Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.664
Filtrar
1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 14(2): 445-452, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622944

RESUMO

Multiheme cytochromes (MHCs) have attracted much interest for use in nanobioelectronic junctions due to their high electronic conductances. Recent measurements on dry MHC junctions suggested that a coherent tunneling mechanism is operative over surprisingly long long distances (>3 nm), which challenges our understanding of coherent transport phenomena. Here we show that this is due to (i) a low exponential distance decay constant for coherent conduction in MHCs (ß = 0.2 Å-1) and (ii) a large density of protein electronic states which prolongs the coherent tunneling regime to distances that exceed those in molecular wires made of small molecules. Incoherent hopping conduction is uncompetitive due to the large energy level offset at the protein-electrode interface. Removing this offset, e.g., by gating, we predict that the transport mechanism crosses over from coherent tunneling to incoherent hopping at a protein size of ∼7 nm, thus enabling transport on the micrometer scale with a shallow polynomial (∼1/r) distance decay.


Assuntos
Citocromos , Transporte de Elétrons
2.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 192: 110551, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508960

RESUMO

Shewanella sp. RCRI7 is a native strain capable of reducing uranium in anaerobic conditions. In order to employ this bacterium for the bioremediation, the mutual effects of uranium and the bacteria are studied in two different approaches. The optimal settings for the bacterial proliferation capacity and uranium reduction without anaerobicization of the environment, as well as the related effects of bioremediation and bacterial color under uranium-reducing conditions, have been investigated in this study. Uranium reduction procedure was analyzed using XRD, spectrophotometry and ICP-AES. In addition, the uranium's effect on the population of the first-generation of the bacteria as well as the color and growth of the second-generation were investigated using neobar lam and CFU (Colony Forming Unit), respectively. Uranium toxicity reduced the population of non-anaerobicized bacteria more than the anaerobicized bacteria after one day of incubation, while the amount of uranium extracted by the bacteria was almost the same. In both situations, the bacteria were able to reduce uranium after two weeks of incubation. In addition to the cell counts, uranium toxicity disrupts the growth and development of healthy second-generation anaerobicized bacteria, as created creamy-colored colonies grow slower than red-colored colonies. Furthermore, due to malfunctioning cytochromes, unlike red bacteria, creamy-colored bacteria were unable to extract the optimum amount of uranium. This study reveals that reduced uranium can be produced in a deprived environment without anaerobicization. Creamy-colored Shewanella can remove soluble uranium, however the most effective bacteria have red cytochromes. These findings represent a big step forward in the industrialization of uranium bioremediation.


Assuntos
Shewanella , Urânio , Urânio/análise , Oxirredução , Citocromos , Biodegradação Ambiental
3.
J Bacteriol ; 205(1): e0038922, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36475831

RESUMO

Bacteroides species can use fumarate and oxygen as terminal electron acceptors during cellular respiration. In the human gut, oxygen diffuses from intestinal epithelial cells supplying "nanaerobic" oxygen levels. Many components of the anaerobic respiratory pathway have been determined, but such analyses have not been performed for nanaerobic respiration. Here, we present genetic, biochemical, enzymatic, and mass spectrometry analyses to elucidate the nanaerobic respiratory pathway in Bacteroides fragilis. Under anaerobic conditions, the transfer of electrons from NADH to the quinone pool has been shown to be contributed by two enzymes, NQR and NDH2. We find that the activity contributed by each under nanaerobic conditions is 77 and 23%, respectively, similar to the activity levels under anaerobic conditions. Using mass spectrometry, we show that the quinone pool also does not differ under these two conditions and consists of a mixture of menaquinone-8 to menaquinone-11, with menaquinone-10 predominant under both conditions. Analysis of fumarate reductase showed that it is synthesized and active under anaerobic and nanaerobic conditions. Previous RNA sequencing data and new transcription reporter assays show that expression of the cytochrome bd oxidase gene does not change under these conditions. Under nanaerobic conditions, we find both increased CydA protein and increased cytochrome bd activity. Reduced-minus-oxidized spectra of membranes showed the presence of heme d when the bacteria were grown in the presence of protoporphyrin IX and iron under both anaerobic and nanaerobic conditions, suggesting that the active oxidase can be assembled with or without oxygen. IMPORTANCE By performing a comprehensive analysis of nanaerobic respiration in Bacteroides fragilis, we show that this organism maintains capabilities for anaerobic respiration on fumarate and nanaerobic respiration on oxygen simultaneously. The contribution of the two NADH:quinone oxidoreductases and the composition of the quinone pool are the same under both conditions. Fumarate reductase and cytochrome bd are both present, and which of these terminal enzymes is active in electron transfer depends on the availability of the final electron acceptor: fumarate or oxygen. The synthesis of cytochrome bd and fumarate reductase under both conditions serves as an adaptation to an environment with low oxygen concentrations so that the bacteria can maximize energy conservation during fluctuating environmental conditions or occupation of different spatial niches.


Assuntos
Bacteroides fragilis , Succinato Desidrogenase , Humanos , Bacteroides fragilis/genética , Bacteroides fragilis/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2 , NAD/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Citocromos/metabolismo , Quinonas/metabolismo , Respiração , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fumaratos/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(50): 15615-15630, 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36480156

RESUMO

ß-Methoxyacrylate derivatives represent a new class of pesticides, which have attracted increasing attention owing to their unique structure, broad biological activity, and unique mechanisms of action. They inhibit mitochondrial respiration via preventing electron transfer at the Qo site of the cytochrome bc1 complex and thus are identified as cyt bc1 inhibitors. A variety of ß-methoxyacrylate derivatives have been reported by many research groups for discovery of novel pesticides with improved expected activities. This review focuses on development of ß-methoxyacrylate derivatives with great significance as pesticides such as fungicides, acaricides, insecticides, herbicides, and antiviral agents. In addition, the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of ß-methoxyacrylate derivatives are summarized. Moreover, the cause of resistance to ß-methoxyacrylate fungicides and some solutions are also introduced. Finally, the development trend of ß-methoxyacrylate derivatives as pesticides is explored. We hope the review will give a guide to develop novel ß-methoxyacrylate pesticides in the future.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Transporte de Elétrons , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Citocromos , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 508, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited failure to produce functional pollen that most commonly results from expression of novel, chimeric mitochondrial genes. In Zea mays, cytoplasmic male sterility type S (CMS-S) is characterized by the collapse of immature, bi-cellular pollen. Molecular and cellular features of developing CMS-S and normal (N) cytoplasm pollen were compared to determine the role of mitochondria in these differing developmental fates. RESULTS: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling revealed both chromatin and nuclear fragmentation in the collapsed CMS-S pollen, demonstrating a programmed cell death (PCD) event sharing morphological features with mitochondria-signaled apoptosis in animals. Maize plants expressing mitochondria-targeted green fluorescent protein (GFP) demonstrated dynamic changes in mitochondrial morphology and association with actin filaments through the course of N-cytoplasm pollen development, whereas mitochondrial targeting of GFP was lost and actin filaments were disorganized in developing CMS-S pollen. Immunoblotting revealed significant developmental regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in both CMS-S and N mito-types. Nuclear and mitochondrial genome encoded components of the cytochrome respiratory pathway and ATP synthase were of low abundance at the microspore stage, but microspores accumulated abundant nuclear-encoded alternative oxidase (AOX). Cytochrome pathway and ATP synthase components accumulated whereas AOX levels declined during the maturation of N bi-cellular pollen. Increased abundance of cytochrome pathway components and declining AOX also characterized collapsed CMS-S pollen. The accumulation and robust RNA editing of mitochondrial transcripts implicated translational or post-translational control for the developmentally regulated accumulation of mitochondria-encoded proteins in both mito-types. CONCLUSIONS: CMS-S pollen collapse is a PCD event coincident with developmentally programmed mitochondrial events including the accumulation of mitochondrial respiratory proteins and declining protection against mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Biogênese de Organelas , Zea mays , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Citocromos/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética
6.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(5): H941-H948, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206053

RESUMO

Electronic cigarette use has increased globally prompting calls for improved understanding of nicotine's cardiovascular health effects. Our group has previously demonstrated that chronic, inhaled nicotine induces pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular (RV) remodeling in male mice, but not female mice, suggesting sex differences in nicotine-related pathology. Clinically, biological females develop pulmonary hypertension more often but have less severe disease than biological males, likely because of the cardiopulmonary protective effects of estrogen. Nicotine is also metabolized more rapidly in biological females because of differences in cytochrome-P450 activity, which are thought to be mediated by female sex hormones. These findings led us to hypothesize that female mice are protected against nicotine-induced pulmonary hypertension by an ovarian hormone-dependent mechanism. In this study, intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice were exposed to chronic, inhaled nicotine or room air for 12 h/day for 10-12 wk. We report no differences in serum cotinine levels between intact and OVX mice. In addition, we found no structural (RV or left ventricular dimensions and Fulton index) or functional (RV systolic pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac output, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening) evidence of cardiopulmonary dysfunction in intact or OVX mice. We conclude that ovarian hormones do not mediate cardiopulmonary protection against nicotine-induced pulmonary hypertension. Due to profound sex differences in clinical pulmonary hypertension pathogenesis and nicotine metabolism, further studies are necessary to elucidate mechanisms underlying protection from nicotine-induced pathology in female mice.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The emergence of electronic cigarettes poses a threat to cardiovascular and pulmonary health, but the direct contribution of nicotine to these disease processes is largely unknown. Our laboratory has previously shown that chronic, inhaled nicotine induces pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular remodeling in male mice, but not female mice. This study using a bilateral ovariectomy model suggests that the cardiopulmonary protection observed in nicotine-exposed female mice may be independent of ovarian hormones.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Remodelação Ventricular , Nicotina/farmacologia , Função Ventricular Direita , Cotinina/efeitos adversos , Artéria Pulmonar , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Citocromos/farmacologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/prevenção & controle
7.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 119, 2022 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic analyses for plant pathogenic fungi explore many questions on diversities, relationships, origins, and divergences of populations from different sources such as species, host, and geography. This information is highly valuable, especially from a large global sampling, to understand the evolutionary paths of the pathogens worldwide. Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa are two important fungal pathogens of stone fruits that cause the widespread disease commonly known as brown rot. Three nuclear genes (Calmodulin, SDHA, TEF1α) and three mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome_b, NAD2, and NAD5) of the two pathogen species from a worldwide collection including five different countries from four different continents were studied in this work. RESULTS: Both Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches were applied to the data sets, and in addition, Maximum Parsimony based approaches were used for the regions having indel polymorphisms. Calmodulin, SDHA, NAD2, and NAD5 regions were found phylogenetically informative and utilized for phylogenetics of Monilinia species for the first time. Each gene region presented a set of haplotypes except Cytochrome_b, which was monomorphic. According to this large collection of two Monilinia species around the world, M. fructicola showed more diversity than M. laxa, a result that should be carefully considered, as M. fructicola is known to be a quarantine pathogen. Moreover, the other two mitochondrial genes (NAD2 and NAD5) did not have any substitution type mutations but presented an intron indel polymorphism indicating the contribution of introns as well as mobile introns to the fungal diversity and evolution. Based on the concatenated gene sets, nuclear DNA carries higher mutations and uncovers more phylogenetic clusters in comparison to the mitochondrial DNA-based data for these fungal species. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the most comprehensive knowledge on the phylogenetics of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes of two prominent brown rot pathogens, M. fructicola and M. laxa. Based on the regions used in this study, the nuclear genes resolved phylogenetic branching better than the mitochondrial genes and discovered new phylogenetic lineages for these species.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Doenças das Plantas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Calmodulina/genética , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Citocromos
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 941834, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36263327

RESUMO

Although ovarian sex steroids could have protective roles against colorectal cancer (CRC) in women, little is currently known about their potential anti-tumorigenic effects in men. Hence, this study measured the therapeutic effects of 17ß-oestradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) against azoxymethane-induced CRC in male mice that were divided into (n = 10 mice/group): negative (NC) and positive (PC) controls, E2 (580 µg/Kg/day; five times/week) and P4 (2.9 mg/Kg/day; five times/week) monotherapies, and concurrent (EP) and sequential (E/P) co-therapy groups. Both hormones were injected intraperitoneally to the designated groups for four consecutive weeks. Similar treatment protocols with E2 (10 nM) and/or P4 (20 nM) were also used in the SW480 and SW620 human male CRC cell lines. The PC group showed abundant colonic tumours alongside increased colonic tissue testosterone levels and androgen (AR) and oestrogen (ERα) receptors, whereas E2 and P4 levels with ERß and progesterone receptor (PGR) decreased significantly compared with the NC group. E2 and P4 monotherapies equally increased ERß/PGR with p21/Cytochrome-C/Caspase-3, reduced testosterone levels, inhibited ERα/AR and CCND1/survivin and promoted apoptosis relative to the PC group. Both co-therapy protocols also revealed better anti-cancer effects with enhanced modulation of colonic sex steroid hormones and their receptors, with E/P the most prominent protocol. In vitro, E/P regimen showed the highest increases in the numbers of SW480 (2.1-fold) and SW620 (3.5-fold) cells in Sub-G1 phase of cell cycle. The E/P co-therapy also disclosed the lowest percentages of viable SW480 cells (2.8-fold), whilst both co-therapy protocols equally showed the greatest SW620 apoptotic cell numbers (5.2-fold) relative to untreated cells. Moreover, both co-therapy regimens revealed maximal inhibitions of cell cycle inducers, cell survival markers, and AR/ERα alongside the highest expression of cell cycle suppressors, pro-apoptotic molecules, and ERß/PGR in both cell lines. In conclusion, CRC was associated with abnormal levels of colonic sex steroid hormones alongside aberrant protein expression of their receptors. While the anti-cancer effects of E2 and P4 monotherapies were equal, their combination protocols showed boosted tumoricidal actions against CRC in males, possibly by promoting ERß and PGR-mediated androgen deprivation together with inhibition of ERα-regulated oncogenic pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Progesterona/farmacologia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Survivina , Androgênios , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Caspase 3 , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Testosterona/farmacologia , Azoximetano , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Citocromos
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17769, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273015

RESUMO

Net-casting spiders (Deinopidae) comprise a charismatic family with an enigmatic evolutionary history. There are 67 described species of deinopids, placed among three genera, Deinopis, Menneus, and Asianopis, that are distributed globally throughout the tropics and subtropics. Deinopis and Asianopis, the ogre-faced spiders, are best known for their giant light-capturing posterior median eyes (PME), whereas Menneus does not have enlarged PMEs. Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed discordance between morphology and molecular data. We employed a character-rich ultra-conserved element (UCE) dataset and a taxon-rich cytochrome-oxidase I (COI) dataset to reconstruct a genus-level phylogeny of Deinopidae, aiming to investigate the group's historical biogeography, and examine PME size evolution. Although the phylogenetic results support the monophyly of Menneus and the single reduction of PME size in deinopids, these data also show that Deinopis is not monophyletic. Consequently, we formally transfer 24 Deinopis species to Asianopis; the transfers comprise all of the African, Australian, South Pacific, and a subset of Central American and Mexican species. Following the divergence of Eastern and Western deinopids in the Cretaceous, Deinopis/Asianopis dispersed from Africa, through Asia and into Australia with its biogeographic history reflecting separation of Western Gondwana as well as long-distance dispersal events.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Filogenia , Austrália , Citocromos , Oxirredutases , Evolução Molecular , Teorema de Bayes
10.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 721, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homalodisca vitripennis Germar, the glassy-winged sharpshooter, is an invasive insect in California and a critical threat to agriculture through its transmission of the plant pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa. Quarantine, broad-spectrum insecticides, and biological control have been used for population management of H. vitripennis since its invasion and subsequent proliferation throughout California. Recently wide-spread neonicotinoid resistance has been detected in populations of H. vitripennis in the southern portions of California's Central Valley. In order to better understand potential mechanisms of H. vitripennis neonicotinoid resistance, we performed RNA sequencing on wild-caught insecticide-resistant and relatively susceptible sharpshooters to profile their transcriptome and population structure. RESULTS: We identified 81 differentially expressed genes with higher expression in resistant individuals. The significant largest differentially expressed candidate gene linked to resistance status was a cytochrome P450 gene with similarity to CYP6A9. Furthermore, we observed an over-enrichment of GO terms representing functions supportive of roles in resistance mechanisms (cytochrome P450s, M13 peptidases, and cuticle structural proteins). Finally, we saw no evidence of broad-scale population structure, perhaps due to H. vitripennis' relatively recent introduction to California or due to the relatively small geographic scale investigated here. CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of insecticide-resistant and susceptible H. vitripennis and identified candidate genes that may be involved in resistance mechanisms for this species. Future work should seek to build on the transcriptome profiling performed here to confirm the role of the identified genes, particularly the cytochrome P450, in resistance in H. vitripennis. We hope this work helps aid future population management strategies for this and other species with growing insecticide resistance.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Citocromos/genética , Citocromos/metabolismo , Hemípteros/genética , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Transcriptoma
11.
Nature ; 610(7933): 731-736, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261517

RESUMO

Anaerobic methane oxidation exerts a key control on greenhouse gas emissions1, yet factors that modulate the activity of microorganisms performing this function remain poorly understood. Here we discovered extraordinarily large, diverse DNA sequences that primarily encode hypothetical proteins through studying groundwater, sediments and wetland soil where methane production and oxidation occur. Four curated, complete genomes are linear, up to approximately 1 Mb in length and share genome organization, including replichore structure, long inverted terminal repeats and genome-wide unique perfect tandem direct repeats that are intergenic or generate amino acid repeats. We infer that these are highly divergent archaeal extrachromosomal elements with a distinct evolutionary origin. Gene sequence similarity, phylogeny and local divergence of sequence composition indicate that many of their genes were assimilated from methane-oxidizing Methanoperedens archaea. We refer to these elements as 'Borgs'. We identified at least 19 different Borg types coexisting with Methanoperedens spp. in four distinct ecosystems. Borgs provide methane-oxidizing Methanoperedens archaea access to genes encoding proteins involved in redox reactions and energy conservation (for example, clusters of multihaem cytochromes and methyl coenzyme M reductase). These data suggest that Borgs might have previously unrecognized roles in the metabolism of this group of archaea, which are known to modulate greenhouse gas emissions, but further studies are now needed to establish their functional relevance.


Assuntos
Methanosarcinales , Aminoácidos/genética , Anaerobiose , Citocromos/genética , Citocromos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Methanosarcinales/classificação , Methanosarcinales/genética , Methanosarcinales/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Solo
12.
Planta ; 256(6): 102, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282353

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Novel cytochrome P450s, CYP81B140 and CYP81B141 from Plumbago zeylanica were functionally characterized to understand their involvement in polyketide plumbagin biosynthesis. Further, we propose 3-methyl-1-8-naphthalenediol and isoshinanolone as intermediates for plumbagin biosynthesis. Plumbago zeylanica L. (P. zeylanica) is a medicinally important plant belonging to the family Plumbaginaceae. It comprises the most abundant naphthoquinone plumbagin having anti-cancer activity. Only the polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme has been identified from the biosynthetic pathway which catalyzes iterative condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA molecules. The plumbagin biosynthesis involves hydroxylation, oxidation, hydration and dehydration of intermediate compounds which are expected to be catalyzed by cytochrome P450s (CYPs). To identify the CYPs, co-expression analysis was carried out using PKS as a candidate gene. Out of the eight identified CYPs, CYP81B140 and CYP81B141 have similar expression with PKS and belong to the CYP81 family. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that CYP81B140 and CYP81B141 cluster with CYPs from CYP81B, CYP81D, CYP81E and CYP81AA subfamilies which are known to be involved in the hydroxylation and oxidation reactions. Moreover, artificial microRNA-mediated transient individual silencing and co-silencing of CYP81B140 and CYP81B141 significantly reduced plumbagin and increased the 3-methyl-1-8-naphthalenediol and isoshinanolone content. Based on metabolite analysis, we proposed that 3-methyl-1-8-naphthalenediol and isoshinanolone function as intermediates for plumbagin biosynthesis. Transient silencing, over-expression and docking analysis revealed that CYP81B140 is involved in C-1 oxidation, C-4 hydroxylation and [C2-C3] hydration of 3-methyl-1-8-naphthalenediol to form isoshinanolone, whereas CYP81B141 is catalyzing [C2-C3] dehydration and C-4 oxidation of isoshinanolone to form plumbagin. Our results indicated that both CYP81B140 and CYP81B141 are promiscuous and necessary for plumbagin biosynthesis. This is the first report of identification and functional characterization of P. zeylanica-specific CYPs involved in plumbagin biosynthetic pathway and in general hexaketide synthesis in plants.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Naftoquinonas , Plumbaginaceae , Policetídeos , Plumbaginaceae/genética , Plumbaginaceae/metabolismo , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Filogenia , Acetilcoenzima A , Desidratação , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Naftoquinonas/metabolismo , Genômica , Citocromos
13.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235091

RESUMO

Triticonazole is a fungicide used to control diseases in numerous plants. The commercial product is a racemate containing (R)- and (S)-triticonazole and its residues have been found in vegetables, fruits, and drinking water. This study considered the effects of triticonazole on soil microorganisms and enzymes and human health by taking into account the enantiomeric structure when applicable. An experimental method was applied for assessing the effects of triticonazole on soil microorganisms and enzymes, and the effects of the stereoisomers on soil enzymes and human health were assessed using a computational approach. There were decreases in dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities and an increase in urease activity when barley and wheat seeds treated with various doses of triticonazole were sown in chernozem soil. At least 21 days were necessary for the enzymes to recover the activities. This was consistent with the diminution of the total number of soil microorganisms in the 14 days after sowing. Both stereoisomers were able to bind to human plasma proteins and were potentially inhibitors of human cytochromes, revealing cardiotoxicity and low endocrine disruption potential. As distinct effects, (R)-TTZ caused skin sensitization, carcinogenicity, and respiratory toxicity. There were no significant differences in the interaction energies of the stereoisomers and soil enzymes, but (S)-TTZ exposed higher interaction energies with plasma proteins and human cytochromes.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fungicidas Industriais , Poluentes do Solo , Ciclopentanos , Citocromos , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Humanos , Oxirredutases , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triazóis , Urease
14.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(41): 8140-8154, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205931

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a major global health concern. The increased use of herbicides may lead to multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Conventional techniques for diagnosing antibiotic resistance are laborious, time-intensive, expensive, and lack information about antibiotic susceptibility. On the other hand, Raman spectroscopy is a rapid, label-free, noninvasive alternative to traditional techniques to detect antibiotic resistance. In this study, two popular herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) were used to study their effects on the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Escherichia coli wild-type (WT) MG1655 strain and two isogenic mutants, Δlon and ΔacrB, were used together with Raman spectroscopy. The WT E. coli is sensitive to antibiotics, but exposure to both herbicides induces antibiotic resistance. Using an excitation wavelength of 785 nm, the intensity ratios (e.g., I740/I785, I740/I1003, I1480/I1445, I2934/I2868, and I2934/I2845) were identified as biomarkers to study the induction of antibiotic resistance in bacteria but not NaCl-mediated stress. Using an excitation wavelength of 633 nm, the peak intensity at 740 cm-1 assigned to cytochrome bd decreases under antibiotic stress but increases upon exposure to both herbicides and antibiotics, indicating the development of resistance. Thus, this study can be applied to monitor antibiotic resistance using Raman spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Herbicidas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Análise Espectral Raman , Ácido Acético , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/farmacologia , Citocromos
15.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 170, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geothermal systems have contributed greatly to both our understanding of the functions of extreme life and the evolutionary history of life itself. Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are ecological intermediates of deep-sea systems and terrestrial springs, harboring unique and complexed ecosystems, which are well-lit and present physicochemical gradients. The microbial communities of deep-sea and terrestrial geothermal systems have been well-studied at the population genome level, yet little is known about the communities inhabiting the shallow-sea hydrothermal systems and how they compare to those inhabiting other geothermal systems. RESULTS: Here, we used genome-resolved metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to probe into the genetic potential and protein expression of microorganisms from the shallow-sea vent fluids off Kueishantao Island. The families Nautiliaceae and Campylobacteraceae within the Epsilonbacteraeota and the Thiomicrospiraceae within the Gammaproteobacteria were prevalent in vent fluids over a 3-year sampling period. We successfully reconstructed the in situ metabolic modules of the predominant populations within the Epsilonbacteraeota and Gammaproteobacteria by mapping the metaproteomic data back to metagenome-assembled genomes. Those active bacteria could use the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle for autotrophic carbon fixation, with the ability to use reduced sulfur species, hydrogen or formate as electron donors, and oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor via cytochrome bd oxidase or cytochrome bb3 oxidase. Comparative metagenomic and genomic analyses revealed dramatic differences between submarine and terrestrial geothermal systems, including microbial functional potentials for carbon fixation and energy conversion. Furthermore, shallow-sea hydrothermal systems shared many of the major microbial genera that were first isolated from deep-sea and terrestrial geothermal systems, while deep-sea and terrestrial geothermal systems shared few genera. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic machinery of the active populations within Epsilonbacteraeota and Gammaproteobacteria at shallow-sea vents can mirror those living at deep-sea vents. With respect to specific taxa and metabolic potentials, the microbial realm in the shallow-sea hydrothermal system presented ecological linkage to both deep-sea and terrestrial geothermal systems. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Epsilonproteobacteria , Gammaproteobacteria , Fontes Hidrotermais , Microbiota , Citocromos/genética , Citocromos/metabolismo , Epsilonproteobacteria/genética , Formiatos/metabolismo , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Gammaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fontes Hidrotermais/microbiologia , Oxirredutases , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , Enxofre/metabolismo
16.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 83(3): 284-294, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190544

RESUMO

With chemical analysis, it is impossible to qualify and quantify the toxic potency of especially hydrophilic bioactive contaminants. In this study, we applied the nematode C. elegans as a model organism for detecting the toxic potency of whole influent wastewater samples. Gene expression in the nematode was used as bioanalytical tool to reveal the presence, type and potency of molecular pathways induced by 24-h exposure to wastewater from a hospital (H), nursing home (N), community (C), and influent (I) and treated effluent (E) from a local wastewater treatment plant. Exposure to influent water significantly altered expression of 464 genes, while only two genes were differentially expressed in nematodes treated with effluent. This indicates a significant decrease in bioactive pollutant-load after wastewater treatment. Surface water receiving the effluent did not induce any genes in exposed nematodes. A subset of 209 genes was differentially expressed in all untreated wastewaters, including cytochromes P450 and C-type lectins related to the nematode's xenobiotic metabolism and immune response, respectively. Different subsets of genes responded to particular waste streams making them candidates to fingerprint-specific wastewater sources. This study shows that gene expression profiling in C. elegans can be used for mechanism-based identification of hydrophilic bioactive compounds and fingerprinting of specific wastewaters. More comprehensive than with chemical analysis, it can demonstrate the effective overall removal of bioactive compounds through wastewater treatment. This bioanalytical tool can also be applied in the process of identification of the bioactive compounds via a process of toxicity identification evaluation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Citocromos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lectinas Tipo C , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Xenobióticos
17.
mSphere ; 7(5): e0022322, 2022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069437

RESUMO

Electromicrobiology can be used to understand extracellular electron uptake in previously undescribed chemolithotrophs. Enrichment and characterization of the uncultivated electroautotroph "Candidatus Tenderia electrophaga" using electromicrobiology led to the designation of the order Tenderiales. Representative Tenderiales metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) have been identified in a number of environmental surveys, yet a comprehensive characterization of conserved genes for extracellular electron uptake has thus far not been conducted. Using comparative genomics, we identified conserved orthologous genes within the Tenderiales and nearest-neighbor orders important for extracellular electron uptake based on a previously proposed pathway from "Ca. Tenderia electrophaga." The Tenderiales contained a conserved cluster we designated uetABCDEFGHIJ, which encodes proteins containing features that would enable transport of extracellular electrons to cytoplasmic membrane-bound energy-transducing complexes such as two conserved cytochrome cbb3 oxidases. For example, UetJ is predicted to be an extracellular undecaheme c-type cytochrome that forms a heme wire. We also identified clusters of genes predicted to facilitate assembly and maturation of electron transport proteins, as well as cellular attachment to surfaces. Autotrophy among the Tenderiales is supported by the presence of carbon fixation and stress response pathways that could allow cellular growth by extracellular electron uptake. Key differences between the Tenderiales and other known neutrophilic iron oxidizers were revealed, including very few Cyc2 genes in the Tenderiales. Our results reveal a possible conserved pathway for extracellular electron uptake and suggest that the Tenderiales have an ecological role in coupling metal or mineral redox chemistry and the carbon cycle in marine and brackish sediments. IMPORTANCE Chemolithotrophic bacteria capable of extracellular electron uptake to drive energy metabolism and CO2 fixation are known as electroautotrophs. The recently described order Tenderiales contains the uncultivated electroautotroph "Ca. Tenderia electrophaga." The "Ca. Tenderia electrophaga" genome contains genes proposed to make up a previously undescribed extracellular electron uptake pathway. Here, we use comparative genomics to show that this pathway is well conserved among Tenderiales spp. recovered by metagenome-assembled genomes. This conservation extends to near neighbors of the Tenderiales but not to other well-studied chemolithotrophs, including iron and sulfur oxidizers, indicating that these genes may be useful markers of growth using insoluble extracellular electron donors. Our findings suggest that extracellular electron uptake and electroautotrophy may be pervasive among the Tenderiales, and the geographic locations from which metagenome-assembled genomes were recovered offer clues to their natural ecological niche.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Chromatiaceae , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Enxofre , Ferro/metabolismo , Citocromos , Oxirredutases , Heme
18.
Elife ; 112022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062910

RESUMO

While early genetic and low-resolution structural observations suggested that extracellular conductive filaments on metal-reducing organisms such as Geobacter were composed of type IV pili, it has now been established that bacterial c-type cytochromes can polymerize to form extracellular filaments capable of long-range electron transport. Atomic structures exist for two such cytochrome filaments, formed from the hexaheme cytochrome OmcS and the tetraheme cytochrome OmcE. Due to the highly conserved heme packing within the central OmcS and OmcE cores, and shared pattern of heme coordination between subunits, it has been suggested that these polymers have a common origin. We have now used cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to determine the structure of a third extracellular filament, formed from the Geobacter sulfurreducens octaheme cytochrome, OmcZ. In contrast to the linear heme chains in OmcS and OmcE from the same organism, the packing of hemes, heme:heme angles, and between-subunit heme coordination is quite different in OmcZ. A branched heme arrangement within OmcZ leads to a highly surface exposed heme in every subunit, which may account for the formation of conductive biofilm networks, and explain the higher measured conductivity of OmcZ filaments. This new structural evidence suggests that conductive cytochrome polymers arose independently on more than one occasion from different ancestral multiheme proteins.


Assuntos
Geobacter , Proteínas de Bactérias , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Citocromos/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Geobacter/metabolismo , Heme/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Polímeros/metabolismo
19.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(8): 720-730, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171653

RESUMO

Cytochrome bd-II is one of the three terminal quinol oxidases of the aerobic respiratory chain of Escherichia coli. Preparations of the detergent-solubilized untagged bd-II oxidase isolated from the bacterium were shown to scavenge hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with high rate producing molecular oxygen (O2). Addition of H2O2 to the same buffer that does not contain enzyme or contains thermally denatured cytochrome bd-II does not lead to any O2 production. The latter observation rules out involvement of adventitious transition metals bound to the protein. The H2O2-induced O2 production is not susceptible to inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide (the sulfhydryl binding compound), antimycin A (the compound that binds specifically to a quinol binding site), and CO (diatomic gas that binds specifically to the reduced heme d). However, O2 formation is inhibited by cyanide (IC50 = 4.5 ± 0.5 µM) and azide. Addition of H2O2 in the presence of dithiothreitol and ubiquinone-1 does not inactivate cytochrome bd-II and apparently does not affect the O2 reductase activity of the enzyme. The ability of cytochrome bd-II to detoxify H2O2 could play a role in bacterial physiology by conferring resistance to the peroxide-mediated stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Antimicina A/metabolismo , Azidas/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Cianetos/metabolismo , Grupo dos Citocromos b/metabolismo , Citocromos/metabolismo , Detergentes , Ditiotreitol/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Etilmaleimida/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroquinonas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
20.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145089

RESUMO

Melanogenesis is the process of melanin synthesis to protect the skin against ultraviolet radiation and other external stresses. The loss of skin pigmentation is closely related to depigmented skin disorders. The melanogenic effects of pinostrobin, an active flavanone found in honey, were evaluated. B16F10 cells were used for melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and the expression of melanogenesis-related markers. Moreover, computational simulations were performed to predict docking and pharmacokinetics. Pinostrobin increased melanin levels and tyrosinase activity by stimulating the expression of melanogenic regulatory factors including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) 1 and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). Specifically, the phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) involved in the MITF activation was augmented by pinostrobin. Moreover, the compound upregulated the ß-catenin by cAMP/PKA-mediated GSK-3ß inactivation. Co-treatment with a PKA inhibitor, inhibited melanin production, tyrosinase activity, and expression of MITF, p-CREB, p-GSK-3ß and p-ß-catenin, demonstrating that pinostrobin-stimulated melanogenesis was closely related to cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Furthermore, the combination of pinostrobin and a specific p38 inhibitor, showed that MITF upregulation by pinostrobin was partly associated with the p38 signaling pathway. Docking simulation exhibited that the oxygen group at C-4 and the hydroxyl group at C-5 of pinostrobin may play an essential role in melanogenesis. In silico analysis revealed that pinostrobin had the optimal pharmacokinetic profiles including gastrointestinal absorption, skin permeability, and inhibition of cytochrome (CYP) enzymes. From the present results, it might be suggested that pinostrobin could be useful as a potent and safe melanogenic agent in the depigmentation disorder, vitiligo.


Assuntos
Flavanonas , Melaninas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromos/metabolismo , Citocromos/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Raios Ultravioleta , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...