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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4643-4652, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Adenoviral-mediated expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) on dendritic cells (DCs) activates immune check point CD40/CD40L, enhancing the immunostimulation of DCs and effector cells against human renal carcinoma cells (RCC) and inducing tumor cell apoptosis in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DCs, isolated from buffy coats from healthy donors, were transduced with adenoviruses carrying human CD40L (Ad-hCD40L). Subsequently maturation marker and cytokine expression were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Adenoviral transduction induced high expression of soluble CD40L and membrane-bound CD40L, leading to a strong CD40-CD40L interaction in DCs. Interestingly, a T-helper cell type 1 shift of expressed cytokines/chemokines was observed due to the expression of membrane-bound CD40L rather than due to soIuble CD40L alone, which significantly reduced immunoactivation of DCs. However, supernatants of Ad-hCD40L-transduced DCs induced apoptosis of RCC cells. Co-culture of Ad-hCD40L DCs with cytokine-induced killer cells led to a significant stimulation of tumor-specific cytokine-induced killer cells, with increased proliferation and cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: Use of Ad-hCD40L-transduced DCs is a promising approach to treating RCC.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Adenoviridae/genética , Biomarcadores , Ligante de CD40/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transdução Genética
2.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1303-1315, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278476

RESUMO

Our previous work has demonstrated the high efficiency of CD8+ natural killer T (NKT)-like cells in killing antigen-bearing dendritic cells. To evaluate their role in the tumor microenvironment, we performed in vitro and in vivo antitumor experiments to investigate whether CD8+NKT-like cells could kill Yac-1 and B16 cells like NK cells and kill EL4-OVA8 cells in an antigen-specific manner like cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Unlike NK1.1-CTLs, CD8+NKT-like cells also exhibit the capability to kill myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in an antigen-specific manner, indicative of their potential role in clearing tumor antigen-bearing MDSCs to improve the antitumor microenvironment. In vitro blocking experiments showed that granzyme B inhibitor efficiently suppressed the cytotoxicity of CD8+NKT-like cells against tumor cells and MDSCs, while Fas ligand (FasL) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) inhibition failed to produce similar effects. Transcriptomic and phenotypic analyses of CD8+NKT-like cells, NK cells, and NK1.1-CTLs indicated that CD8+NKT-like cells expressed both T-cell activation markers and NK cell markers, thus bearing features of both the activated T cells and NK cells. Taken together, CD8+NKT-like cells could exert NK- and CTL-like antitumor effects through the elimination of both tumor cells and MDSCs in a granzyme B-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1317-1329, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an EBV-associated neoplasm occurring endemically in Southeast Asia and sporadically all over the world. In children and adolescents, high cure rates have been obtained using chemotherapy, radiochemotherapy and maintenance therapy with interferon beta (IFNß). The mechanism by which IFNß contributes to a low systemic relapse rate has not yet been fully revealed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: NK cells and serum samples from two patients with NPC were analyzed before and at different time points during IFNß therapy, for assessment of TRAIL expression and NK cell cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was measured using the calcein release assay and the contribution of different death effector pathways was analyzed using specific inhibitors. RESULTS: Treatment with IFNß induced TRAIL expression on patients' NK cells and increased their cytotoxicity against NPC targets in vitro. NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity was predominately mediated via TRAIL. IFNß also induced the production of soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) by NK cells and its release upon contact with NPC cells. IFNß treatment increased serum levels of sTRAIL in patients. Moreover, sTRAIL concentrated from patients' serum samples induced apoptosis ex vivo in NPC cells from a patient-derived xenograft. CONCLUSION: Increased cytotoxicity of NK cells against NPC cells and increased serum levels of biologically active TRAIL in patients treated with IFNß could be a means to eliminate micrometastatic disease and explain the low systemic relapse rate in this patient group.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Adolescente , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1379-1389, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338557

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in greater than 90% of patient tumors. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to EGFR and can activate immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, that express receptors for the Fc (constant region) of immunoglobulin G. IL-15 (interleukin-15) is a critical factor for the development, proliferation and activation of effector NK cells. A novel IL-15 compound known as ALT-803 that consists of genetically modified IL-15 plus the IL-15 receptor alpha protein (IL15Rα) fused to the Fc portion of IgG1 has recently been developed. We hypothesized that treatment with ALT-803 would increase NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity of cetuximab-coated head and neck squamous cells. CD56+ NK cells from normal healthy donors were treated overnight with ALT-803 and tested for their ability to lyse cetuximab-coated tumor cells. Cytotoxicity was greater following NK cell ALT-803 activation, as compared to controls. ALT-803-treated NK cells secreted significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than control conditions. Additionally, NK cells showed increased levels of phospho-ERK and phospho-STAT5 when co-cultured with cetuximab-coated tumors and ALT-803. Administration of both cetuximab and ALT-803 to mice harboring Cal27 SCCHN tumors resulted in significantly decreased tumor volume when compared to controls and compared to single-agent treatment alone. Overall, the present data suggest that cetuximab treatment in combination with ALT-803 in patients with EGFR-positive SCCHN may result in significant NK cell activation and have important anti-tumor activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Proteínas/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-15/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Carga Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1235-1243, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214732

RESUMO

Off-target toxicity due to the expression of target antigens in normal tissue or TCR cross-reactivity represents a major risk when using T cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells for treatment of solid tumours. Due to the inherent cross-reactivity of TCRs it is difficult to accurately predict their target recognition pre-clinically. It has become evident that direct testing in a human being represents the best evaluation of the risks. There is, therefore, a clear unmet need for assessing the safety of a therapeutic TCR in a more controllable manner than by the injection of permanently modified cellular products. Using transiently modified T cells combined with dose escalation has already been shown feasible for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells, but nothing is yet reported for TCR. We performed a preclinical evaluation of a therapeutic TCR transiently expressed in T cells by mRNA electroporation. We analyzed if the construct was active in vitro, how long it was detectable for and if this expression format was adapted to in vivo efficacy assessment. Our data demonstrate the potential of mRNA engineered T cells, although less powerful than permanent redirection, to induce a significant response. Thus, these findings support the development of mRNA based TCR-therapy strategies as a feasible and efficacious method for evaluating TCR safety and efficacy in first-in-man testing.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Eletroporação , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Experimentais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T/transplante , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1245-1261, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222486

RESUMO

The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, including treatment with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, often is limited by ineffective presentation of antigenic peptides that elicit T-cell-mediated anti-tumor cytotoxic responses. Manipulation of antigen presentation pathways is an emerging approach for enhancing the immunogenicity of tumors in immunotherapy settings. ER aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is an intracellular enzyme that trims peptides as part of the system that generates peptides for binding to MHC class I molecules (MHC-I). We hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of ERAP1 in cells could regulate the cellular immunopeptidome. To test this hypothesis, we treated A375 melanoma cells with a recently developed potent ERAP1 inhibitor and analyzed the presented MHC-I peptide repertoire by isolating MHC-I, eluting bound peptides, and identifying them using capillary chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the inhibitor did not reduce cell-surface MHC-I expression, it induced qualitative and quantitative changes in the presented peptidomes. Specifically, inhibitor treatment altered presentation of about half of the total 3204 identified peptides, including about one third of the peptides predicted to bind tightly to MHC-I. Inhibitor treatment altered the length distribution of eluted peptides without change in the basic binding motifs. Surprisingly, inhibitor treatment enhanced the average predicted MHC-I binding affinity, by reducing presentation of sub-optimal long peptides and increasing presentation of many high-affinity 9-12mers, suggesting that baseline ERAP1 activity in this cell line is destructive for many potential epitopes. Our results suggest that chemical inhibition of ERAP1 may be a viable approach for manipulating the immunopeptidome of cancer.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Aminopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Apresentação do Antígeno , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Ativação Linfocitária , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/imunologia , Ligação Proteica
7.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1273-1286, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243491

RESUMO

Therapeutic cancer vaccines have met limited clinical success. In the setting of cancer, the immune system is either tolerized and/or has a limited tumor-specific T cell repertoire. In this study, we explore whether intratumoral (IT) vaccination with an HPV vaccine can elicit quantitative and qualitative differences in immune response as compared to intramuscular (IM) vaccination to overcome immune resistance in established tumors. We report that IT administration of an HPV-16 E7 peptide vaccine formulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] generated an enhanced antitumor effect relative to IM delivery. The elicited anti-tumor effect with IT vaccination was consistent among the vaccinated groups and across various C57BL/6 substrains. IT vaccination resulted in an increased frequency of PD-1hi TILs, which represented both vaccine-targeted and non-vaccine-targeted tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Overall, the CD8+/Treg ratio was increased within the tumor microenvironment using IT vaccination. We also assessed transcriptional changes in several immune-related genes in the tumor microenvironment of the various treated groups, and our data suggest that IT vaccination leads to upregulation of a broad complement of immunomodulatory genes, including upregulation of interferon gamma (IFNγ) and antigen presentation and processing machine (APM) components. IT vaccine delivery is superior to traditional IM vaccination routes with the potential to improve tumor immunogenicity, which has potential clinical application in the setting of accessible lesions such as head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs).


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/genética , Injeções Intramusculares , Interferon gama/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Poli I-C/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Vacinação
8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1287-1301, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253998

RESUMO

Patchy infiltration of tumors by cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) predicts poorer prognosis for cancer patients. The factors limiting intratumoral CTL dissemination, though, are poorly understood. To study CTL dissemination in tumors, we histologically examined human melanoma samples and used mice to image B16-OVA tumors infiltrated by OT-I CTLs using intravital two-photon microscopy. In patients, most CTLs concentrated around peripheral blood vessels, especially in poorly infiltrated tumors. In mice, OT-I CTLs had to cluster around tumor cells to efficiently kill them in a contact-and perforin-dependent manner and cytotoxicity was strictly antigen-specific. OT-I CTLs as well as non-specific CTLs concentrated around peripheral vessels, and cleared the tumor cells around them. This was also the case when CTLs were injected directly into the tumors. CTLs crawled rapidly only in areas within 50 µm of flowing blood vessels and transient occlusion of vessels immediately, though reversibly, stopped their migration. In vitro, oxygen depletion and blockade of oxidative phosphorylation also reduced CTL motility. Taken together, these results suggest that hypoxia limits CTL migration away from blood vessels, providing immune-privileged niches for tumor cells to survive. Normalizing intratumoral vasculature may thus synergize with tumor immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Movimento Celular , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Humanos , Melanoma/irrigação sanguínea , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Experimentais , Neovascularização Patológica , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Perforina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/irrigação sanguínea
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(22): e15722, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that CD4CD25Foxp3Treg cells suppress NKG2D expression on NK cells via a cell contact-dependent mechanism and increased TGF-ß and IL-10 production in some cancer models. We herein aimed to explore whether CD4CD25Foxp3Tregs suppress NKG2D-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity in peripheral blood and elucidate the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon. METHODS: To explore the function of NKG2D, NK cell cultures were treated with an NKG2D-blocking antibody to block these receptors. Additionally, TGF-ß- and IL-10-blocking antibodies were added to NK and CD4CD25Foxp3Treg cell cocultures to evaluate whether the latter cells suppress NKG2D expression of NK cells via increasing the production of TGF-ß and IL-10. The expression of NKG2D on NK cells was detected by 3-color flow cytometry, and NK cell activity was assessed by 3 assays: a nonradioactive cytotoxicity assay, an ELISA measuring IFN-γ production and a flow cytometry assay to evaluate CD107a expression. RESULTS: Blocking NKG2D decreased NK cell cytotoxicity, IFN-γ production and CD107a expression. Moreover, blocking TGF-ß and IL-10 substantially increased the NKG2D expression in NK and CD4CD25Foxp3Treg cell cocultures. Similarly, blocking TGF-ß and IL-10 enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity, IFN-γ production and CD107a expression; Transwell insert assays also revealed increased IFN-γ production and CD107a and NKG2D expression. CONCLUSION: CD4CD25Foxp3Tregs suppress NKG2D-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity in peripheral blood via a cell contact-dependent mechanism and increased TGF-ß and IL-10 production.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos
10.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 865-878, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086333

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are critical mediators of host immunity to pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1α) and its substrate transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) drive NK cell responses against viral infection and tumors in vivo. IRE1α-XBP1 were essential for expansion of activated mouse and human NK cells and are situated downstream of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed c-Myc as a new and direct downstream target of XBP1 for regulation of NK cell proliferation. Genetic ablation or pharmaceutical blockade of IRE1α downregulated c-Myc, and NK cells with c-Myc haploinsufficency phenocopied IRE1α-XBP1 deficiency. c-Myc overexpression largely rescued the proliferation defect in IRE1α-/- NK cells. Like c-Myc, IRE1α-XBP1 also promotes oxidative phosphorylation in NK cells. Overall, our study identifies a IRE1α-XBP1-cMyc axis in NK cell immunity, providing insight into host protection against infection and cancer.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes myc , Imunidade/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo
11.
Microb Pathog ; 132: 20-25, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various promising procedures have been used to improve the potency of DNA vaccines for the treatment of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections. Interleukin-12 (IL12) is a powerful adjuvant that can contribute to T cell-mediated protection against many pathogens, specifically viruses. Considering the important role of T cell-mediated immunity in tumor clearance, the induction of these responses can help control the progression of tumors in animal models. We have demonstrated that the co-administration of codon-optimized E7 (uE7) gene of HPV16 with interleukin-12 is effective in the development of antitumor responses. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the co-administration of codon-optimized HPV16 E7 gene with murine interleukin-12 gene (mIL-12) as a vaccine adjuvant in tumor mice model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were studied for tumor progression after injection of recombinant DNA vaccines. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and IFN-γ were measured to evaluate the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Measurements of tumor volume and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay were used for assessment of therapeutic antitumor effects of the vaccines. RESULTS: Results showed that DNA vaccines, specifically codon-optimized E7/murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12), elicited significant differences in levels of IFN-γ and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTLs) responses compared to control groups. Furthermore, higher antitumor response and lower tumor size in the vaccine group was significantly evident compared to control group. CONCLUSION: The co-administration of codon-optimized HPV16 E7 gene with IL12 significantly enhances the DNA vaccine potency against HPV16-associated cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Códon , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Imunização , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/patogenicidade , Interferon gama , Interleucina-12/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética
12.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 32, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major challenge in the development of effective cancer immunotherapy is the ability of tumors and their microenvironment to suppress immune cells through immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid -derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells. We previously demonstrated that Plasmodium infection promotes innate and adaptive immunity against cancer in a murine Lewis lung cancer model but its effects on immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment are unknown. METHODS: Whole Tumors and tumor-derived sorted cells from tumor-bearing mice treated with or without plasmodium infected red blood cells were harvested 17 days post tumor implantation and analyzed using QPCR, western blotting, flow cytometry, and functional assays. Differences between groups were analyzed for statistical significance using Student's t-test. RESULTS: Here we found that Plasmodium infection significantly reduced the proportions of MDSCs and Tregs in the lung tumor tissues of the treated mice by downregulating their recruiting molecules and blocking cellular activation pathways. Importantly, CD8+ T cells isolated from the tumors of Plasmodium-treated mice exhibited significantly higher levels of granzyme B and perforin and remarkably lower levels of PD-1. CONCLUSION: We reveal for the first time, the effects of Plasmodium infection on the expansion and activation of MDSCs and Tregs with a consequent elevation of CD8+T cell-mediated cytotoxicity within the tumor microenvironment and hold great promise for the development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/terapia , Imunossupressão/métodos , Malária/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Plasmodium yoelii/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Granzimas/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia
13.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(5): 523-526, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936563

RESUMO

We improve the potency of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) containing the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific antibody pertuzumab by substantially reducing their affinity for HER2 at acidic endosomal pH relative to near neutral pH. These engineered pertuzumab variants show increased lysosomal delivery and cytotoxicity towards tumor cells expressing intermediate HER2 levels. In HER2int xenograft tumor models in mice, the variants show higher therapeutic efficacy than the parent ADC and a clinically approved HER2-specific ADC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/imunologia , Lisossomos/imunologia , Camundongos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Cancer Res ; 79(8): 1753-1755, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987977

RESUMO

Although much emphasis is given to the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors to restore the functionality of exhausted lymphocytes, very little is known about the fate of cancer cells that escape from the cytotoxic activity of T cells. In a previous issue of Cancer Research, Stein and colleagues investigated the response of cancer cells to CD8+ T cells disarmed of their killing activity. Spared cancer cells acquired stem cell-like features and displayed an enhanced capacity to form tumors and metastasize. These increased tumorigenic properties could represent the other side of the coin of T-cell surveillance seen in wound healing in which recognition of damaged tissue as "self" gives the green light for healing process.See related article by Stein and colleagues; Cancer Res 79(7):1507-19.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
15.
Cell Prolif ; 52(3): e12595, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could regulate the function of various immune cells. It remains unclear whether MSCs additionally possess immunostimulatory properties. We investigated the impact of human MSCs on the responsiveness of primary natural killer (NK) cells in terms of induction of anti-inflammatory purinergic signalling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We obtained human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). NK cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. Activated NK cells were cultured with MSCs. Proliferation assay, apoptosis analysis, activating or inhibitory receptor expression and degranulation assay were used to explore NK cells' function. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to investigate the purinergic signalling in activated NK cells. RESULTS: Both DPSCs and BMMSCs could impair proliferation and promote apoptosis of activated NK cells. Also, activated NK cells could cause DPSCs to lyse. Furthermore, the expression of activating NK cells' receptors was decreased, but inhibitory receptors of NK cells were elevated following co-cultivation. NK cells acquired CD73 expression, while MSCs could release ATP into the extracellular space where nucleotides were converted into adenosine (ADO) following co-culture system. Under the existence of exogenous 2-chloroadenosine (CADO), the cytotoxic capacity of NK cells was remarkably depressed in a concentration-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: DPSCs and BMMSCs could depress NK cells' function by hydrolysing ATP to ADO using CD39 and CD73 enzymatic activity. Our data suggested that DPSCs might represent a new strategy for treating immune-related diseases by regulating previously unrecognized functions in innate immune responses.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária/citologia , Polpa Dentária/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , 2-Cloroadenosina/farmacologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Células K562 , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Purinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 6587570, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944835

RESUMO

Background: PADI4 has extensive expression in many tumors. This study applied PADI4 as a tumor marker to stimulate DC- (dendritic cell-) CIK (cytokine-induced killer), an immunotherapy approach. Methods: A PADI4 expression plasmid was transfected into EC-originating ECA-109 cells. PADI4 gene was also inserted into a prokaryotic expression vector to produce recombinant protein. Lysate from PADI4-overexpressing cells or the purified recombinant PADI4 protein was used to load DCs, and the cells were then coincubated with CIK cells. DC and CIK cell phenotypes were determined using flow cytometry. The proliferation and viability of CIK cells were analyzed using trypan blue staining. The cytotoxic effect of DC-CIK cells on cultured ECA-109 cells was determined using CCK8 assays. Tumor-bearing mice were prepared by injection of ECA-109 cells. DC-CIK cells stimulated with lysate from PADI4-overexpressing cells or the PADI4 recombinant protein were injected into the tumor-bearing mice. The tumor growth was measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Following incubation with lysate from PADI4-overexpressing cells, the ratio of CD40+ DCs increased by 17.5%. Induction of CIK cells with PADI4-stimulated DCs elevated the cell proliferation by 53.2% and the ability of CIK cells to kill ECA-109 cells by 12.1%. DC-CIK cells stimulated with lysate from PADI4-overexpressing cells suppressed tumor volume by 18.6% in the tumor-bearing mice. The recombinant PADI4 protein showed a similar effect on CIK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity as that of the lysate from PADI4-overexpressing cells. Furthermore, the recombinant protein elevated the ratio of CD40+ DCs by 111.8%, CD80+ DCs by 6.3%, CD83+ DCs by 30.8%, and CD86+ DCs by 7.8%. Induction of CIK cells with rPADI4-stimulated DCs elevated the cell proliferation by 50.3% and the ability of CIK cells to kill ECA-109 cells by 14.7% and suppressed tumor volume by 35.1% in the animal model. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that stimulation of DC-CIK cells with PADI4 significantly suppressed tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice by promoting DC maturation, CIK cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity. PADI4 may be a potential tumor marker that could be used to improve the therapeutic efficiency of DC-CIK cells.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/genética , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/farmacologia , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neoplasias Esofágicas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(4): e1007658, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947296

RESUMO

Throughout evolution, cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) have been capturing genes from their hosts, employing the derived proteins to evade host immune defenses. We have recently reported the presence of a number of CD48 homologs (vCD48s) encoded by different pathogenic viruses, including several CMVs. However, their properties and biological relevance remain as yet unexplored. CD48, a cosignaling molecule expressed on the surface of most hematopoietic cells, modulates the function of natural killer (NK) and other cytotoxic cells by binding to its natural ligand 2B4 (CD244). Here, we have characterized A43, the vCD48 exhibiting the highest amino acid sequence identity with host CD48. A43, which is encoded by owl monkey CMV, is a soluble molecule released from the cell after being proteolytically processed through its membrane proximal region. A43 is expressed with immediate-early kinetics, yielding a protein that is rapidly detected in the supernatant of infected cells. Remarkably, surface plasmon resonance assays revealed that this viral protein binds to host 2B4 with high affinity and slow dissociation rates. We demonstrate that soluble A43 is capable to abrogate host CD48:2B4 interactions. Moreover, A43 strongly binds to human 2B4 and prevents 2B4-mediated NK-cell adhesion to target cells, therefore reducing the formation of conjugates and the establishment of immunological synapses between human NK cells and CD48-expressing target cells. Furthermore, in the presence of this viral protein, 2B4-mediated cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production by NK cells are severely impaired. In summary, we propose that A43 may serve as a functional soluble CD48 decoy receptor by binding and masking 2B4, thereby impeding effective NK cell immune control during viral infections. Thus, our findings provide a novel example of the immune evasion strategies developed by viruses.


Assuntos
Antígeno CD48/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Antígeno CD48/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(4): e1007725, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995287

RESUMO

Besides their function in recognizing cancerous and virally infected cells, natural killer (NK) cells have the potential to shape adaptive immune responses. However, the mechanisms employed by NK cells to negatively regulate virus-specific CD8 T cell responses remain to be fully defined. Using activating receptor natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) 1 deficient (NCR1gfp/gfp) mice, we found increased numbers of virus-specific CD8 T cells, leading to enhanced virus control during acute LCMV infection. Furthermore, virus-specific CD8 T cells were more activated in the absence of NCR1, resulting in exacerbated immunopathology, documented by weight loss, and superior virus control early during chronic LCMV infection. Transfer experiments of virus-specific CD8 T cells into NCR1 deficient hosts revealed a direct cross talk between NK and CD8 T cells. Studies on the splenic microarchitecture revealed pronounced disorganization of T cells in infected NCR1gfp/gfp mice, resulting in enhanced immunopathology and disruption of the T cell niche upon chronic LCMV infection. Our data show a novel pathway employed by NK cells to regulate antiviral CD8 T cell responses, namely direct recognition and elimination of activated CD8 T cells via NCR1 early during infection to protect the host from an overshooting T cell response.


Assuntos
Antígenos Ly/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Receptor 1 Desencadeador da Citotoxicidade Natural/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1685, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976008

RESUMO

Neonatal sepsis is characterized by hyperinflammation causing enhanced morbidity and mortality compared to adults. This suggests differences in the response towards invading threats. Here we investigate activated cord blood macrophages (CBMΦ) in comparison to adult macrophages (PBMΦ), indicating incomplete interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10)-induced activation of CBMΦ. CBMΦ show reduced expression of phagocytosis receptors and cytokine expression in addition to altered energy metabolism. In particular, IFN-γ as well as IL-10-activated CBMΦ completely fail to increase glycolysis and furthermore show reduced activation of the mTOR pathway, which is important for survival in sepsis. MTOR inhibition by rapamycin equalizes cytokine production in CBMΦ and PBMΦ. Finally, incubation of PBMΦ with cord blood serum or S100A8/A9, which is highly expressed in neonates, suppresses mTOR activation, prevents glycolysis and the expression of an PBMΦ phenotype. Thus, a metabolic alteration is apparent in CBMΦ, which might be dependent on S100A8/A9 expression.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Metabolismo Energético/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Calgranulina A/imunologia , Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Calgranulina B/imunologia , Calgranulina B/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Glicólise/imunologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Sepse/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(6): 961-971, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955067

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most lethal cancer in the world. Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immunity is crucial for tumor surveillance and therapy. Characterization of the regulatory mechanisms of NK cell function is important for developing novel immunotherapies against HCC. In this study, we used a chemical-induced mouse HCC model to identify the upregulation of Sirtuin2 (SIRT2) in liver NK cells. In particular, SIRT2 was predominantly expressed in liver CD94+ NK cells. The HCC liver microenvironment induced SIRT2 expression in NK cells. In addition, overexpression of exogenous SIRT2 significantly upregulated the production of cytokines and cytotoxic mediators in activated NK cells. Consistently, SIRT2-overexpressing NK cells showed a stronger tumoricidal effect on hepatoma cells. Moreover, SIRT2 remarkably promoted the phosphorylation of Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) and p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in activated NK cells. SIRT2 knockdown in liver CD94+ NK cells impaired their cytotoxic effect on hepatoma cells. Our study indicates that SIRT2 enhances the tumoricidal activity of liver NK cells in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Sirtuína 2/imunologia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/terapia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Interferência de RNA , Sirtuína 2/genética , Sirtuína 2/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
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