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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330152

RESUMO

Astrocytes (AC) are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system. In the retina, astrocytes play important roles in the development and integrity of the retinal neurovasculature. Astrocytes dysfunction contributes to pathogenesis of a variety of neurovascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have demonstrated the expression of Cyp1b1 in the neurovascular cells of the central nervous system including AC. We recently showed retinal AC constitutively express Cyp1b1, and global Cyp1b1-deficiency (Cyp1b1-/-) attenuates retinal ischemia-mediated neovascularization in vivo and the pro-angiogenic activity of retinal vascular cells in vitro. We also demonstrated that Cyp1b1 expression is a key regulator of retinal AC function. However, the underlying mechanisms involved need further investigation. Here we determined changes in the transcriptome profiles of Cyp1b1+/+ and Cyp1b1-/- retinal AC by RNA sequencing. We identified 585 differentially expressed genes, whose pathway enrichment analysis revealed the most significant pathways impacted in Cyp1b1-/- AC. These genes included those of axon guidance, extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, cancer, cell adhesion molecules, TGF-ß signaling, and the focal adhesion modulation. The expression of a selected set of differentially expressed genes was confirmed by RT-qPCR analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of RNAseq investigation of the retinal AC transcriptome and the molecular pathways impacted by Cyp1b1 expression. These results demonstrated an important role for Cyp1b1 expression in the regulation of various retinal AC functions, which are important in neurovascular development and integrity.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/fisiologia , Adesão Celular/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Retina/fisiologia , Animais , Movimento Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA-Seq , Retina/citologia
2.
Eur J Med Chem ; 193: 112235, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203789

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a promising target for prevention and therapy of cancer, particularly those with drug resistance, stimulating cancer cell survival, and promoting cancer resistance. In view of the extreme complexity and high risk in drug discovery and development, a drug repurposing strategy was applied in the present study to find potential CYP1B1 inhibitors through structure-based virtual screening in the FDA database. Intriguingly, after a thorough assessment of docking scores, binding affinities, as well as binding modes, six compounds were highlighted for further verification. In fact, both carvedilol and indacaterol showed inhibitory activity towards human CYP1B1 with the IC50 of 1.11 µM and 59.52 µM, respectively, according to EROD assay; however, neither docking score nor the detailed binding mode of carvedilol in the hit pose dictated to be a superior CYP1B1 inhibitor to indacaterol, which called for the necessity to re-access the binding mode of carvedilol. Thus, the top two representative docking poses of carvedilol were re-assessed. Indeed, compared to the one hit in the virtual screening (due to a false positive Glide gscore), the other docking pose exhibited ideal performance in both molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, binding free energy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculation evaluations. This identification of the exact binding pose of carvedilol is not only essential for a better understanding of the mechanism underlying its activity, but also contributes to uncovering the structure-activity relationship of CYP1B1 inhibitors. Of note, carvedilol exhibited direct cytotoxicity against both human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A459 and its Taxol-resistant subline (A549/Taxol). In particular, it showed superior toxicity towards A549/Taxol cells that overexpressed CYP1B1, which further supported its potential to be an effective CYP1B1 inhibitor.


Assuntos
Carvedilol/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Carvedilol/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/química , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
3.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(3): 177-186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147640

RESUMO

MECP2 (Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2) has been shown to have a critical role in regulating DNA methylation against smoke exposed lung injury. However, the biological function of MECP2 and the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) and alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) were exposed to increasing concentrations of cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) solution to establish CSE-induced lung epithelial cell injury models. Our findings revealed that MECP2 was down-regulated, while CYP1B1 was up-regulated in CSE-induced lung epithelial cell injury models by quantitative real time PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Down-regulated CYP1B1 was ascribed to the demethylation of its promoter by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The in vitro experiments further showed that MECP2 overexpression significantly attenuated CSE-triggered cell growth attenuation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and ROS generation in lung epithelial cells by CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays. In molecular level, we further demonstrated that MECP2 overexpression obviously suppressed the expression of CYP1B1 through enhancing DNA methylation. Therefore, our data suggest that MECP2 protects against CSE-induced lung epithelial cell injury possibly through down-regulating CYP1B1 expression via elevating its methylation status.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/genética , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Pulmão/citologia , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/química , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
4.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(1): 126-141, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter and hormone with important physiological functions in many organs, including the intestine. We have previously shown that 5-HT activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) via a serotonin transporter (SERT)-dependent mechanism. AhR is a nuclear receptor that binds a variety of molecules including tryptophan (TRP) metabolites to regulate physiological processes in the intestine including xenobiotic detoxification and immune modulation. We hypothesized that 5-HT activates AhR indirectly by interfering with metabolic clearance of AhR ligands by cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). METHODS: Inhibition of CYP1A1 activity by 5-HT was assessed in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 and recombinant CYP1A1 microsomes using both luciferase and LC-MS/MS. Degradation of 5-HT by recombinant CYP1A1 was measured by LC-MS/MS. For in vitro studies, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-PCR and CYP1A1 activity was measured by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assays. For in vivo studies, AhR ligands were administered to SERT KO mice and WT littermates and intestinal mucosa CYP1A1 mRNA was measured. RESULTS: We show that 5-HT inhibits metabolism of both the pro-luciferin CYP1A1 substrate Luc-CEE as well as the high affinity AhR ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ). Recombinant CYP1A1 assays revealed that 5-HT is metabolized by CYP1A1 in an NADPH dependent manner. Treatment with 5-HT in TRP-free medium, which is devoid of trace AhR ligands, showed that 5-HT requires the presence of AhR ligands to activate AhR. Cotreatment with 5-HT and FICZ confirmed that 5-HT potentiates induction of AhR target genes by AhR ligands. However, this was only true for ligands which are CYP1A1 substrates such as FICZ. Administration of ß-napthoflavone by gavage or indole-3-carbinol via diet to SERT KO mice revealed that lack of SERT impairs intestinal AhR activation. CONCLUSION: Our studies provide novel evidence of crosstalk between serotonergic and AhR signaling where 5-HT can influence the ability of AhR ligands to activate the receptor in the intestine.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Serotonina/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/deficiência , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade por Substrato , beta-Naftoflavona/administração & dosagem
5.
Biol Sex Differ ; 11(1): 4, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, we showed that 6ß-hydroxytestosterone (6ß-OHT), a cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1)-derived metabolite of testosterone, contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in male mice. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that 6ß-OHT contributes to increased vascular reactivity, endothelial dysfunction, vascular hypertrophy, and reactive oxygen species production associated with Ang II-induced hypertension. METHODS: Eight- to 10-week-old intact or castrated C57BL/6 J (Cyp1b1+/+ and Cyp1b1-/-) mice were anesthetized for implantation of a micro-osmotic pump which delivered Ang II (700 ng/kg/day) or saline for 14 days. Mice were injected with 6ß-OHT (15 µg/g b.w every third day), flutamide (8 mg/kg every day), or its vehicle. Blood pressure was measured via tail-cuff. Vascular reactivity, endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilation, media to lumen ratio, fibrosis by collagen deposition, and reactive oxygen species production by dihydroethidium staining were determined in the isolated thoracic aorta. RESULTS: The response of thoracic aorta to phenylephrine and endothelin-1 was increased in Ang II-infused Cyp1b1+/+ mice compared to intact Cyp1b1-/- or castrated Cyp1b1+/+ and Cyp1b1-/- mice; these effects of Ang II were restored by treatment with 6ß-OHT. Ang II infusion caused endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by decreased relaxation of the aorta to acetylcholine in Cyp1b1+/+ but not Cyp1b1-/- or castrated Cyp1b1+/+ and Cyp1b1-/- mice. 6ß-OHT did not alter Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction in Cyp1b1+/+ mice but restored it in Cyp1b1-/- or castrated Cyp1b1+/+ and Cyp1b1-/- mice. Ang II infusion increased media to lumen ratio and caused fibrosis and reactive oxygen species production in the aorta of Cyp1b1+/+ mice. These effects were minimized in the aorta of Cyp1b1-/- or castrated Cyp1b1+/+ and Cyp1b1-/- mice and restored by treatment with 6ß-OHT. Treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide reduced blood pressure and vascular hypertrophy in castrated Ang II-infused mice injected with 6ß-OHT. CONCLUSIONS: 6ß-OHT is required for the action of Ang II to increase vascular reactivity and cause endothelial dysfunction, hypertrophy, and increase in oxygen radical production. The effect of 6ß-OHT in mediating Ang II-induced hypertension and associated hypertrophy is dependent on the androgen receptor. Therefore, CYP1B1 could serve as a novel target for the development of therapeutics to treat vascular changes in hypertensive males.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Hidroxitestosteronas/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 189: 112028, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945665

RESUMO

Extrahepatic cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), which is highly expressed in various tumors, is an attractive and potential target for cancer prevention, therapy, and reversal of drug resistance. CYP1B1 inhibition is the current predominant therapeutic paradigm to treating CYP1B1-mediated malignancy, but therapeutic effect has little success. Herein, we reported CYP1B1 degradation in place of CYP1B1 inhibition for reversing drug resistance toward docetaxel in CYP1B1-overexpressing prostate cancer cell line DU145 using a PROTAC strategy. Replacing chlorine atom of a CYP1B1 selective inhibitor we found previously with ethynyl, we got the resulting α-naphthoflavone derivative 5 which kept strong inhibition against CYP1B1 (IC50 = 0.4 ± 0.2 nM) and high selectivity. Coupling of 5 with thalidomide derivatives of varying chain lengths afforded conjugates 6A-Dvia click reaction. In vitro cell-based assay indicated that 6C was more effective in eliminating drug resistance of CYP1B1-overexpressed DU145 cells compared with other analogues. Western blotting analysis showed CYP1B1 degradation was one main reason for the reversal of drug resistance to docetaxel and the effect was obtained in a concentration-dependent manner. This work is the first attempt to overcome CYP1B1-mediated drug resistance via CYP1B1 degradation instead of CYP1B1 inhibition, which could provide a new direction toward eliminating drug resistance.


Assuntos
Benzoflavonas/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/antagonistas & inibidores , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Talidomida/farmacologia , Benzoflavonas/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Proteólise , Talidomida/síntese química
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(6): 893-897, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445863

RESUMO

This study aims to isolate the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic compounds from ginkgo biloba sarcotestas (GBS) and investigates the underlying mechanism in human MDA-MB-231 and mouse 4T-1 triple-negative breast cancer cells. Our results showed that 2-Hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid was isolated by cytotoxicity-guided fractionation where different fractions were assessed using MTT assay against MDA-MB-231 and 4T-1 cells. Colony formation assay showed that 2-Hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid significantly inhibited cell proliferation. The inhibition was associated with the enhancement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and no significant change of CYP1A1 expression by qPCR and Western blot assays in MDA-MB-231 and 4T-1 cells. The mechanism was further demonstrated by the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway with the upregulation of AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and AhR-dependent xenobiotic response elements (XRE) activity. These findings may have implications for development of anticancer agents containing 2-Hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid as functional additives.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginkgo biloba/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
8.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 171: 113733, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783010

RESUMO

Taxol-based chemotherapy is widely used as the first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, the subsequent development of taxol-resistance is a major concern and challenge, resulting in tumor relapse and poor prognosis. Given the complex nature of taxol-resistance, we further delved into its mechanisms and demonstrated that CYP1B1 was associated to taxol response in taxol-resistant A549/Taxol cells. Compared to its parent A549 counterpart, A549/Taxol presented much higher level of CYP1B1, which was paralleled by increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expressions likely due to the long term taxol exposure and thereby allowed a subsequent up-regulation of CYP1B1. Inhibition of CYP1B1 by TMS [(E)-2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene], the specific CYP1B1 inhibitor, remarkably enhanced the sensitivity of A549/Taxol to taxol. Moreover, pre-incubation of taxol with human recombinant CYP1B1 did not affect drug toxicity in A549 cells, precluding the possibility of drug resistance ascribed to CYP1B1 due to directly inactivating taxol. Indeed, CYP1B1 is responsible for bio-transforming estrogen (E2) into the carcinogenetic metabolite that would inhibit microtubule stabilization induced by taxol and thereby compromising treatment efficacy. Remarkably, our data revealed potent CYP1B1 inhibition efficacy of 4-hydroxyemodin (HEM) as reflected by both molecular docking simulations and EROD assay, which posed HEM the advantage of breaking the vicious circle between E2 and CYP1B1, not only favoring to overcome taxol-resistance, but also offering long term benefit via circumventing carcinogenesis and tumor progression induced by E2. In addition to CYP1B1 inhibition, HEM notably inhibited P-gp activity and expression, a common feature of drug resistance, as well as significantly inactivated AKT/ERK pathways that contributed to the cell proliferation, migration, and drug resistance. Thus, HEM may act in concert to overcome taxol-resistance through comprehensive targeting three considered arms of drug-resistance mechanisms. Moreover, HEM profoundly resisted E2-stimulated cell migration in both A549 and A549/Taxol cells, a primary reason for tumor patients' mortality, as well as inflicted selective injury to A549/Taxol cells rather than normal lung cells, supporting HEM to be a promising agent for overcoming taxol-resistance in A549 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Emodina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Emodina/química , Emodina/metabolismo , Emodina/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 187: 111938, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830634

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 1B1(CYP1B1) has been recognized as an important target for cancer prevention and drug resistance reversal. In order to obtain potent and selective CYP1B1 inhibitors, a series of forty-one α-naphthoflavone (ANF) derivatives were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for CYP1B1, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 inhibitory activities. A closure look into the structure-activity relationship for the inhibitory effects on CYP1B1 indicated that modification of the C ring of ANF would decrease the CYP1B1 inhibitory potency, while incorporation of substituent(s) into the different positions of the B ring yielded analogues with varying CYP1B1 inhibitory capacity. Among these derivatives, compounds 9e and 9j were identified as the most potent two selective CYP1B1 inhibitors with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.52 nM, respectively, which were 10-fold more potent than the lead compound ANF. In addition, molecular docking and a reasonable 3D-QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship) study were performed to provide a better understanding of the key structural features influencing the CYP1B1 inhibitory activity. The results achieved in this study would lay a foundation for future development of selective, potent, low-toxic and water-soluble CYP1B1 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Benzoflavonas/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Benzoflavonas/síntese química , Benzoflavonas/química , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 573-583, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852820

RESUMO

Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a leading cause of corneal endothelial (CE) degeneration resulting in impaired visual acuity. It is a genetically complex and age-related disorder, with higher incidence in females. In this study, we established a nongenetic FECD animal model based on the physiologic outcome of CE susceptibility to oxidative stress by demonstrating that corneal exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) recapitulates the morphological and molecular changes of FECD. Targeted irradiation of mouse corneas with UVA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the aqueous humor, and caused greater CE cell loss, including loss of ZO-1 junctional contacts and corneal edema, in female than male mice, characteristic of late-onset FECD. UVA irradiation caused greater mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage in female mice, indicative of the sex-driven differential response of the CE to UVA, thus accounting for more severe phenotype in females. The sex-dependent effect of UVA was driven by the activation of estrogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP1B1 and formation of reactive estrogen metabolites and estrogen-DNA adducts in female but not male mice. Supplementation of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), diminished the morphological and molecular changes induced by UVA in vivo. This study investigates the molecular mechanisms of environmental factors in FECD pathogenesis and demonstrates a strong link between UVA-induced estrogen metabolism and increased susceptibility of females for FECD development.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Adutos de DNA/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/etiologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Animais , Humor Aquoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Humor Aquoso/efeitos da radiação , Adutos de DNA/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Posterior/patologia , Epitélio Posterior/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/administração & dosagem , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/diagnóstico , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/tratamento farmacológico , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775380

RESUMO

Human cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1)-mediated biotransformation of endobiotics and xenobiotics plays an important role in the progression of human breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of WY-14643, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, on CYP1B1 expression and the related mechanism in MCF7 breast cancer cells. We performed quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, transient transfection, and chromatin immunoprecipitation to evaluate the effects of PPARα on peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE)-mediated transcription. WY-14643 increased the protein and mRNA levels of CYP1B1, as well as promoter activity, in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, WY-14643 plus GW6471, a PPARα antagonist, significantly inhibited the WY-14643-mediated increase in CYP1B1 expression. PPARα knockdown by a small interfering RNA markedly suppressed the induction of CYP1B1 expression by WY-14643, suggesting that WY-14643 induces CYP1B1 expression via a PPARα-dependent mechanism. Bioinformatics analysis identified putative PPREs (-833/-813) within the promoter region of the CYP1B1 gene. Inactivation of these putative PPREs by deletion mutagenesis suppressed the WY-14643-mediated induction of CYP1B1 promoter activation. Furthermore, WY-14643 induced PPARα to assume a form capable of binding specifically to the PPRE-binding site in the CYP1B1 promoter. Our findings suggest that WY-14643 induces the expression of CYP1B1 through activation of PPARα.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Proliferadores de Peroxissomos/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , PPAR alfa/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Elementos de Resposta , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 32(11): 2353-2364, 2019 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621310

RESUMO

Many of the protective responses observed for flavonoids in the gastrointestinal track resemble aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated effects. Therefore, we examined the structure-activity relationships of isoflavones and isomeric flavone and flavanones as AhR ligands on the basis of their induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 gene expression in colon cancer Caco2 cells and young adult mouse colonocyte (YAMC) cells. Caco2 cells were significantly more Ah-responsive than YAMC cells, and this was due, in part, to flavonoid-induced cytotoxicity in the latter cell lines. The structure-activity relationships for the flavonoids were complex and both response and cell context specific; however, there was significant variability in the AhR activities of the isomeric substituted isoflavones and flavones. For example, 4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone (genistein) was AhR-inactive whereas 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone (apigenin) induced CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 in Caco2 cells. In contrast, both 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxy substituted isoflavone (biochanin A) and flavone (acacetin) induced all three AhR-responsive genes; 4',5,7-trimethoxyisoflavone was a potent AhR agonist, and the isomeric flavone was AhR-inactive. These results coupled with simulation studies modeling flavonoid interaction within the AhR binding pocket demonstrate that the orientation of the substituted phenyl ring at C-2 (flavones) or C-3 (isoflavones) on the common 4-H-chromen-4-one ring strongly influences the activities of isoflavones and flavones as AhR agonists.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/agonistas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Colo/citologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14812, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616008

RESUMO

Here, we assessed whether 41 SNPs within steroid hormone genes associated with erosive disease. The most relevant finding was the rheumatoid factor (RF)-specific effect of the CYP1B1, CYP2C9, ESR2, FcγR3A, and SHBG SNPs to modulate the risk of bone erosions (P = 0.004, 0.0007, 0.0002, 0.013 and 0.015) that was confirmed through meta-analysis of our data with those from the DREAM registry (P = 0.000081, 0.0022, 0.00074, 0.0067 and 0.0087, respectively). Mechanistically, we also found a gender-specific correlation of the CYP2C9rs1799853T/T genotype with serum vitamin D3 levels (P = 0.00085) and a modest effect on IL1ß levels after stimulation of PBMCs or blood with LPS and PHA (P = 0.0057 and P = 0.0058). An overall haplotype analysis also showed an association of 3 ESR1 haplotypes with a reduced risk of erosive arthritis (P = 0.009, P = 0.002, and P = 0.002). Furthermore, we observed that the ESR2, ESR1 and FcγR3A SNPs influenced the immune response after stimulation of PBMCs or macrophages with LPS or Pam3Cys (P = 0.002, 0.0008, 0.0011 and 1.97•10-7). Finally, we found that a model built with steroid hormone-related SNPs significantly improved the prediction of erosive disease in seropositive patients (PRF+ = 2.46•10-8) whereas no prediction was detected in seronegative patients (PRF- = 0.36). Although the predictive ability of the model was substantially lower in the replication population (PRF+ = 0.014), we could confirm that CYP1B1 and CYP2C9 SNPs help to predict erosive disease in seropositive patients. These results are the first to suggest a RF-specific association of steroid hormone-related polymorphisms with erosive disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Doenças Ósseas/genética , Doenças Ósseas/imunologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/imunologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator Reumatoide/sangue , Fator Reumatoide/imunologia
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1866(12): 118553, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493422

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of 17ß-estradiol (E2) into catechol estrogens, such as 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2). CYP1B1 is related to tumor formation and is over-expressed in a variety of cancer cells. In particular, CYP1B1 is highly expressed in hormone-related cancers such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or prostate cancer compared to other cancers. However, the detailed mechanisms involving this protein remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that CYP1B1 affects X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression. When CYP1B1 was over-expressed in cells, there was significant increase in the XIAP protein level, whereas the XIAP mRNA level was not affected by CYP1B1 expression. Treatment with 4-OHE2, mainly formed by CYP1B1 activity, also increased XIAP protein levels, whereas treatment with 2-OHE2 did not have a significant effect. Treatment with 4-OHE2 significantly prevented proteasome-mediated XIAP degradation. In addition, phosphorylation of XIAP on serine 87, which is known to stabilize XIAP, was up-regulated by 4-OHE2, indicating that 4-OHE2 affects XIAP stability through XIAP phosphorylation. We also found that phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC)ε, which is required for XIAP phosphorylation, increased when cells were treated with 4-OHE2. In summary, our data show that CYP1B1 may play an important role in preventing ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated XIAP degradation through the activation of PKCε signaling in cancer cells.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-épsilon/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fosforilação
15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108816, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505164

RESUMO

Indirubins E804 (indirubin-3'-(2,3 dihydroxypropyl)-oximether) and 7BIO (7-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime) are synthetic derivatives of natural indirubin, the active compound in Danggui Longhui Wan, a traditional Chinese remedy for cancer and inflammation. Herein, we explore E804 and 7BIO for their potential to modulate key pro-inflammatory genes and cytokines in LN-18 and T98G glioblastoma cells. High grade gliomas typically secrete large amounts of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors that promote tumor growth in an autocrine fashion. Inflammation is emerging as a key concern in the success of new treatment modalities for glioblastomas. Studies indicate that select indirubin derivatives bind and activate signaling of the AHR pathway, as well as inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases and STAT3 signaling. AHR signaling is involved in hematopoiesis, immune function, cell cycling, and inflammation, and thus may be a possible target for glioma treatment. To determine the significance of the AHR pathway in LN-18 and T98G glioma inflammatory profiles, and on the effects of E804 and 7BIO on these profiles, we used 6,2',4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF), a putative selective AHR antagonist. It was confirmed that E804 and 7BIO activates the AHR leading to cyp1b1 expression, and that TMF antagonizes expression. We then employed a commercial cancer inflammation and immunity crosstalk qRT-PCR array to screen for anti-inflammatory related properties. TMF alone inhibited expression of ifng, ptsg2, il12b, tnfa, il10, il13, the balance between pd1 and pdl1, and even expression of mhc1a/b. E804 was very potent in suppressing many pro-inflammatory genes, including il1a, il1b, il12a, ptgs2, tlr4, and others. E804 also affected expression of il6, vegfa, and stat3. Conversely, 7BIO induced cox2, but suppressed a different selection of pro-inflammatory genes including nos2, tnfa, and igf1. Secretion of IL-6 protein, an iconic inflammatory cytokine, was decreased by E804. VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) protein secretion was upregulated by 7BIO, yet downregulated by E804 and E804 plus TMF. Thus, E804 is both an AHR ligand and regulator of important pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and oncogene STAT3, among others. Our results point to the use of E804 and TMF in combination as a promising new treatment for glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Indóis/farmacologia , Oximas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Indóis/química , Oximas/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434333

RESUMO

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) can be adaptive, as arising from exercise, or pathological, most commonly when driven by hypertension. The pathophysiology of LVH is consistently associated with an increase in cytochrome P450 (CYP)1B1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and a decrease in sirtuins and mitochondria functioning. Treatment is usually targeted to hypertension management, although it is widely accepted that treatment outcomes could be improved with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy targeted interventions. The current article reviews the wide, but disparate, bodies of data pertaining to LVH pathoetiology and pathophysiology, proposing a significant role for variations in the N-acetylserotonin (NAS)/melatonin ratio within mitochondria in driving the biological underpinnings of LVH. Heightened levels of mitochondria CYP1B1 drive the 'backward' conversion of melatonin to NAS, resulting in a loss of the co-operative interactions of melatonin and sirtuin-3 within mitochondria. NAS activates the brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor, TrkB, leading to raised trophic signalling via cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-response element binding protein (CREB) and the MAPKs, which are significantly increased in LVH. The gut microbiome may be intimately linked to how stress and depression associate with LVH and hypertension, with gut microbiome derived butyrate, and other histone deacetylase inhibitors, significant modulators of the melatonergic pathways and LVH more generally. This provides a model of LVH that has significant treatment and research implications.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Melatonina/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382511

RESUMO

Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is an accumulative protein-bound uremic toxin found in patients with kidney disease. It is reported that IS impairs the vascular endothelium, but a comprehensive overview of all mechanisms active in IS-injury currently remains lacking. Here we performed RNA sequencing in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after IS or control medium treatment and identified 1293 genes that were affected in a IS-induced response. Gene enrichment analysis highlighted pathways involved in altered vascular formation and cell metabolism. We confirmed these transcriptome profiles at the functional level by demonstrating decreased viability and increased cell senescence in response to IS treatment. In line with the additional pathways highlighted by the transcriptome analysis, we further could demonstrate that IS exposure of HUVECs promoted tubule formation as shown by the increase in total tubule length in a 3D HUVECs/pericytes co-culture assay. Notably, the pro-angiogenic response of IS and increased ROS production were abolished when CYP1B1, one of the main target genes that was highly upregulated by IS, was silenced. This observation indicates IS-induced ROS in endothelial cells is CYP1B1-dependent. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that IS promotes angiogenesis and CYP1B1 is an important factor in IS-activated angiogenic response.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Indicã/farmacologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/enzimologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
18.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 335, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chemical carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes as CYP1B1, which is involved in the oncogenic activation of environmental pollutants as well as in the estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism. 3MC was shown to induce estrogenic responses binding to the estrogen receptor (ER) α and stimulating a functional interaction between AHR and ERα. Recently, the G protein estrogen receptor (GPER) has been reported to mediate certain biological responses induced by endogenous estrogens and environmental compounds eliciting an estrogen-like activity. METHODS: Molecular dynamics and docking simulations were performed to evaluate the potential of 3MC to interact with GPER. SkBr3 breast cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) derived from breast tumor patients were used as model system. Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were performed in order to evaluate the activation of transduction mediators as well as the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1B1 and cyclin D1. Co-immunoprecipitation studies were performed in order to explore the potential of 3MC to trigger the association of GPER with AHR and EGFR. Luciferase assays were carried out to determine the activity of CYP1B1 promoter deletion constructs upon 3MC exposure, while the nuclear shuttle of AHR induced by 3MC was assessed through confocal microscopy. Cell proliferation stimulated by 3MC was determined as biological counterpart of the aforementioned experimental assays. The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. RESULTS: We first ascertained by docking simulations the ability of 3MC to interact with GPER. Thereafter, we established that 3MC activates the EGFR/ERK/c-Fos transduction signaling through both AHR and GPER in SkBr3 cells and CAFs. Then, we found that these receptors are involved in the up-regulation of CYP1B1 and cyclin D1 as well as in the stimulation of growth responses induced by 3MC. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study we have provided novel insights regarding the molecular mechanisms by which 3MC may trigger a physical and functional interaction between AHR and GPER, leading to the stimulation of both SkBr3 breast cancer cells and CAFs. Altogether, our results indicate that 3MC may engage both GPER and AHR transduction pathways toward breast cancer progression.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Metilcolantreno/farmacologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metilcolantreno/química , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/química , Receptores Estrogênicos/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373329

RESUMO

E-cigarette aerosol contains lower levels of most known carcinogens than tobacco smoke, but many users of e-cigarettes are also smokers, and these individuals may be vulnerable to possible promoting and/or cocarcinogenic effects of e-cigarettes. We investigated the possibility that a condensate of e-cigarette aerosol (EAC) enhances the metabolism of the tobacco carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), to genotoxic products in a human oral keratinocyte cell line. Cells were pretreated with EAC from two popular e-cigs and then with BaP. Metabolism to its ultimate carcinogenic metabolite, anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro B[a]P (BPDE), was assayed by measuring isomers of its spontaneous hydrolysis products, BaP tetrols. The pretreatment of cells with EAC enhanced the rate of BaP tetrol formation several fold. Pretreatment with the e-liquid resulted in a smaller enhancement. The treatment of cells with EAC induced CYP1A1/1B1 mRNA and protein. The enhancement of BaP tetrol formation was inhibited by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inhibitor, α-napthoflavone, indicating EAC likely induces CYP1A1/1B1 and enhances BaP metabolism by activating the AhR. To our knowledge, this is first report demonstrating that e-cigarettes can potentiate the genotoxic effects of a tobacco smoke carcinogen.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Mutagênicos/efeitos adversos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Humanos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo
20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(13): 4382-4406, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284268

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, affect tubular maladaptive response after Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and accelerate renal aging. Upon ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, Complement activation leads to C5a release that mediates damage; however, little is known about the effect of C5a-C5a Receptor (C5aR) interaction in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells (RTEC).Through a whole-genome DNA methylation analysis in cultured RTEC, we found that C5a induced aberrant methylation, particularly in regions involved in cell cycle control, DNA damage and Wnt signaling. The most represented genes were BCL9, CYP1B1 and CDK6. C5a stimulation of RTEC led to up-regulation of SA-ß Gal and cell cycle arrest markers such as p53 and p21. C5a increased also IL-6, MCP-1 and CTGF gene expression, consistent with SASP development. In accordance, in a swine model of renal I/R injury, we found the increased expression of Wnt4 and ßcatenin correlating with SA-ß Gal, p21, p16 and IL-6 positivity. Administration of Complement Inhibitor (C1-Inh), antagonized SASP by reducing SA-ß Gal, p21, p16, IL-6 and abrogating Wnt4/ßcatenin activation.Thus, C5a affects the DNA methylation of genes involved in tubular senescence. Targeting epigenetic programs and Complement may offer novels strategies to protect tubular cells from accelerated aging and to counteract progression to Chronic Kidney Disease.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Complemento C5a/fisiologia , Metilação de DNA , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Células Cultivadas , Senescência Celular , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
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