Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 506
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799598

RESUMO

We sought to develop a cell-based cytotoxicity assay using human hepatocytes, which reflect the effects of drug-metabolizing enzymes on cytotoxicity. In this study, we generated luminescent human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells using the mouse artificial chromosome vector, in which click beetle luciferase alone or luciferase and major drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) are expressed, and monitored the time-dependent changes of CYP-mediated cytotoxicity expression by bioluminescence measurement. Real-time bioluminescence measurement revealed that compared with CYP-non-expressing cells, the luminescence intensity of CYP-expressing cells rapidly decreased when the cells were treated with low concentrations of aflatoxin B1 or primaquine, which exhibits cytotoxicity in the presence of CYP3A4 or CYP2D6, respectively. Using kinetics data obtained by the real-time bioluminescence measurement, we estimated the time-dependent changes of 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in the aflatoxin B1- and primaquine-treated cell lines. The first IC50 value was detected much earlier and at a lower concentration in primaquine-treated CYP-expressing HepG2 cells than in primaquine-treated CYP-non-expressing cells, and the decrease of IC50 values was much faster in the former than the latter. Thus, we successfully monitored time- and concentration-dependent dynamic changes of CYP-mediated cytotoxicity expression in CYP-expressing luminescent HepG2 cells by means of real-time bioluminescence measurement.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Efeito Fundador , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Primaquina/toxicidade , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo/métodos , Xenobióticos/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Luminescência , Camundongos
2.
Braz Dent J ; 32(1): 3-8, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913999

RESUMO

Saliva is widely used for clinical and laboratory analysis. This study proposed to use DNA extracted from saliva for genotyping and pharmacokinetics of piroxicam. A fast and efficient genotyping method was used to determine relevant allelic variants of CYP2C9 (*2 and *3), since genetic factors can influence in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) metabolization. DNA Extract All Reagents Kit® was used for DNA extraction and genotyping was performed using TaqMan® GTXpress™ Master Mix, SNP genotyping assays and a Viia7 Real-Time PCR system. Volunteers performed sequential collections of saliva samples before and after taking a single dose of piroxicam (0.25 to 72 h) which were used for pharmacokinetics assays. Piroxicam concentrations were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Sixty-six percent of volunteers were ancestral homozygous (CYP2C9*1/*1), and 34% showed one or both polymorphisms. Of these 34%, 22 individuals showed CYP2C9*2 polymorphism, 8 CYP2C9*3, and 4 CYP2C9*2/*3. Piroxicam pharmacokinetics were performed in 5 subjects. Areas under the curve (AUC0-t(h*ng/mL)) for CYP2C9*1/*1, *1/*2 and *1/*3 were, respectively, 194.33±70.93, 166 and 303. Maximum concentrations (Cmax(ng/mL)) for these genotypes were respectively 6.46±2.56, 4.3 and 10.2. Saliva sampling was a very effective matrix for both pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic tests, ensuring the speed of the procedure and the well-being and agreement of the participants. Once having the knowledge about the slow and fast metabolizers, it is possible to make an adequate prescription in order to avoid the adverse effects of the medication and to guarantee greater analgesic comfort to the patients respectively.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética , Saliva , Cromatografia Líquida , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24545, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725937

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to assess the allelic variations of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19), Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), and Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) as they play a major role in drug metabolism. The interindividual genetic variabilities of these enzymes can account for different responsiveness as well as concentration fluctuations for a particular drug.During the period of 2017 to 2018 a total of 54 patients have received pharmacogenetic testing at the Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine at Kaunas Clinics. According to the genotype-metabolic phenotypes of CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2C9 enzymes patients were classified according to the guidelines by Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC): normal metabolizers (NMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), rapid metabolizers (RMs), ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs), and poor metabolizers (PMs).CYP2C19 enzyme allelic distribution: 18 patients (33.33%) with ∗1/∗1 genotype were NMs; 14 patients (25.93%) with ∗1/∗2; ∗2/∗17 genotypes were classified as IMs; 15 patients (27.78%) possessed ∗1/∗17 genotype and were RMs; 4 patients (7.4%) had ∗17/∗17 genotype with increased enzyme activity compared with RMs, were classified as UMs; 3 patients (5.56%) had ∗2/∗2 genotype and were marked as PMs. CYP2D6 enzyme allelic distribution: 26 patients (48.148%) contained ∗1/∗1,∗2/∗2,∗1/∗2,∗1/∗41,∗2/∗41 genotypes with normal enzymatic function so were accounted as NMs; 21 patients (38.89%) with ∗1/∗5, ∗2/∗4, ∗10/∗41, ∗1/∗4, ∗1/∗3, ∗2/∗5, ∗2/∗4, ∗2/∗6 genotypes were accounted as IMs; 2 patients (3.7%) possessed ∗2XN genotype and were accounted as UMs and 5 patients (9.26%) possessed ∗4/∗5,∗4/∗10,∗4/∗9,∗4/∗41 genotypes and had non-functional enzymatic activity so were accounted as PMs; CYP2C9 enzyme allelic distribution: 44 patients (81.48%) with∗1/∗1 genotype were NMs; 10 patients (18.52%) with ∗1/∗2;∗1/∗3 genotypes were IMs.The results of our study indicate that deviations from the normal enzymatic activity is common amongst Lithuanian people and combinatory genotyping of CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 has to be promoted as an advanced method because of most commonly prescribed medicines like analgesics, antihypertensive, antidepressants are metabolized by multiple pathways involving enzymes in the CYP450 family.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Variantes Farmacogenômicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lituânia , Fígado/enzimologia , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 343: 28-33, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652071

RESUMO

Carfentanil is an ultra-potent opioid with an analgesic potency 10,000 times that of morphine but has received little scientific investigation. In the present study, the human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes catalyzing the oxidative metabolism of carfentanil were investigated. Using UHPLC-HRMS, Michaelis-Menten kinetics of formation for three major metabolites norcarfentanil (M1), pharmaceutical active metabolite 4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-1-(2-hydroxyl-2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinecarboxylic acid methyl ester (M11), and 4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-1-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinecarboxylic acid methyl ester (M15) were determined. Isozymes catalyzing the formation of the low abundant, highly active metabolite 1-[2-(2-hydroxylphenyl)ethyl]-4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-4-piperidinecarboxylic acid methyl ester (M13) were also identified. Selective P450 inhibition studies with pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP isozymes suggested that metabolites M1, M11, and M15 were predominantly formed by isozyme CYP3A5, followed by CYP3A4. Isozymes CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 also made contributions but to a much lesser extent. Highly potent metabolite M13 was predominantly formed by isozyme CYP2C9, followed by CYP2C8. These findings indicate that CYP3A5, CYP3A4, CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 play a major role in the transformation of carfentanil to M1 (norcarfentanil), M11, M13 and M15 through N-dealkylation of piperidine ring, hydroxylation of phenethyl group and ketone formation on phenethyl linker by human liver micrsomes.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Fentanila/química , Fentanila/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução
5.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(1): 129-133, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474902

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effect of cytochrome P-4504F2 ( CYP4 F2) gene polymorphism on the initial dose of warfarin in patients after mechanical heart valve replacement. Methods: We collected 350 patients receiving warfarin after mechanical heart valve replacement from January 2013 to December 2015 in our hospital. According to the international standardized ratio (INR) ≥2 at the initial stage after surgery, the patients were divided into two groups: INR≥2 group and INR<2 group. We selected the blood samples of all the 350 patients with testing the CYP4 F2 gene type of each patient, and analyzed the effect of CYP4 F2 gene polymorphism on the initial dose of warfarin after mechanical heart valve replacement (the average daily dose during hospitalization of patients 5-10 days after mechanical heart valve replacement). Results: There was no statistical significance in the initial dose of warfarin among patients with different CYP4 F2 genotypes. However, warfarin dose was higher in CYP4 F2 TT genotype than in CYP4 F2 CC carriers ((3.37±0.68) mg vs. (2.94±0.74) mg, P<0.05) in INR≥2 group; In patients with the same genotype, the initial dose of warfarin in the CYP4 F2 CC ((4.02±0.58) mg vs. (2.94±0.74) mg) and CYP4 F2 CT genotypes ((4.15±0.88) mg vs. (3.18±0.82) mg) of INR<2 group was higher than that in INR≥2 group ( P<0.05). Gender, age, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation), cytopigment P-450 2C9 ( CYP2 C9), CYP4 F2 and vitamin K peroxide-reductase complex 1 ( VKORC1) gene polymorphism and INR compliance were included in multiple linear regression analysis. The regression equation was as follows: warfarin initial dose (mg) =-8.634+0.352×BMI (kg/m 2) +1.102× CYP4 F2 genotype (CC or CT values 1, TT values 2) +2.147× VKORC1 (AA or AG values 1, GG values 2) +1.325×INR ( INR≥2 values 0, INR<2 values 1). The coefficient of determination ( R 2) of regression equation was 0.431 ( P<0.05). Conclusion: CYP4 F2 gene polymorphism may affect the initial dose of warfarin in patients after heart valve replacement, and this effect is also affected by body characteristics and other factors.


Assuntos
Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases , Varfarina , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Genótipo , Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Polimorfismo Genético , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e22987, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181661

RESUMO

To investigate the frequency and degree of azole antifungal agents that influence the anticoagulant activity of warfarin to reduce the potential bleeding risk and provide a reference for rational administration of warfarin in clinics.Patients with an abnormal international normalized ratio (INR; INR ≥ 4.5) and treated with warfarin plus azole antifungal agents were screened from February 2011 to July 2016, and their data were extracted.Thirty-two patients treated with warfarin plus azole antifungal agents were included. The INR of all the included patients increased by more than 20% of the INR of warfarin alone, and the warfarin sensitivity index showed an upward trend. The INRs of 21 patients treated with fluconazole (FLCZ) and warfarin was closely monitored for 1 week after the combination treatment, and the interaction between warfarin and the azole antifungal agents peaked on the seventh day. The INRs when warfarin was coadministered with azoles (Y) correlated significantly with those in the absence of azoles (X): FLCZ: Y = 1.2515X + 2.1538, R = 0.8128; and voriconazole Y = 2.4144 X + 2.6216, R2 = 0.7828.The combination of FLCZ and voriconazole will enhance the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Therefore, it is recommended to detect the genotype of CYP2C9 in patients and evaluate the interaction between the 2 drugs to adjust the warfarin dose. It is also recommended to closely monitor INR within 1 week of the addition of azole antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Azóis/farmacologia , Varfarina/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(5): 529-539, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938720

RESUMO

The human CYP2C9 plays a crucial role in the metabolic clearance of a wide range of clinical therapeutics. The *2 allele is a prevalent genetic variation in CYP2C9 that is found in various populations. A marked reduction of catalytic activity toward many important drug substrates has been demonstrated by CYP2C9*2, which represents an amino acid variation at position 144 from arginine to cysteine. The crystal structure of CYP2C9*2 in complex with an antihypertensive drug losartan was solved using X-ray crystallography at 3.1-Å resolution. The Arg144Cys variation in the *2 complex disrupts the hydrogen-bonding interactions that were observed between the side chain of arginine and neighboring residues in the losartan complex of CYP2C9 and the wild-type (WT) ligand-free structure. The conformation of several secondary structural elements is affected, thereby altering the binding and orientation of drug and important amino acid side chains in the distal active site cavity. The new structure revealed distinct interactions of losartan in the compact active site of CYP2C9*2 and differed in occupancy at the other binding sites previously identified in the WT-losartan complex. Furthermore, the binding studies in solution using losartan illustrated lower activity of the CYP2C9*2 compared with the WT. Together, the findings yield valuable insights into the decreased hydroxylation activity of losartan in patients carrying CYP2C9*2 allele and provide a useful framework to investigate the effect of a single-nucleotide polymorphism that leads to altered metabolism of diverse drug substrates. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The *2 allele of the human drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP2C9 is found in different populations and results in significantly reduced activity toward various drug substrates. How the CYP2C9*2 variant induces altered drug metabolism is poorly understood given that the Arg144Cys variation is located far away from the active site. This work yield insight into the effect of distal variation using multitude of techniques that include X-ray crystallography, isothermal titration calorimetry, enzymatic characterization, and computational studies.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Losartan/química , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Alelos , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Humanos
8.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3265, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to verify the existence of elements that justify the use of pharmacogenetics by the Brazilian nurse. METHOD: this is a quantitative, cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study, whose final sample was 67 individuals. The participants were healthy at the time of the study and reported a history of previous use and the occurrence of adverse effects by drugs commonly used and metabolized by CYP2C9. We collected 4 mL of venous blood for subsequent DNA extraction by salting out method and genotyping of the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms, using Polymerase Chain Reaction in real time using Taqman assays. RESULTS: the use of drugs metabolized by CYP2C9 was frequent (more than 75% of the individuals have already used between 2 or 4 of these drugs). Regarding adverse events, there were 19 perceived symptomatic occurrences associated with drugs metabolized by CYP2C9. The allele frequency of the polymorphism * 2 and * 3 in the population studied was 11.1% and 7.5%, respectively, and there was a coincidence between the presence of alleles of low enzyme activity and the occurrence of adverse effects. CONCLUSION: there are elements that justify the adoption of pharmacogenetics in the nursing care to reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions to drugs metabolized by CYP2C9.


Assuntos
Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases , Farmacogenética , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Empoderamento , Humanos
9.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 241-248, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606720

RESUMO

Aim: Type 2 diabetes (T2D), as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is predicted to have a prevalence of 629 million by 2045. As diabetic patients show considerable inter-individual variation in response to antidiabetic treatment, this study aimed to investigate the gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 as well as the effectiveness and safety of glibenclamide and gliclazide for different genotypes of CYP2C9. Besides, the chronic side effects of T2D including retinal microvasculature complications or retinopathy and renal dysfunction due to nephropathy in different genotypes were considered. Patients and Methods: The participants including 80 T2D patients treated with glibenclamide or gliclazide were recruited from university hospitals of Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, in the southwest of Iran. Blood samples were collected from the patients at 2.5h after the morning dose of glibenclamide and 12h after the last dose of gliclazide. Genotyping from the extracted DNA was, then, performed using PCR-RFLP. The plasma level of glibenclamide and gliclazide was, in turn, measured by the reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results: The results showed that the wild-type allele, i.e., CYP2C9*1, occurred in the highest frequency (0.8), while the frequency rates of the mutant allele, i.e., CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, were 0.15 and 0.05, respectively. Moreover, no significant association was found between any of the genotypes as well as the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the patients. The findings also showed that the plasma level of sulfonylureas (i.e., glibenclamide and gliclazide) was the highest in the patients with the CYP2C9*3 allele. It was also found that 75.9% of the patients with variant genotypes had experienced hypoglycemia events. Furthermore, in the absence of wild type allele, a significant increase was observed in retinopathy (p=0.039) and nephropathy (p=0.05). Conclusion: The findings can provide guidelines for the optimal management of the treatment protocols with sulfonylurea intended to control the T2D complications.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Gliclazida/uso terapêutico , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Gliclazida/efeitos adversos , Gliclazida/sangue , Glibureto/efeitos adversos , Glibureto/sangue , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/genética , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Pediatr ; 222: 213-220.e5, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether variants in ADRB1 and CYP2C9 genes identify subgroups of individuals with differential response to treatment for Marfan syndrome through analysis of data from a large, randomized trial. STUDY DESIGN: In a subset of 250 white, non-Hispanic participants with Marfan syndrome in a prior randomized trial of atenolol vs losartan, the common variants rs1801252 and rs1801253 in ADRB1 and rs1799853 and rs1057910 in CYP2C9 were analyzed. The primary outcome was baseline-adjusted annual rate of change in the maximum aortic root diameter z-score over 3 years, assessed using mixed effects models. RESULTS: Among 122 atenolol-assigned participants, the 70 with rs1801253 CC genotype had greater rate of improvement in aortic root z-score compared with 52 participants with CG or GG genotypes (Time × Genotype interaction P = .005, mean annual z-score change ± SE -0.20 ± 0.03 vs -0.09 ± 0.03). Among participants with the CC genotype in both treatment arms, those assigned to atenolol had greater rate of improvement compared with the 71 of the 121 assigned to losartan (interaction P = .002; -0.20 ± 0.02 vs -0.07 ± 0.02; P < .001). There were no differences in atenolol response by rs1801252 genotype or in losartan response by CYP2C9 metabolizer status. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, ADRB1-rs1801253 was associated with atenolol response in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome. If these findings are confirmed in future studies, ADRB1 genotyping has the potential to guide therapy by identifying those who are likely to have greater therapeutic response to atenolol than losartan.


Assuntos
Atenolol/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Marfan/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/genética , Adolescente , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/biossíntese , DNA/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Síndrome de Marfan/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/biossíntese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109168, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531309

RESUMO

Warfarin is the most commonly used anticoagulant in the clinical treatment of thromboembolic diseases. The dose of warfarin varies significantly within populations, and the dose is closely related to the genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. In this study, a new CYP2C9 nonsynonymous mutation (8576C > T) was detected after the genetic screening of 162 patients took warfarin. This mutation, named as the new allele CYP2C9*62, can result in an arginine to cysteine amino acid substitution at position 125 of the CYP2C9 protein (R125C). When expressed in insect cells, the protein expression of CYP2C9.62 was significantly lower than that of the wild-type, and its metabolic activity was also significantly decreased after the addition of three typical CYP2C9 probe drugs, suggesting that the new mutant can dramatically affect the metabolism of CYP2C9 drugs in vitro.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Mutação Puntual , Polimorfismo Genético , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Humanos , Cinética , Losartan/metabolismo , Masculino , Microssomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Spodoptera/genética , Tolbutamida/metabolismo , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/metabolismo , Varfarina/farmacologia
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104901, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Polymorphisms in the CYP2C9 gene may be associated with adverse vascular events following endovascular procedures independent of antiplatelet therapy. We aimed to investigate the impact of CYP2C9 loss-of-function polymorphisms on adverse vascular events following neurointervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing neurointervention were prospectively recruited between 2010 and 2016. Patients were genotyped for the CYP2C9*2 and *3 loss-of-function polymorphisms. On the basis of possible genetic influence on antiplatelet response, ex vivo clopidogrel response was measured using the VerifyNow® P2Y12 Assay. The primary endpoint was the 90-day incidence of adverse vascular events including ischemic stroke. RESULTS: A total of 229 patients were included. The median age was 57 years (IQR: 49-64), and 158 (69.00%) were female. Eighty-one (35.37%) patients carried at least one CYP2C9 loss-of-function (LOF) allele. After adjustment for stroke risk factors, the 90-day incidence of ischemic stroke was significantly lower in the LOF group compared to the wild type group (1.23% vs 10.14%; ORadj = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.03-0.91; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest protection against ischemic stroke in carriers of CYP2C9*2 or *3 polymorphisms undergoing neurointervention. Our findings warrant further studies to investigate the mechanisms by which CYP2C9 may influence the risk of ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/terapia , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Clopidogrel/farmacocinética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacocinética , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Queensland , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitória
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428022

RESUMO

Oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy has been the main treatment approach for stroke prevention for decades. Warfarin is the most widely prescribed OAC in the United States, but is difficult to manage due to variability in dose requirements across individuals. Pharmacogenomics may mitigate risk concerns related to warfarin use by fostering the opportunity to facilitate individualized medicine approaches to warfarin treatment (e.g., genome-guided dosing). While various economic evaluations exist examining the cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics testing for warfarin, few observational studies exist to support these studies, with even fewer using genotype as the main exposure of interest. We examined a cohort of individuals initiating warfarin therapy between 2004 and 2017 and examined bleeding and cost outcomes for the year following initiation using Mayo Clinic's billing and administrative data, as well the Mayo Clinic Rochester Cost Data Warehouse. Analyses included descriptive summaries, comparison of characteristics across exposure groups, reporting of crude outcomes, and multivariate analyses. We included N = 1,143 patients for analyses. Just over a third of our study population (34.9%) carried a warfarin-sensitive phenotype. Sensitive individuals differed in their baseline characteristics by being of older age and having a higher number of comorbid conditions; myocardial infarction, diabetes, and cancer in particular. The occurrence of bleeding events was not significantly different across exposure groups. No significant differences across exposure groups existed in either the likelihood of incurring all-cause healthcare costs or in the magnitude of those costs. Warfarin-sensitive individuals were no more likely to utilize cardiovascular-related healthcare services; however, they had lower total and inpatient cardiovascular-related costs compared to warfarin-insensitive patients. No significant differences existed in any other categories of costs. We found limited evidence that warfarin-sensitive individuals have different healthcare spending than warfarin-insensitive individuals. Additional real-world studies are needed to support the traditional economic evaluations currently existing in the literature.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética/métodos , Varfarina/economia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/análise , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Genômica , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Varfarina/metabolismo
14.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 374(2): 233-240, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423989

RESUMO

CYP2C9 is a major form of human liver cytochrome P450 that is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of several widely used low-therapeutic index drugs, including (S)-warfarin and phenytoin. In a cohort of Alaska Native people, ultrarare or novel CYP2C9 protein variants, M1L (rs114071557), N218I (rs780801862), and P279T (rs182132442, CYP2C9*29), are expressed with higher frequencies than the well characterized CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles. We report here on their relative expression in lentivirus-infected HepG2 cells and the functional characterization of purified reconstituted enzyme variants expressed in Escherichia coli toward (S)-warfarin, phenytoin, flurbiprofen, and (S)-naproxen. In the infected HepG2 cells, robust mRNA and protein expression were obtained for wild-type, N218I, and P279T variants, but as expected, the M1L variant protein was not translated in this liver-derived cell line. His-tagged wild-type protein and the N218I and P279T variants, but not M1L, expressed well in E. coli and were highly purified after affinity chromatography. Upon reconstitution with cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and cytochrome b5, the N218I and P279T protein variants metabolized (S)-warfarin, phenytoin, flurbiprofen, and (S)-naproxen to the expected monohydroxylated or O-demethylated metabolites. Steady-state kinetic analyses revealed that the relative catalytic efficiency ratios of (S)-warfarin metabolism by the P279T and N218I variants were 87% and 24%, respectively, of wild-type CYP2C9 protein. A similar rank ordering was observed for metabolism of phenytoin, flurbiprofen, and (S)-naproxen. We conclude that carriers of the variant N218I and, especially, the M1L alleles would be at risk of exacerbated therapeutic effects from drugs that rely on CYP2C9 for their metabolic clearance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Novel gene variants of CYP2C9-M1L, and N218I, along with P279T (CYP2C9*29)-are expressed in Alaska Native people at relatively high frequencies. In vitro characterization of their functional effects revealed that each variant confers reduced catalytic efficiency toward several substrates, including the low-therapeutic index drugs (S)-warfarin and phenytoin. These data provide the first functional information for new, common CYP2C9 variants in this understudied population. The data may help guide dose adjustments in allele carriers, thus mitigating potential healthcare disparities.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Povos Indígenas/genética , Alaska/etnologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteólise , Tripsina/metabolismo
15.
Gene ; 746: 144659, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276000

RESUMO

The genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 (CYPs)drug-metabolizing enzymes are well studied in human populations for drug safety and efficacy. CYP2C9 is a highly polymorphic CYP enzyme that oxidizing the indigenous compounds and xenobiotics. The present study was pursued to evaluate the genetic variation across the CYP2C9 gene among major groups of the Pakistani population. The CYP2C9 genomic region holding important warfarin drug-metabolizing SNPs was sequenced from 159 individuals belong from five major ethnic groups of Pakistani population. The population genetic analyses of the high-quality sequences data was performed using Arlequin v3.5, DnaSP v6.12 and Network 5 resources. The data analyses unveiled that genetic variance among samples mainly arose from population-scale differentiation among these ethnic groups with global Fst of 0.78, P-value < 0.0001. The highest pairwise population genetic variation observed between Saraiki and Baloch groups based on different statistical tests. Whereas, uniform genetic composition across CYP2C9 loci was inferred among Punjabi, Pathan and Sindhi groups with minimal genetic differentiation. Several SNPs, including the previously reported warfarin associated variants, i.e. rs2860905, rs1799853 (CYP2C9*2) and rs72558189 (CYP2C9*14) were detected in these population groups with diverse allelic frequencies. Besides, a novel intronic SNP, i.e. not available in dbSNP and Ensemble databases, was identified for a Sindhi individual sample. This novel SNP predicted to influence the CYP2C9 alternative transcript splicing. The pharmacogeneticsassessment of the CYP2C9 genetic variations identified in current study may important to test against the warfarin efficacy for different ethnicity of Pakistani population.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/etnologia , Varfarina/farmacocinética , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
16.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 401-404, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of five warfarin-dosing algorithms and warfarin stable dose model (2.5 mg/day) for Shandong population. METHODS: One hundred and twenty five patients who achieved stable warfarin dose were enrolled. Clinical and genetic data were used to evaluate the value of each algorithm by calculating the percentage of patients whose predicted warfarin dose was within 20% of the actual stable therapeutic dose and mean absolute error (MAE). RESULTS: The frequency of patients with CYP2C9*1/*1, CYP2C9*1/*3 and CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was 92.00%, 7.20%, 0.80%, respectively. That of VKORC1-1639 AA, AG and GG genotype was 82.40%, 15.20%, 2.40%, respectively. CYP4F2*1/*1, *1/*3, *3/*3 genotype was 50.40%, 39.20%, 10.40%, respectively. With the same genotypes for other loci, patients who carried at least one VKORC1-16398G mutant allele had increased warfarin stable daily dose compared with VKORC1-1639AA. Compared with CYP4F2*1/*1, those carrying at least one CYP4F2*3 mutant allele had warfarin stable daily dose increased by 5.9%-13.00%. The percentage of ideal prediction calculated from IWPC model (59.20%), Huang model (57.60%) and Ohno model (52.80%) were higher than others. The MAE were 0.35 (95%CI: 0.11-0.49), 0.15 (95%CI: 0.10-0.32), 0.39 (95%CI: 0.12-0.51), respectively. CONCLUSION: The polymorphisms of CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 genes can influence the stable dose of warfarin in Shandong population. IWPC algorithm is suitable for guiding the use of warfarin in this population.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Família 4 do Citocromo P450/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Polimorfismo Genético , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2806, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071341

RESUMO

Acenocoumarol is an oral anticoagulant with significant interindividual dose variations. Variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 have been associated with acenocoumarol maintenance dose. We analysed whether any of the 49 polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 previously associated with acenocoumarol maintenance dose in a Genome-Wide Association study (GWAs) in Dutch population are associated with stroke recurrence, intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and acenocoumarol maintenance dose in a Spanish population. We performed a GWAs using Human Core Exome-chip (Illumina) in 78 patients stroke patients treated with acenocoumarol for secondary prevention enrolled as part of the prospective investigator-initiated study (IIS) SEDMAN Study. Patients were followed-up a median of 12.8 months. Three and eight patients had recurrent stroke and ICH events, respectively. We found 14 of the 49 published variants associated with acenocoumarol maintenance dose (p < 0.05). Six polymorphisms were associated with stroke recurrence and four variants with ICH (p < 0.05). In conclusion, variants in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are associated with acenocoumarol maintenance dose, stroke recurrence and ICH in a Spanish cohort. These results highlight the relevance of studying pharmacogenetics associated with efficacy and safety of anticoagulant drugs and justify studies with larger sample size and different ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Acenocumarol , Anticoagulantes , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Acenocumarol/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacogenética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
18.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 16(1): 1-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914334

RESUMO

Background: Warfarin acts in heart valve replacement patients to minimize thromboembolic complications. We investigated whether patients can be distinguished based on their genotypes to efficiently and safely administer warfarin therapy after heart valve replacements.Research design and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients with warfarin therapy who underwent elective heart valve replacements between January 2013 and September 2018. The patients were divided into normal, sensitive, and highly sensitive bins based on their CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. The primary endpoints were over-anticoagulation and overt bleeding.Results: 375 patients were enrolled, with 65 classified as normal, 281 as sensitive, and 29 as highly sensitive responders. Compared with normal responders, sensitive and highly sensitive responders spent more time on over-anticoagulation in the first 28 (P < 0.001) and 90 (P = 0.001) days; experienced more frequent bleeding events in the first 28 days (P = 0.029; OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.15-4.13); required lower warfarin doses to obtain stable INR (P < 0.001); had higher warfarin sensitivity indices (P < 0.001).Conclusion: Predicting evidence have been obtained with CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes in identifying heart valve replacement patients with higher efficient sensitivity and with a higher risk of bleeding and over-anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Genótipo , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/genética , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
19.
Value Health ; 23(1): 61-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multigene testing (CYP2C19, SLCO1B1, CYP2C9, VKORC1) compared with single-gene testing (CYP2C19) and standard of care (no genotyping) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from Medicare's perspective. METHODS: A hybrid decision tree/Markov model was developed to simulate patients post-PCI for ACS requiring antiplatelet therapy (CYP2C19 to guide antiplatelet selection), statin therapy (SLCO1B1 to guide statin selection), and anticoagulant therapy in those that develop atrial fibrillation (CYP2C9/VKORC1 to guide warfarin dose) over 12 months, 24 months, and lifetime. The primary outcome was cost (2016 US dollar) per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% per year. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) varied input parameters (event probabilities, prescription costs, event costs, health-state utilities) to estimate changes in the cost per QALY gained. RESULTS: Base-case-discounted results indicated that the cost per QALY gained was $59 876, $33 512, and $3780 at 12 months, 24 months, and lifetime, respectively, for multigene testing compared with standard of care. Single-gene testing was dominated by multigene testing at all time horizons. PSA-discounted results indicated that, at the $50 000/QALY gained willingness-to-pay threshold, multigene testing had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in the majority of simulations at 24 months (61%) and over the lifetime (81%). CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of projected simulations, multigene testing for Medicare patients post-PCI for ACS has a higher probability of being cost-effective over 24 months and the lifetime compared with single-gene testing and standard of care and could help optimize medication prescribing to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/economia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Anticoagulantes/economia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Custos de Medicamentos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/economia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/economia , Testes Farmacogenômicos/economia , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/economia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/genética , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Medicare/economia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Medicina de Precisão/economia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética
20.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 171: 113725, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758923

RESUMO

In conditions of acute and chronic inflammation hepatic detoxification capacity is severely impaired due to coordinated downregulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Using global transcriptome analysis of liver tissue from donors with pathologically elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), we observed comparable extent of positive and negative acute phase response, where the top upregulated gene sets included immune response and defense pathways while downregulation occurred mostly in metabolic and catabolic pathways including many important drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNA), which usually act as negative regulators of gene expression, contribute to this process. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses identified differentially expressed miRNAs in liver tissues from donors with elevated CRP, cholestasis, steatosis, or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Using luciferase reporter constructs harboring native and mutated 3'-untranslated gene regions, several predicted miRNA binding sites on RXRα (miR-130b-3p), CYP2C8 (miR-452-5p), CYP2C9 (miR-155-5p), CYP2C19 (miR-155-5p, miR-6807-5p), and CYP3A4 (miR-224-5p) were validated. HepaRG cells transfected with miRNA mimics showed coordinate reductions in mRNA levels and several cytochrome P450 enzyme activities particularly for miR-155-5p, miR-452-5p, and miR-6807-5p, the only miRNA that was deregulated in all four pathological conditions. Furthermore we observed strong negative correlations between liver tissue miRNA levels and hepatic CYP phenotypes. Since miR-155 is well known for its multifunctional roles in immunity, inflammation, and cancer, our data suggest that this and other miRNAs contribute to coordinated downregulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Inflamação/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica , Inflamação/enzimologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...