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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008202, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925922

RESUMO

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) promotes a range of phenotypes depending on its intracellular concentration and dosing kinetics, including cell death. While this qualitative relationship has been well established, the quantitative and mechanistic aspects of H2O2 signaling are still being elucidated. Mitochondria, a putative source of intracellular H2O2, have recently been demonstrated to be particularly vulnerable to localized H2O2 perturbations, eliciting a dramatic cell death response in comparison to similar cytosolic perturbations. We sought to improve our dynamic and mechanistic understanding of the mitochondrial H2O2 reaction network in HeLa cells by creating a kinetic model of this system and using it to explore basal and perturbed conditions. The model uses the most current quantitative proteomic and kinetic data available to predict reaction rates and steady-state concentrations of H2O2 and its reaction partners within individual mitochondria. Time scales ranging from milliseconds to one hour were simulated. We predict that basal, steady-state mitochondrial H2O2 will be in the low nM range (2-4 nM) and will be inversely dependent on the total pool of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3). Neglecting efflux of H2O2 to the cytosol, the mitochondrial reaction network is expected to control perturbations well up to H2O2 generation rates ~50 µM/s (0.25 nmol/mg-protein/s), above which point the Prx3 system would be expected to collapse. Comparison of these results with redox Western blots of Prx3 and Prx2 oxidation states demonstrated reasonable trend agreement at short times (≤ 15 min) for a range of experimentally perturbed H2O2 generation rates. At longer times, substantial efflux of H2O2 from the mitochondria to the cytosol was evidenced by peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2) oxidation, and Prx3 collapse was not observed. A refined model using Monte Carlo parameter sampling was used to explore rates of H2O2 efflux that could reconcile model predictions of Prx3 oxidation states with the experimental observations.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Citosol/química , Citosol/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Cinética , Mitocôndrias/química , Neoplasias/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007996, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667909

RESUMO

Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the propagation of a relatively slow wave in cortical brain tissue that is linked to a number of pathological conditions such as stroke and migraine. Most of the existing literature investigates the dynamics of short term phenomena such as the depolarization and repolarization of membrane potentials or large ion shifts. Here, we focus on the clinically-relevant hour-long state of neurovascular malfunction in the wake of CSDs. This dysfunctional state involves widespread vasoconstriction and a general disruption of neurovascular coupling. We demonstrate, using a mathematical model, that dissolution of calcium that has aggregated within the mitochondria of vascular smooth muscle cells can drive an hour-long disruption. We model the rate of calcium clearance as well as the dynamical implications on overall blood flow. Based on reaction stoichiometry, we quantify a possible impact of calcium phosphate dissolution on the maintenance of F0F1-ATP synthase activity.


Assuntos
Depressão Alastrante da Atividade Elétrica Cortical , Potenciais da Membrana , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Vasoconstrição , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Cálcio/química , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Citosol/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Oscilometria , Oxigênio/química , Fosforilação , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/química , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3024, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541684

RESUMO

The canonical mechanistic model explaining potassium channel gating is of a conformational change that alternately dilates and constricts a collar-like intracellular entrance to the pore. It is based on the premise that K+ ions maintain a complete hydration shell while passing between the transmembrane cavity and cytosol, which must be accommodated. To put the canonical model to the test, we locked the conformation of a Kir K+ channel to prevent widening of the narrow collar. Unexpectedly, conduction was unimpaired in the locked channels. In parallel, we employed all-atom molecular dynamics to simulate K+ ions moving along the conduction pathway between the lower cavity and cytosol. During simulations, the constriction did not significantly widen. Instead, transient loss of some water molecules facilitated K+ permeation through the collar. The low free energy barrier to partial dehydration in the absence of conformational change indicates Kir channels are not gated by the canonical mechanism.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Citosol/química , Citosol/metabolismo , Condutividade Elétrica , Impedância Elétrica , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Humanos , Transporte de Íons , Íons/química , Íons/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Potássio/química , Conformação Proteica , Água/metabolismo
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15343-15353, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546525

RESUMO

Ion transporters are key players of cellular processes. The mechanistic properties of ion transporters have been well elucidated by biophysical methods. Meanwhile, the understanding of their exact functions in cellular homeostasis is limited by the difficulty of monitoring their activity in vivo. The development of biosensors to track subtle changes in intracellular parameters provides invaluable tools to tackle this challenging issue. AtCLCa (Arabidopsis thaliana Chloride Channel a) is a vacuolar NO3 -/H+ exchanger regulating stomata aperture in A thaliana Here, we used a genetically encoded biosensor, ClopHensor, reporting the dynamics of cytosolic anion concentration and pH to monitor the activity of AtCLCa in vivo in Arabidopsis guard cells. We first found that ClopHensor is not only a Cl- but also, an NO3 - sensor. We were then able to quantify the variations of NO3 - and pH in the cytosol. Our data showed that AtCLCa activity modifies cytosolic pH and NO3 - In an AtCLCa loss of function mutant, the cytosolic acidification triggered by extracellular NO3 - and the recovery of pH upon treatment with fusicoccin (a fungal toxin that activates the plasma membrane proton pump) are impaired, demonstrating that the transport activity of this vacuolar exchanger has a profound impact on cytosolic homeostasis. This opens a perspective on the function of intracellular transporters of the Chloride Channel (CLC) family in eukaryotes: not only controlling the intraorganelle lumen but also, actively modifying cytosolic conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Citosol/química , Homeostase/fisiologia , Nitratos/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Citosol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitratos/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2729, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483166

RESUMO

Aggregation and spreading of α-Synuclein (αSyn) are hallmarks of several neurodegenerative diseases, thus monitoring human αSyn (hαSyn) in animal models or cell cultures is vital for the field. However, the detection of native hαSyn in such systems is challenging. We show that the nanobody NbSyn87, previously-described to bind hαSyn, also shows cross-reactivity for the proteasomal subunit Rpn10. As such, when the NbSyn87 is expressed in the absence of hαSyn, it is continuously degraded by the proteasome, while it is stabilized when it binds to hαSyn. Here, we exploit this feature to design a new Fluorescent Reporter for hαSyn (FluoReSyn) by fusing NbSyn87 to fluorescent proteins, which results in fluorescence signal fluctuations depending on the presence and amounts of intracellular hαSyn. We characterize this biosensor in cells and tissues to finally reveal the presence of transmittable αSyn in human cerebrospinal fluid, demonstrating the potential of FluoReSyn for clinical research and diagnostics.


Assuntos
Citosol/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citosol/química , Feminino , Fluorescência , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/líquido cefalorraquidiano , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
6.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538913

RESUMO

Pericytes are associated with endothelial cells and astrocytic endfeet in a structure known as the neurovascular unit (NVU). Brain capillary pericyte function is not fully known. Pericytes have been suggested to be involved in capillary development, regulation of endothelial barrier tightness and trancytosis activity, regulation of capillary tone and to play crucial roles in certain brain pathologies. Pericytes are challenging to investigate in the intact brain due to the difficulties in visualizing processes in the brain parenchyma, as well as the close proximity to the other cells of the NVU. The present protocol describes a method for isolation and culture of primary bovine brain capillary pericytes and their following usage in calcium imaging studies, where effects of agonists involved in brain signaling and pathologies can be investigated. Cortical capillary fragments are allowed to attach to the bottom of culture flasks and, after 6 days, endothelial cells and pericytes have grown out from the capillary fragments. The endothelial cells are removed by gentle trypsinization and pericytes are cultured for 5 additional days before passaging. Isolated pericytes are seeded in 96-well culture plates and loaded with the calcium indicator dye (Fura-2 acetoxymethyl (AM)) to allow for measurements of intracellular calcium levels in a plate reader setup. Alternatively, pericytes are seeded on coverslips and mounted in cell chambers. Following loading with the calcium indicator (Cal-520 AM), calcium live-imaging can be performed using confocal microscopy at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm and emission wavelength of 510-520 nm. The method described here has been used to obtain the first intracellular calcium measurements from primary brain capillary pericytes, demonstrating that pericytes are stimulated via ATP and are able to contract in vitro.


Assuntos
Cálcio/análise , Capilares/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Pericitos/citologia , Animais , Encéfalo , Bovinos , Separação Celular , Citosol/química , Microscopia Confocal
7.
Diabetes ; 69(6): 1206-1218, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245801

RESUMO

Endocrine cells of the pancreatic islet interact with their microenvironment to maintain tissue homeostasis. Communication with local macrophages is particularly important in this context, but the homeostatic functions of human islet macrophages are not known. In this study, we show that the human islet contains macrophages in perivascular regions that are the main local source of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and the metalloproteinase MMP9. Macrophage production and secretion of these homeostatic factors are controlled by endogenous purinergic signals. In obese and diabetic states, macrophage expression of purinergic receptors MMP9 and IL-10 is reduced. We propose that in those states, exacerbated ß-cell activity due to increased insulin demand and increased cell death produce high levels of ATP that downregulate purinergic receptor expression. Loss of ATP sensing in macrophages may reduce their secretory capacity.


Assuntos
Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Purinas/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocinas , Citosol/química , Citosol/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Camundongos , Receptores Purinérgicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1916, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317635

RESUMO

mHsp60-mHsp10 assists the folding of mitochondrial matrix proteins without the negative ATP binding inter-ring cooperativity of GroEL-GroES. Here we report the crystal structure of an ATP (ADP:BeF3-bound) ground-state mimic double-ring mHsp6014-(mHsp107)2 football complex, and the cryo-EM structures of the ADP-bound successor mHsp6014-(mHsp107)2 complex, and a single-ring mHsp607-mHsp107 half-football. The structures explain the nucleotide dependence of mHsp60 ring formation, and reveal an inter-ring nucleotide symmetry consistent with the absence of negative cooperativity. In the ground-state a two-fold symmetric H-bond and a salt bridge stitch the double-rings together, whereas only the H-bond remains as the equatorial gap increases in an ADP football poised to split into half-footballs. Refolding assays demonstrate obligate single- and double-ring mHsp60 variants are active, and complementation analysis in bacteria shows the single-ring variant is as efficient as wild-type mHsp60. Our work provides a structural basis for active single- and double-ring complexes coexisting in the mHsp60-mHsp10 chaperonin reaction cycle.


Assuntos
Chaperonina 10/química , Chaperonina 60/química , Mitocôndrias/química , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Difosfato de Adenosina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Citosol/química , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Engenharia de Proteínas , Dobramento de Proteína
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 321: 108548, 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050139

RESUMO

Histamine, one of the most toxic and commonly encountered biogenic amines (BA) in food, is produced by the microbial decarboxylation of histidine. It may accumulate at high concentrations in fish and fermented food. Cheese has some of the highest histamine concentrations, the result of the histidine-decarboxylase activity of certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The present work describes the nucleotide sequence and transcriptional organization of the gene cluster responsible for histamine biosynthesis (the HDC cluster) in Lactobacillus vaginalis IPLA 11064 isolated from cheese. The influence of histidine availability and pH on histamine production and the expression of the HDC cluster genes is also examined. As expected, the results suggest that the production of histamine under acidic conditions improves cell survival by maintaining the cytosol at an appropriate pH. However, the transcriptional regulation of the HDC cluster is quite different from that described in other dairy histamine-producing LAB, probably due to the lack of a termination-antitermination system in the histidyl-tRNA synthetase gene (hisS).


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Citosol/química , Histamina/biossíntese , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Animais , Queijo/análise , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Histidina/análise , Histidina/metabolismo , Histidina Descarboxilase/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e49, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054545

RESUMO

A new fast-growing mycobacterium, designated strain QGD101T, was isolated from the sputum of an 84-year-old man suspected of tuberculosis in Wuhan Medical Treatment Center, Hubei, China. This strain was a gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming and catalase-positive bacterium, which was further identified as the NTM by PNB and TCH tests. The moxifloxacin and levofloxacin exhibited strong suppressing function against QGD101T with MIC values of 0.06 and 0.125 µg/ml after drug susceptibility testing of six main antimicrobial agents on mycobacteria. Based on the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65 and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer, the strain QGD101T could not be identified to a species level. Mycobacterium moriokaense ATCC43059T that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98%) with strain QGD101T was actually different in genomes average nucleotide identity (78.74%). In addition, the major cellular fatty acids of QGD101T were determined as C18:1ω9c, C16:0 and C18:2ω6c. The DNA G + C content was 64.9% measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Therefore, the phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of this strain led us to the conclusion that it represents a novel species of mycobacteria, for which the name Mycobacterium hubeiense sp. nov. (type strain QGD101T = CCTCCAA 2017003T = KCTC39927T) was proposed. Thus, the results of this study are very significant for the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis and future personalised medicine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/classificação , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Composição de Bases , Chaperonina 60/genética , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Citosol/química , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Humanos , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Moxifloxacina/farmacologia , Mycobacterium/genética , Mycobacterium/fisiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
J Biol Chem ; 295(7): 2068-2083, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915245

RESUMO

Many secretory proteins are activated by cleavage at specific sites. The proprotein convertases (PCs) form a family of nine secretory subtilisin-like serine proteases, seven of which cleave at specific basic residues within the trans-Golgi network, granules, or at the cell surface/endosomes. The seventh member, PC7, is a type-I transmembrane (TM) protein with a 97-residue-long cytosolic tail (CT). PC7 sheds human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1) into soluble shTfR1 in endosomes. To better understand the physiological roles of PC7, here we focused on the relationship between the CT-regulated trafficking of PC7 and its ability to shed hTfR1. Deletion of the TMCT resulted in soluble PC7 and loss of its hTfR1 shedding activity. Extensive CT deletions and mutagenesis analyses helped us zoom in on three residues in the CT, namely Glu-719, Glu-721, and Leu-725, that are part of a novel motif, EXEXXXL725, critical for PC7 activity on hTfR1. NMR studies of two 14-mer peptides mimicking this region of the CT and its Ala variants revealed that the three exposed residues are on the same side of the molecule. This led to the identification of adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) as a protein that recognizes the EXEXXXL725 motif, thus representing a potentially new regulator of PC7 trafficking and cleavage activity. Immunocytochemistry of the subcellular localization of PC7 and its Ala variants of Leu-725 and Glu-719 and Glu-721 revealed that Leu-725 enhances PC7 localization to early endosomes and that, together with Glu-719 and Glu-721, it increases the endosomal activity of PC7 on hTfR1.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Citosol/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Subtilisinas/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-2/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Antígenos CD/química , Membrana Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Citosol/química , Endossomos/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Receptores da Transferrina/química , Subtilisinas/química , Rede trans-Golgi/genética
12.
Biochemistry ; 59(3): 315-328, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898895

RESUMO

TDP-43 protein travels between the cytosol and the nucleus to perform its nucleic acid binding functions through its two tandem RNA recognition motif domains (TDP-43tRRM). When exposed to various environmental stresses, it forms abnormal aggregates in the cytosol of neurons, which are the hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other TDP-43 proteinopathies. However, the nature of early structural changes upon stress sensing and the consequent steps during the course of aggregation are not well understood. In this study, we show that under low-pH conditions, mimicking starvation stress, TDP-43tRRM undergoes a conformational opening reaction linked to the protonation of buried ionizable residues and grows into a metastable oligomeric assembly (called the "low-pH form" or the "L form"). In the L form, the protein molecules have disrupted tertiary structure, solvent-exposed hydrophobic patches, and mobile side chains but the native-like secondary structure remains intact. The L form structure is held by weak interactions and has a steep dependence on ionic strength. In the presence of as little as 15 mM KCl, it fully misfolds and further oligomerizes to form a ß-sheet rich "ß form" in at least two distinct steps. The ß form has an ordered, stable structure that resembles worm-like amyloid fibrils. The unstructured regions of the protein gain structure during L ⇌ ß conversion. Our results suggest that TDP-43tRRM could function as a stress sensor and support a recent model in which stress sensing during neurodegeneration occurs by assembly of proteins into metastable assemblies that are precursors to the solid aggregates.


Assuntos
Amiloide/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteinopatias TDP-43/genética , Amiloide/química , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Núcleo Celular/química , Núcleo Celular/genética , Citosol/química , Citosol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Humanos , Agregados Proteicos/genética , Dobramento de Proteína , Estabilidade Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína/genética , Motivo de Reconhecimento de RNA/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Proteinopatias TDP-43/patologia
13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 1, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The green microalga Dunaliella salina accumulates a high proportion of ß-carotene during abiotic stress conditions. To better understand the intracellular flux distribution leading to carotenoid accumulation, this work aimed at reconstructing a carbon core metabolic network for D. salina CCAP 19/18 based on the recently published nuclear genome and its validation with experimental observations and literature data. RESULTS: The reconstruction resulted in a network model with 221 reactions and 212 metabolites within three compartments: cytosol, chloroplast and mitochondrion. The network was implemented in the MATLAB toolbox CellNetAnalyzer and checked for feasibility. Furthermore, a flux balance analysis was carried out for different light and nutrient uptake rates. The comparison of the experimental knowledge with the model prediction revealed that the results of the stoichiometric network analysis are plausible and in good agreement with the observed behavior. Accordingly, our model provides an excellent tool for investigating the carbon core metabolism of D. salina. CONCLUSIONS: The reconstructed metabolic network of D. salina presented in this work is able to predict the biological behavior under light and nutrient stress and will lead to an improved process understanding for the optimized production of high-value products in microalgae.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorófitas/química , Clorófitas/efeitos da radiação , Cloroplastos/química , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Citosol/química , Citosol/metabolismo , Luz , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Microalgas/química , Microalgas/efeitos da radiação , Mitocôndrias/química , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 33(2): 247-255, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644369

RESUMO

The first layer of plant immunity is deployed by recognition of pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMPs) and induction of early stress responses. Flagellin is the major protein component of the flagellum. Flagellin-derived peptide fragments such as Flg22, a short active peptide derived from the highly conserved part of the N-terminal region, are recognized as PAMPs by a specific perception system present in most higher plants. Some bacteria evade the plant recognition system by altering the Flg22 region in the flagellin. Instead, a small subset of plants (i.e., solanaceous plants) can sense these bacteria by recognizing a second region, termed FlgII-28. The function of FlgII-28 has been well-documented in tomato but not in potato plants. Here, we investigated the effect of FlgII-28 on several defense responses in potato. Cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) elevation is an early defense response upon pathogenic infection. We generated transgenic potato plants expressing aequorin, a nontoxic Ca2+-activated photoprotein. The results showed that FlgII-28 induced strong cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the response was attenuated when a Ca2+ channel blocker was added. In addition, the FlgII-28-triggered cytosolic Ca2+ elevation was shown to subsequently promote extracellular alkalinization, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes in potato. Interestingly, all tested defense responses caused by FlgII-28 were significantly stronger than those caused by Flg22, suggesting that FlgII-28 acts as a primary flagellar PAMP to elicit multiple defense responses in potato.


Assuntos
Flagelina , Imunidade Vegetal , Solanum tuberosum , Cálcio/metabolismo , Citosol/química , Citosol/imunologia , Flagelina/genética , Flagelina/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/imunologia
15.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 153(2): 89-99, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720797

RESUMO

Autophagy is a degradative cellular process that can be both non-selective and selective and begins with the formation of a unique smooth double-membrane phagophore which wraps around a portion of the cytoplasm. Excess and damaged organelles and cytoplasmic protein aggregates are degraded by selective autophagy. Previously, we reported that in fed HepG2 cells, cytoplasmic aggregates of EDEM1 and surplus fibrinogen Aα-γ assembly intermediates are targets of selective autophagy receptors and become degraded by a selective autophagy called aggrephagy. Here, we show by multiple confocal immunofluorescence and colocalization panels the codistribution of cytoplasmic protein aggregates with the selective autophagy receptors p62/SQSTM1 and NBR1 and with the phagophore marker LC3, and that phagophores induced by vinblastine treatment contain complexes of protein aggregates and selective autophagy receptors. By combined serial ultrathin section analysis and immunoelectron microscopy, we found that in fed HepG2 cells, a basically ribosome-free subdomain of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) cisternae forms a cradle that engulfs the cytoplasmic protein aggregates. This RER subdomain appears structurally different from omegasomes formed by the RER, which were suggested to provide a membrane platform from which the phagophore is derived in starvation-induced autophagy. Taken together, our observations provide further evidence for the importance of RER subdomains as a site and membrane source for phagophore formation and show their involvement in selective autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Citosol/química , Retículo Endoplasmático Rugoso/química , Agregados Proteicos , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático Rugoso/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 7-26, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646505

RESUMO

Measuring free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) in the cytosol or organelles is routine in many fields of research. The availability of membrane permeant forms of indicators coupled with the relative ease of transfecting cell lines with biological Ca2+ sensors have led to the situation where cellular and subcellular [Ca2+] is examined by many non-specialists. In this chapter, we evaluate the most used Ca2+ indicators and highlight what their major advantages and disadvantages are. We stress the potential pitfalls of non-ratiometric techniques for measuring Ca2+ and the clear advantages of ratiometric methods. Likely improvements and new directions for Ca2+ measurement are discussed.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Citosol , Organelas , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Técnicas Citológicas , Citosol/química , Citosol/metabolismo , Humanos , Organelas/química , Organelas/metabolismo
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(3): 183159, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857070

RESUMO

The past three decades have witnessed fast advances in the use of cationic liposome-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) for gene delivery applications. However, no lipoplex formulation has reached into the clinical practice so far. The primary drawback limiting clinical use of lipoplexes is the lack of mechanistic understanding of their low transfection efficiency (TE) in vivo. In physiological environments, lipoplexes are coated by a protein corona (PC) that mediates the interactions with the cell machinery. Here we show that the formation of PC can change the interactions of multicomponent (MC) lipoplexes with our cell model (i.e., HeLa). At the highest lipoplex concentration, the formation of PC can reduce the TE of MC lipoplexes from 60% to <5%. Combining dynamic light scattering and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we clarify that the formation of PC modifies physical-chemical properties of MC lipoplexes so as to affect their TE. Moreover, we examined single transfection barriers by a combination of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, single-cell real-time fluorescence confocal microscopy, and synchrotron SAXS. We demonstrate that PC formation has the ability to modify the relative contribution of caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis in lipoplexes uptake, in favor of the latter, increasing accumulation of PC-decorated lipoplexes into degradative lysosomal compartments. Finally, we report evidences that PC reduces the structural stability of lipoplexes against solubilization by cellular lipids, likely favoring premature DNA release and cytosolic digestion by DNAase. These combined effects revealed here offer a comprehensive mechanistic explanation on the reason behind reduction in gene expression of MC lipoplexes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Lipossomos/química , Coroa de Proteína/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Células CHO , Cátions/química , Cricetulus , Citosol/química , DNA/química , Endocitose/fisiologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Coroa de Proteína/química , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Síncrotrons , Transfecção , Difração de Raios X/métodos
18.
mSphere ; 4(6)2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852805

RESUMO

To assess the microbiology and corrosion potential of engineered components of a deep geological repository for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste, the Materials Corrosion Test is being conducted at the Underground Research Laboratory in Grimsel, Switzerland. Modules containing metal coupons surrounded by highly compacted MX-80 bentonite, at two dry densities (1.25 and 1.50 g/cm3), were emplaced within 9-m-deep boreholes, and the first modules were retrieved after 13 months of exposure. Bentonite and associated module materials were sampled, and microbial communities and their distributions were assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Borehole fluid was dominated by amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) affiliated with Desulfosporosinus and Desulfovibrio, which are putatively involved in sulfate reduction. The relative abundance of these ASVs was lower for samples from inside the borehole module, and they were almost undetectable in samples of the inner bentonite layer. The dominant ASV in case and filter sample sequence data was affiliated with Pseudomonas stutzeri, yet its relative abundance decreased in the inner layer samples. Streptomyces sp. ASVs were relatively abundant in all bentonite core sample data both prior to emplacement and after 13 months of exposure, presumably as metabolically inactive spores or extracellular "relic" DNA. PLFA concentrations in outer and inner layer bentonite samples suggested cellular abundances of 1 × 106 to 3 × 106 cells/g, with similar PLFA distributions within all bentonite samples. Our results demonstrate consistent microbial communities inside the saturated borehole module, providing the first evidence for microbial stability under conditions that mimic a deep geological repository.IMPORTANCE The Materials Corrosion Test in Grimsel Underground Research Laboratory, Switzerland, enables an evaluation of microbiological implications of bentonite clay at densities relevant for a deep geological repository. Our research demonstrates that after 13 months of exposure within a granitic host rock, the microbial 16S rRNA gene signatures of saturated bentonite clay within the modules were consistent with the profiles in the original clay used to pack the modules. Such results provide evidence that densities chosen for this emplacement test are refractory to microbial activity, at least on the relatively short time frame leading to the first time point sampling event, which will help inform in situ engineered barrier system science. This study has important implications for the design of deep geological repository sites under consideration for the Canadian Shield.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bentonita , Microbiologia Ambiental , Microbiota , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Citosol/química , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Metagenômica , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suíça
19.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(12): 152645, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) has been suggested as a prognostic marker in several malignant tumors. However, the significance of FOXP1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of FOXP1 in normal esophageal tissue and ESCC and to analyze the clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of FOXP1 in ESCC. METHODS: FOXP1 was detected by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays containing tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues from 270 ESCC patients with oncological follow-up data. RESULTS: Normal esophageal tissues predominantly showed an exclusive nuclear FOXP1 (n-FOXP1) expression pattern, and no exclusive cytoplasmic FOXP1 (c-FOXP1) staining was found. In ESCC, the expression rates of exclusive n-FOXP1-positive, exclusive c-FOXP1-positive, both nuclear and cytoplasmic positive and complete negative were 14.4%, 28.9%, 10.4% and 46.3%, respectively. High n-FOXP1 expression was significantly correlated with decreased postoperative recurrence and distant metastasis (P < 0.05). Furthermore, elevated c-FOXP1 expression was significantly associated with regional lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis (P < 0.05). High c-FOXP1 expression had an effect on shorter overall survival (OS) time, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that ESCC patients with high n-FOXP1 expression survived significantly longer than patients with low n-FOXP1 expression. Multivariate analysis confirmed that patients with high n-FOXP1 staining exhibit good prognosis and n-FOXP1 was an independent factor for ESCC prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that FOXP1 plays an essential role in ESCC progression and prognosis and may be a useful biomarker for predicting survival.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Esofágicas/química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/análise , Proteínas Repressoras/análise , Núcleo Celular/química , Citosol/química , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/secundário , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
20.
Infect Immun ; 88(1)2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685546

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular pathogen, survives and replicates in the cytosol of host cells. Synthesis of 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA), an intermediate of menaquinone biosynthesis, is essential for cytosolic survival of L. monocytogenes independent from its role in respiration. Here, we demonstrate that DHNA is essential for virulence in a murine model of listeriosis due to both respiration-dependent and -independent functions. In addition, DHNA can be both secreted and utilized as an extracellular shared metabolite to promote cytosolic survival inside host macrophages. To understand the role(s) of DHNA in L. monocytogenes intracellular survival and virulence, we isolated DHNA-deficient (ΔmenD strain) suppressor mutants that formed plaques in monolayers of fibroblasts. Five ΔmenD suppressor (mds) mutants additionally rescued at least 50% of the cytosolic survival defect of the parent ΔmenD mutant. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that four of the five suppressor mutants had independent missense mutations in a putative transcriptional regulator, ytoI (lmo1576). Clean deletion and complementation in trans confirmed that loss of ytoI could restore plaquing and cytosolic survival of DHNA-deficient L. monocytogenes RNA-seq transcriptome analysis revealed five genes (lmo0944, lmo1575, lmo1577, lmo2005, and lmo2006) expressed at a higher level in the ΔytoI strain than in the wild-type strain, whereas two genes (lmo1917 and lmo2103) demonstrated lower expression in the ΔytoI mutant. Intriguingly, the majority of these genes are involved in controlling pyruvate flux. Metabolic analysis confirmed that acetoin, acetate, and lactate flux were altered in a ΔytoI mutant, suggesting a critical role for regulating these metabolic programs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that, similar to findings in select other bacteria, DHNA can act as a shared resource, and it is essential for cytosolic survival and virulence of L. monocytogenes Furthermore, we have identified a novel transcriptional regulator in L. monocytogenes and determined that its metabolic regulation is implicated in cytosolic survival of L. monocytogenes.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Listeriose/microbiologia , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Naftóis/metabolismo , Supressão Genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Citosol/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Camundongos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Virulência , Vitamina K 2/análise , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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