29/transplante , Células Hep G2/transplante , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/biossíntese , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Experimentais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilserinas/biossíntese , Receptores de Superfície Celular/biossíntese , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Microambiente Tumoral , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2598, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972511

RESUMO

The intestinal immune system is an important modulator of glucose homeostasis and obesity-associated insulin resistance. Dietary factors, the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites shape intestinal immunity during obesity. The intestinal immune system in turn affects processes such as intestinal permeability, immune cell trafficking, and intestinal hormone availability, impacting systemic insulin resistance. Understanding these pathways might identify mechanisms underlying treatments for insulin resistance, such as metformin and bariatric surgery, or aid in developing new therapies and vaccination approaches. Here, we highlight evolving concepts centered on intestinal immunity, diet, and the microbiota to provide a working model of obesity-related metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doenças Metabólicas/imunologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dietoterapia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/imunologia , Doenças Metabólicas/microbiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/terapia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 638446, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936053

RESUMO

Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) and interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) lie sequentially on a signaling pathway activated by ligands of the IL-1 receptor and/or multiple TLRs located either on plasma or endosomal membranes. Activated IRF5, in conjunction with other synergistic transcription factors, notably NF-κB, is crucially required for the production of proinflammatory cytokines in the innate immune response to microbial infection. The IRAK4-IRF5 axis could therefore have a major role in the induction of the signature cytokines and chemokines of the hyperinflammatory state associated with severe morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Here a case is made for considering IRAK4 or IRF5 inhibitors as potential therapies for the "cytokine storm" of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , /tratamento farmacológico , /fisiopatologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Viroses/metabolismo
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6695663, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937411

RESUMO

Background: When vascular endothelial cells are subjected to external stimuli, paracrine hormones and cytokines act on adjacent cells. The regulation of the biological behaviour of cells is closely related to the maintenance of organ function and the occurrence and development of disease. However, it is unclear whether vascular endothelial cells affect the biological behaviour of cells involved in wound repair through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms and ultimately play a role in wound healing. We aimed to verify the effect of the autocrine and paracrine functions of vascular endothelial cells on wound healing. Materials and Methods: ELISA was used to detect platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in human umbilical vascular endothelial cell-conditioned medium (HUVEC-CM). Different concentrations of HUVEC-CM were used to treat different stem cells. CCK-8 and scratch assays were used to detect the proliferation and migration ability of each cell. A full-thickness dorsal skin defect model was established in mice, and skin wound healing was observed after the local injection of HUVEC-CM, endothelial cell medium (ECM), or normal saline. H&E staining and immunofluorescence were used to observe the gross morphology of the wound tissue, the epithelial cell migration distance, and the expression of CD3 and CD31. Results: HUVEC-CM promotes the proliferation and migration of epidermal stem cells, skin fibroblasts, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and HUVECs themselves. Furthermore, HUVEC-CM can promote angiogenesis in mouse skin wounds and granulation tissue formation and can accelerate wound surface epithelialization and collagen synthesis, thereby promoting wound healing. Conclusion: Our results clearly suggest that it is practicable and effective to promote wound healing with cytokines secreted by vascular endothelial cells in a mouse model.


Assuntos
Comunicação Autócrina , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina , Pele/patologia , Cicatrização , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Comunicação Autócrina/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Comunicação Parácrina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946346

RESUMO

Colitis causes destruction of the intestinal mucus layer and increases intestinal inflammation. The use of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents derived from natural sources has been recently highlighted as a new approach for the treatment of colitis. Oxyresveratrol (OXY) is an antioxidant known to have various beneficial effects on human health, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity, and antiviral activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of OXY in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. OXY ameliorated DSS-induced colitis and repaired damaged intestinal mucosa. OXY downregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß) and chemokine gene MCP-1, while promoting the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. OXY treatment also suppressed inflammation via inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in the colon, as well as the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO). OXY exhibited anti-apoptotic effects, shifting the Bax/Bcl-2 balance. In conclusion, OXY might improve DSS-induced colitis by restoring the intestinal mucus layer and reducing inflammation within the intestine.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/etiologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia
16.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946644

RESUMO

Severely ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients show elevated concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a situation commonly known as a cytokine storm. The p38 MAPK receptor is considered a plausible therapeutic target because of its involvement in the platelet activation processes leading to inflammation. This study aimed to identify potential natural product-derived inhibitory molecules against the p38α MAPK receptor to mitigate the eliciting of pro-inflammatory cytokines using computational techniques. The 3D X-ray structure of the receptor with PDB ID 3ZS5 was energy minimized using GROMACS and used for molecular docking via AutoDock Vina. The molecular docking was validated with an acceptable area under the curve (AUC) of 0.704, which was computed from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A compendium of 38,271 natural products originating from Africa and China together with eleven known p38 MAPK inhibitors were screened against the receptor. Four potential lead compounds ZINC1691180, ZINC5519433, ZINC4520996 and ZINC5733756 were identified. The compounds formed strong intermolecular bonds with critical residues Val38, Ala51, Lys53, Thr106, Leu108, Met109 and Phe169. Additionally, they exhibited appreciably low binding energies which were corroborated via molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) calculations. The compounds were also predicted to have plausible pharmacological profiles with insignificant toxicity. The molecules were also predicted to be anti-inflammatory, kinase inhibitors, antiviral, platelet aggregation inhibitors, and immunosuppressive, with probable activity (Pa) greater than probable inactivity (Pi). ZINC5733756 is structurally similar to estradiol with a Tanimoto coefficient value of 0.73, which exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by targeting the activation of Nrf2. Similarly, ZINC1691180 has been reported to elicit anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The compounds may serve as scaffolds for the design of potential biotherapeutic molecules against the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Curva ROC
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2620, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976173

RESUMO

Tumor associated macrophage responses are regulated by distinct metabolic states that affect their function. However, the ability of specific signals in the local tumor microenvironment to program macrophage metabolism remains under investigation. Here, we identify NAMPT, the rate limiting enzyme in NAD salvage synthesis, as a target of STAT1 during cellular activation by interferon gamma, an important driver of macrophage polarization and antitumor responses. We demonstrate that STAT1 occupies a conserved element within the first intron of Nampt, termed Nampt-Regulatory Element-1 (NRE1). Through disruption of NRE1 or pharmacological inhibition, a subset of M1 genes is sensitive to NAMPT activity through its impact on glycolytic processes. scRNAseq is used to profile in vivo responses by NRE1-deficient, tumor-associated leukocytes in melanoma tumors through the creation of a unique mouse strain. Reduced Nampt and inflammatory gene expression are present in specific myeloid and APC populations; moreover, targeted ablation of NRE1 in macrophage lineages results in greater tumor burden. Finally, elevated NAMPT expression correlates with IFNγ responses and melanoma patient survival. This study identifies IFN and STAT1-inducible Nampt as an important factor that shapes the metabolic program and function of tumor associated macrophages.


Assuntos
Citocinas/genética , Melanoma/genética , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , /imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Receptores de Interferon/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Células THP-1 , Regulação para Cima
18.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252026, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038475

RESUMO

To investigate the mechanisms underlying the SARS-CoV-2 infection severity observed in patients with obesity, we performed a prospective study of 51 patients evaluating the impact of multiple immune parameters during 2 weeks after admission, on vital organs' functions according to body mass index (BMI) categories. High-dimensional flow cytometric characterization of immune cell subsets was performed at admission, 30 systemic cytokines/chemokines levels were sequentially measured, thirteen endothelial markers were determined at admission and at the zenith of the cytokines. Computed tomography scans on admission were quantified for lung damage and hepatic steatosis (n = 23). Abnormal BMI (> 25) observed in 72.6% of patients, was associated with a higher rate of intensive care unit hospitalization (p = 0.044). SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia, peripheral immune cell subsets and cytokines/chemokines were similar among BMI groups. A significant association between inflammatory cytokines and liver, renal, and endothelial dysfunctions was observed only in patients with obesity (BMI > 30). In contrast, early signs of lung damage (ground-glass opacity) correlated with Th1/M1/inflammatory cytokines only in normal weight patients. Later lesions of pulmonary consolidation correlated with BMI but were independent of cytokine levels. Our study reveals distinct physiopathological mechanisms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with obesity that may have important clinical implications.


Assuntos
/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/patologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , /virologia , Quimiocinas/sangue , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/sangue , /isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3105, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050144

RESUMO

Environmental factors, mucosal permeability and defective immunoregulation drive overactive immunity to a subset of resident intestinal bacteria that mediate multiple inflammatory conditions. GUT-103 and GUT-108, live biotherapeutic products rationally designed to complement missing or underrepresented functions in the dysbiotic microbiome of IBD patients, address upstream targets, rather than targeting a single cytokine to block downstream inflammation responses. GUT-103, composed of 17 strains that synergistically provide protective and sustained engraftment in the IBD inflammatory environment, prevented and treated chronic immune-mediated colitis. Therapeutic application of GUT-108 reversed established colitis in a humanized chronic T cell-mediated mouse model. It decreased pathobionts while expanding resident protective bacteria; produced metabolites promoting mucosal healing and immunoregulatory responses; decreased inflammatory cytokines and Th-1 and Th-17 cells; and induced interleukin-10-producing colonic regulatory cells, and IL-10-independent homeostatic pathways. We propose GUT-108 for treating and preventing relapse for IBD and other inflammatory conditions characterized by unbalanced microbiota and mucosal permeability.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/terapia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vida Livre de Germes , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colite/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/terapia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Vida Livre de Germes/imunologia , Vida Livre de Germes/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
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