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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 945-952, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Watermelon is appreciated for its nutritional properties and for its flavor. Among the flavor-active compounds that it contains, volatiles play a key role being responsible for aroma. Recent breeding activity has led to the release of mini-watermelons with reduced fruit weight. This paper reports on the characterization of aroma profiles of 'Rugby' and 'Cuoredolce®' novel mini-watermelon cultivars at the ripening stage. The main volatiles were identified and quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), and their concentrations were correlated with the E-nose profile. The potential contribution of volatile compounds to the fruit aroma was evaluated by computing the odor activity values (OAV). RESULTS: Twenty main volatile compounds were identified: aldehydes (9), alcohols (4), ketones (2), and terpenes and terpenoids (5). C-9 aldehydes and alcohols were the prevalent compounds. The two cultivars differed in precocity, with 'Rugby' being riper from the early stage considered. Many apocarotenoids with desirable olfactory notes were detected in the volatile profile of 'Rugby'. Four e-nose sensors' signals significantly changed with variety and ripening stage: W1W and W2W were positively correlated and W6S was negatively correlated with all identified volatiles, while W3S showed a negative correlation with 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, the major lycopene catabolite. CONCLUSIONS: The aroma profiles described here contribute to the characterization of 'Cuoredolce®' and 'Rugby' mini-watermelon cultivars. Electronic-nose measurement was able to discriminate between cultivars and, to a lesser extent, among ripening stages. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Citrullus/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Citrullus/classificação , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1328-1335, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, mini-watermelons have increased in popularity. To maintain production and quality standards, various agronomic techniques have been applied. For the Cucurbitaceae family, grafting technique has been used to improve resistance to abiotic stresses, crop productivity and fruit qualitative characteristics. There is some previous literature on this matter, but no information on the influence of grafting on the aroma compounds of mini-watermelons is available. Hence, our research aimed to evaluate the effect of some rootstocks, which were selected on the basis of their tolerance to pathogens, on the quality of mini-watermelons, with particular attention to the volatile aroma compounds. RESULTS: Volatile aroma compounds were analysed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The most represented compounds were C6 and C9 aldehydes and alcohols, which characterize the fruit aroma of the Cucurbitaceae family: (Z)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol and (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadien-1-ol were prevalent. Quantitative differences resulted in relation to the various selected rootstocks. Among these, the RS841 rootstock was found to be the most suitable for maintaining yield, quality parameters, sensory characteristics and volatile aroma compounds of mini-watermelon fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlighted that the rootstock, as for other Cucurbitaceae varieties, influences fruit quality and plant yield also for the mini-water melon; the results show the importance of screening for rootstock/scion combinations in order to select a graft able to provide resistance to abiotic stresses, and at the same time improve yield and fruit quality. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Citrullus/química , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
3.
Food Chem ; 300: 125227, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351262

RESUMO

Indirect measurements of taste-related compounds are required when a high number of samples has to be analyzed in a short period of time, with a minimum cost. For this purpose, FT-MIR partial least square (PLS) regression models for the prediction of total soluble solids, sugars and organic acids have been developed using three sample sets including breeding lines and commercial varieties of watermelon. Specific models with excellent performance were obtained only for sugars. Nevertheless, a general model supposed a compromise between the best and worse models and offered %RMSEP values of 11.3%, 11.1% and 11.7% for fructose, glucose and sucrose respectively. The model was applied to the selection of high content samples (selection pressure 20% and 30%) obtaining good sensitivity levels and mean percentile of selected samples close to the expected values (100% sensitivity). The robustness of FT-MIR models was assessed with predictions of external assays, obtaining reasonable performances.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/análise , Citrullus/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Malatos/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Açúcares/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/estatística & dados numéricos , Paladar
4.
Food Chem ; 299: 125165, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306953

RESUMO

In the present study, the antioxidant hydrolysates obtained from watermelon seed protein (WSP) after divergent ultrasound and ultrafiltration treatment were studied. The results showed that the slit divergent ultrasound (SDU, 20/28 KHz) pretreatment had considerable influence on the structure and enzymatic efficiency of WSP. Besides, compared with hydrolysates without ultrasonic and ultrafiltration treatment, watermelon protein hydrolysates with molecular weight <1 kDa (WSPHs-I) showed the highest antioxidant activities and could protect RAW 264.7 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative stress damage via activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Interestingly, WSPHs-I had good stability against oxidation at temperature under 100 °C or in the acidic or neutral condition and still exhibited strong antioxidant activity after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Taken together, SDU pretreatment could significantly increase the antioxidant activities and stability of WSPHs by improving the structure and facilitating enzymolysis of the WSP.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrullus/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Ultrassom/métodos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Estabilidade Proteica , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/química , Sementes/química , Ultrafiltração
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 136: 632-641, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220491

RESUMO

As a health-beneficial fruit, watermelon is widely consumed by people around the world. However, components responsible for the health benefits are not yet determined. As watermelon contains a large amount of polysaccharides, these carbohydrates might play an important role in the health benefits. In this work, polysaccharide from watermelon rinds (PWR) was extracted by papain digestion, purified and characterized by GC-MS, SEC/MALS/VD/DRI, FTIR and 1D and 2D NMR which revealed the glycosidic linkages, their locations in branches and backbone. The monosaccharide composition revealed that the extracted polysaccharide was composed of galactose (38.26%), arabinose (26.12%), rhamnose (17.86%), mannose (9.94%), xylose (5.10%) and glucose (2.70%) with a percentage of uronic acid of 45%. A combination of CPG and NMR analysis showed that the extracted polysaccharide is arabinogalactan linked to type I rhamnogalacturonan. we notice that the arabinogalactan was formed by →6)-ß-D-Galp-(1→ as backbone with short branching of arabinose linked in α 1 → 3, rhamnose linked in α 1 → 4, mannose linked in ß 1 → 6 and galactose branches linked in ß 1 → 3. Furthermore, PWR exhibited obvious cytotoxicity ability to human laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells in a dose-and time-dependant manner.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Citrullus/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126008

RESUMO

Both the calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and CDPK-related kinases (CRKs) play numerous roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. Despite genome-wide identification of both families in Cucumis, comparative evolutionary and functional analysis of both CDPKs and CRKs in Cucurbitaceae remain unclear. In this study, we identified 128 CDPK and 56 CRK genes in total in six Cucurbitaceae species (C. lanatus, C. sativus, C. moschata, C. maxima, C. pepo, and L. siceraria). Dot plot analysis indicated that self-duplication of conserved domains contributed to the structural variations of two CDPKs (CpCDPK19 and CpCDPK27) in C. pepo. Using watermelon genome as reference, an integrated map containing 25 loci (16 CDPK and nine CRK loci) was obtained, 16 of which (12 CDPK and four CRK) were shared by all seven Cucurbitaceae species. Combined with exon-intron organizations, topological analyses indicated an ancient origination of groups CDPK IV and CRK. Moreover, the evolutionary scenario of seven modern Cucurbitaceae species could also be reflected on the phylogenetic trees. Expression patterns of ClCDPKs and ClCRKs were studied under different abiotic stresses. Some valuable genes were uncovered for future gene function exploration. For instance, both ClCDPK6 and its ortholog CsCDPK14 in cucumber could be induced by salinity, while ClCDPK6 and ClCDPK16, as well as their orthologs in Cucumis, maintained high expression levels in male flowers. Collectively, these results provide insights into the evolutionary history of two gene families in Cucurbitaceae, and indicate a subset of candidate genes for functional characterizations in the future.


Assuntos
Citrullus/genética , Cucurbitaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Citrullus/química , Cucurbitaceae/química , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Quinases/química
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(23): 6642-6649, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117488

RESUMO

The rapid monitoring of foodborne pathogens by monoclonal antibody (McAb)-based immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) is desirable but highly challenging as a result of the screening obstacle for a superior performance probe, which will greatly determine the capture efficiency of targets and the sensitivity of the immunoassay. In this work, on the basis of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets (including MoS2 and graphene) as the extraordinary capture probe and signal indicator, we fabricated a label-free ICT method for Salmonella enteritidis detection. Especially, without the customarily labeled antibody probe, these 2D versatile probes presented strong capture ability toward bacteria by directly assembling onto the surface of bacteria. An ideal analytical performance with high sensitivity and specificity was achieved by virtue of the novel nanosheet-bacteria-McAb sandwich format. On the basis of MoS2 2D nanosheets as a fabulous probe element, the developed ICT exhibited a lowest detectable concentration of 103 colony-forming units/mL for S. enteritidis and could be well-applied in drinking water and watermelon juice samples. By the smart design, this work removes a series of conditionality issues of traditional double antibody sandwich-based ICTs and can give a new application direction for 2D nanosheet materials in the rapid detection field.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Imunoensaio/métodos , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Citrullus/química , Citrullus/microbiologia , Grafite/química , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Nanoestruturas/química , Salmonella enteritidis/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(9): 8992-9004, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715705

RESUMO

Vegetable oils are found suitable alternate of diesel fuel as per the results of short-run studies. Long-run studies with vegetable oil as a fuel pointed out the problems related to wear and maintenance of the engine. A single cylinder, variable compression ratio diesel engine was tested for 512 h (32 cycles of 16 h per day) to investigate longevity implications of fueling Thumba vegetable oil. Results of the study revealed that a very little damage was observed over the running surface of the cylinder liner, piston rings, valves, and valve seats. Wear in the piston outer diameter was observed to be 13 to 30 microns. Cylinder wear was about 80 microns. The closed gap in the oil piston ring increased up to 200 microns. Heavy carbon deposition was found on different internal parts of the engine, which indicates poor combustion of fuel. Amount of copper (66 mg/kg) and silicon (112 mg/kg) dissolved in the lubricating oil was found more than permissible limits (Cu 50 mg/kg, Si 25 mg/kg), after 450-h engine test run. But all the dissolve materials remain in allowable limits when the durability test conducted with diesel. Smoke, CO, HC, and NOX emissions were found to increase initially then decrease in the further engine running hours. But these emissions were found inferior to the engine emissions fueled with diesel in all the running hours. CO2 emissions were found superior throughout the test with the preheated T20 Thumba oil blend than diesel. The maximum reduction in the viscosity of the lubricating oil, during endurance testing, was found 60 centipoises but it was found 25 centipoises when the test conducted with diesel.


Assuntos
Citrullus/química , Gasolina/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Carbono/análise , Veículos Automotores , Pressão , Fumaça/análise
9.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(2): 200-203, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756297

RESUMO

Because of accruing oxidative stress with advancing age, older adults may benefit from increased dietary intake of lycopene, a lipophilic carotenoid with potent antioxidant properties. Yet, intake of dietary lycopene as well as circulating lycopene levels are known to decrease with aging. Watermelon is one of the few food sources of dietary lycopene. Because heat treatment increases lycopene bioavailability, ingestion of watermelon in pasteurized juice form may be an optimal delivery vehicle to increase lycopene levels in older adults. However, due to its lipophilic nature, there are concerns that co-ingestion of dietary fat may be necessary for efficient intestinal absorption of lycopene. Thus, this feasibility study aimed to examine the effects of a one-time dose of 100% pasteurized watermelon juice on circulating lycopene concentrations of postmenopausal women after a 10-h overnight fast. Blood was sampled from eight women before and 2 h after ingestion of 360 ml of juice, and serum lycopene was measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Circulating lycopene levels increased by three-fold (p < 0.001) with increases observed for every participant. Results demonstrate that 100% watermelon juice is a palatable, effective means of increasing serum lycopene in older adult women, a group at risk for low carotenoid intake. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03608254 .


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Citrullus/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Alimento Funcional , Licopeno/farmacocinética , Idoso , Antioxidantes/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Licopeno/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós-Menopausa
10.
Nutr Res ; 58: 46-54, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340814

RESUMO

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is rich in l-citrulline, an l-arginine precursor that may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of watermelon powder and l-arginine on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon and l-arginine would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation by modulating hepatic gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 21 days (N = 32) were assigned to 3 groups and fed diets containing watermelon powder (0.5% wt/wt), l-arginine (0.3% as 0.36% l-arginine HCl wt/wt), or a control diet for 9 weeks. Watermelon and l-arginine supplementation improved lipid profiles by lowering serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .050). Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein were significantly lower (P < .050) in the watermelon and l-arginine groups. Rats in the watermelon and l-arginine groups showed reduced oxidative stress, increased total antioxidant capacity, and higher concentrations of superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase (P < .050). Concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were lower (P < .050) in the watermelon and l-arginine groups. Watermelon and l-arginine consumption upregulated hepatic gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and downregulated expression of fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor-κB p65 (P < .050). The results support the hypothesis that watermelon and arginine improve cardiovascular disease risk factors including lipid profile, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation by altering relevant gene expression.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arginina/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Citrullus/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Arginina/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Citrulina/farmacologia , Citrulina/uso terapêutico , Dieta Aterogênica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo
11.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 187: 126-130, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145462

RESUMO

The evaluation of optical properties of biological samples is gaining increasing interests both in scientific and commercial fields concerning agriculture and food processing. The optical techniques can indeed be able to provide information on quality assessment in a fast and non-destructive way. This feature makes them suitable for automatic management of control processes. In this paper, we propose to use the Delayed Luminescence, a ultra-weak and photo-induced emission of optical photons, as a tool for a rapid evaluation of germination performance, the principal index reflecting seed quality. Two lots of 'Mirella' F1 watermelon dried seeds, of 96 seeds each, were considered. The seeds were analyzed in the conditions as provided by seed/breeding company. Characteristics of Delayed Luminescence emission from each single seed were correlated to the different germination levels as assessed by International Seed Testing Procedures. Parametric differences in the two lots were determined, based on the relaxation kinetics of some spectral components. A control test, with the aim to construct a calibration model, was conceived and successfully tested. Time decays of Delayed Luminescence spectral components at central wavelengths 450 nm, 550 nm and 650 nm, corresponding to spectrum region where natural biomarkers as NADH, flavins and lipopigments, protoporphyrin and ROS respectively emit, have been evaluated. The results show that such time decays are strictly connected to the biological state of the system under analysis and allow also proposing Delayed Luminescence measurement as a quick, cheap and non-destructive test for seed viability analysis.


Assuntos
Citrullus/química , Medições Luminescentes , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flavinas/química , Flavinas/metabolismo , Germinação/fisiologia , Lipídeos/química , NAD/química , NAD/metabolismo , Protoporfirinas/química , Protoporfirinas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(34): 9107-9120, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085667

RESUMO

The hydrophilic extracts of mulberry (HEM) and blueberry (HEB) and lipophilic extracts of mango (LEM) and watermelon (LEW) were mixed in different ratios to assess the antioxidant interactions by chemical-based (DPPH and ABTS assays) and H9c2 cell-based models. There were both synergistic and antagonistic antioxidant interactions among these fruits. Some groups with combinational extracts showed stronger synergistic antioxidant effects than the individual groups, and others (HEM-LEW F1/10, LEW-LEM F5/10, and HEB-LEM F3/10) showed stronger antagonistic effects than the individual groups based on the indicators [the values of DPPH, ABTS, and MTT; the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA); the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and the quantification of cellular antioxidant activity]. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that samples could be defined by two principal components: PC1, the main phenolic acids and anthocyanins, and PC2, carotenoids. From our results, primarily, carotenoids were in the majority in antagonistic groups, and phenolics and anthocyanins were in the majority in synergistic groups. However, the combinational groups containing only hydrophilic compounds did not always show synergistic effects. Therefore, the compatibility of diets indicates balancing the ratios of hydrophilic and lipophlic compounds in our daily food. In addition, the expression of enzymes (SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT) may not be sensitive to the changes of antioxidant activity caused by the combinations with different ratios of hydrophilic and lipophilc compounds. The different structures of lipophilic compounds (ß-carotene and lycopene) could influence the antagonistic effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citrullus/química , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Mangifera/química , Morus/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/química , beta Caroteno/farmacologia
13.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 456, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient required for plant growth and development. In this study, watermelon plants were grown under hydroponic conditions at 0.2 mM N, 4.5 mM N, and 9 mM N for 14 days. RESULTS: Dry weight and photosynthetic assimilation at low N (0.2 mM) was reduced by 29 and 74% compared with high N (9 mM). The photochemical activity (Fv/Fm) was also reduced from 0.78 at high N to 0.71 at low N. The N concentration in the leaf, stem, and root of watermelon under low N conditions was reduced by 68, 104, and 108%, respectively compared with 9 mM N treatment after 14 days of N treatment. In the leaf tissues of watermelon grown under low N conditions, 9598 genes were differentially expressed, out of which 4533 genes (47.22%) were up-regulated whereas, 5065 genes (52.78%) were down-regulated compared with high N. Similarly in the root tissues, 3956 genes were differentially expressed, out of which 1605 genes were up-regulated (40.57%) and 2351 genes were down-regulated (59.43%), compared with high N. Our results suggest that leaf tissues are more sensitive to N deficiency compared with root tissues. The gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the availability of N significantly affected 19 biological processes, 8 cell component metabolic pathways, and 3 molecular functions in the leaves; and 13 biological processes, 12 molecular functions, and 5 cell component metabolic pathways in the roots of watermelon. The low affinity nitrate transporters, high affinity nitrate transporters, ammonium transporters, genes related with nitrogen assimilation, and chlorophyll and photosynthesis were expressed differentially in response to low N. Three nitrate transporters (Cla010066, Cla009721, Cla012765) substantially responded to low nitrate supply in the root and leaf tissues. Additionally, a large number of transcription factors (1365) were involved in adaptation to low N availability. The major transcription factor families identified in this study includes MYB, AP2-EREBP, bHLH, C2H2 and NAC. CONCLUSION: Candidate genes identified in this study for nitrate uptake and transport can be targeted and utilized for further studies in watermelon breeding and improvement programs to improve N uptake and utilization efficiency.


Assuntos
Citrullus/genética , Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Citrullus/química , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrullus/metabolismo , Citocininas/genética , Citocininas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 115: 425-435, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608981

RESUMO

The phytol isolated from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sprouts inhibited the growth of a human T-cell leukemia line Jurkat cell and suppressed tumor progression in a xenograft model of human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549 in nude mice. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the phytol-induced cell death in the present study, we examined the changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and performed flow cytometric analysis to evaluate cell cycle stage. There were no significant changes in apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis marker in cells treated with the phytol. But, we found, for the first time, that phytol remarkably induced S-phase cell cycle arrest accompanied with intracellular ROS production. Western blot analyses showed that phytolinduced S-phase cell cycle arrest was mediated through the decreased expression of cyclins A and D and the downregulations of MAPK and PI3K/Akt. The tumor volume levels in mice treated with phytol were lower than those of non-treatment groups, and it showed very similar suppression compared with those of mice treated with cyclophosphamide. Based on the data of in vitro and in vivo studies and previous studies, we suggest phytol as a potential therapeutic compound for cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrullus/química , Fitol/farmacologia , Fase S/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclinas/metabolismo , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , NADPH Oxidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 156: 428-433, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29597060

RESUMO

The dissipation of triforine in the immature and mature fruit periods was investigated under field conditions. Residue levels of triforine in watermelon were determined by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The decline curves of triforine residues in the watermelon corresponded with first-order kinetics. The half-lives of triforine in Dark Belle and Shiny Boy were 2.10-2.57 days and 2.31-2.67 days respectively. Meanwhile, the half-lives of triforine in the immature and mature fruit periods were 1.69-2.04 days and 2.89-3.85 days, respectively. In the terminal residue experiment, the terminal residues of triforine in the watermelon flesh and peel were below 0.01 mg/kg to 0.05 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg to 0.36 mg/kg, respectively. The dissipation rates of triforine varied in different cultivars of watermelon, and even in the same cultivar, the half-lives of triforine significantly varied in the different fruit periods. Although triforine is a fungicide within the suction, the terminal residues in the peel and flesh were very significant.


Assuntos
Citrullus/química , Frutas/química , Piperazinas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Meia-Vida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Food Res Int ; 107: 119-129, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580469

RESUMO

Qualitative and quantitative analysis and odor active value (OAV) calculation were applied to identify the aroma-active compounds of fresh watermelon juice in five varieties: Seedless, Jingxin, Lianfa, Qilin, and Texiaofeng. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were selected to compare the similarity and difference among watermelons juices. Fifty-five volatiles were identified in watermelon juice in five varieties, among which 6 volatiles were identified for the first time in watermelon. (Z)-6-nonenal, (E, Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, and (E, E)-2,4-nonadienal contributed greater to aroma profiles than alcohols due to lower threshold through odor active values. It was indicated by principal component analysis and cluster analysis that watermelon juices were separated into three groups, Jingxin, Lianfa-Texiaofeng, and Seedless-Qilin, whose characteristic volatiles were aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones respectively. The average distance between JX and the other varieties was higher than that of others through cluster analysis, indicating that the aroma of Jingxin differed from that of the other four varieties greatly.


Assuntos
Citrullus/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Olfato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto , Citrullus/classificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Percepção Olfatória , Análise de Componente Principal , Adulto Jovem
17.
Food Chem ; 255: 58-66, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571498

RESUMO

The effects of the concentration of watermelon juice at different temperatures (45, 55, or 65 °C) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, antioxidant capacity, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of whey-based popsicles were investigated. Total phenolic content, lycopene, citrulline, VOCs, melting rate, instrumental colour, antioxidant capacity, and the sensory characteristics (hedonic test and free listing) were determined. The temperature led to a significant decrease in bioactive compounds (total phenolics, lycopene, and citrulline). The popsicle manufactured with reconstituted watermelon juice concentrated to 60 °Brix at 65 °C presented higher antioxidant capacity and was characterized by the presence of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and presented a similar acceptance to the untreated popsicle (except for flavour). It is possible to combine whey and concentrated watermelon juice for the manufacture of bioactive-rich popsicles, using the concentration temperature of 65 °C as a suitable processing condition for potential industrial applications.


Assuntos
Citrullus/química , Alimentos Congelados/análise , Sensação , Soro do Leite , Antioxidantes/análise , Bebidas , Carotenoides/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Citrulina/análise , Cor , Licopeno , Fenóis/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1542: 19-27, 2018 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478829

RESUMO

In this work, metal-organic framework particles incorporated fibers (UiO-66/PAN nanofibers) were used as adsorbent in pipette tip solid phase extraction (PT-SPE) for the first time. The UiO-66/PAN nanofibers were fabricated by a facile electrospinning method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments. The UiO-66/PAN nanofibers were applied to assemble a novel PT-SPE cartridge for determination of four phytohormones followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Several experimental parameters such as kinds of UiO-66/PAN nanofibers, the amount of UiO-66/PAN nanofibers, the effect of solution pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions were intensively investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the phytohormones were in the range of 0.06-60 ng/mL with correlation coefficients above 0.992. The limits of detection were between 0.01 ng/mL to 0.02 ng/mL. The interday and intraday precision (RSD) for three replicate extractions of the four phytohormones (15 ng/mL for each) was in the range of 1.5-5.6%. The established method was successfully applied for the determination of phytohormones in watermelon and mung bean sprouts samples. The results showed that the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged UiO-66 and anionic forms of phytohormones played an important role in the extraction of the phytohormones.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Nanofibras/química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citrullus/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Concentração Osmolar , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/química , Vigna/química
19.
Talanta ; 179: 318-325, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310238

RESUMO

In this work, polypropylene hollow fiber was replaced by agarose gel in conventional electro membrane extraction (EME) to develop a novel approach. The proposed EME method was then employed to extract two amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) as model polar analytes, followed by HPLC-UV. The method showed acceptable results under optimized conditions. This green methodology outperformed conventional EME, and required neither organic solvents nor carriers. The effective parameters such as the pH values of the acceptor and the donor solutions, the thickness and pH of the gel, the extraction voltage, the stirring rate, and the extraction time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions (acceptor solution pH: 1.5; donor solution pH: 2.5; agarose gel thickness: 7mm; agarose gel pH: 1.5; stirring rate of the sample solution: 1000rpm; extraction potential: 40V; and extraction time: 15min), the limits of detection and quantification were 7.5ngmL-1 and 25ngmL-1, respectively. The extraction recoveries were between 56.6% and 85.0%, and the calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficients above 0.996 over a concentration range of 25.0-1000.0ngmL-1 for both amino acids. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 5.5-12.5%, and relative errors were smaller than 12.0%. Finally, the optimized method was successfully applied to preconcentrate, clean up, and quantify amino acids in watermelon and grapefruit juices as well as a plasma sample, and acceptable relative recoveries in the range of 53.9-84.0% were obtained.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Fenilalanina/isolamento & purificação , Sefarose/química , Tirosina/isolamento & purificação , Tampões (Química) , Calibragem , Citrullus/química , Citrus paradisi/química , Eletricidade , Géis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Membranas Artificiais , Fenilalanina/sangue , Polipropilenos/química , Tirosina/sangue , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 111: 1304-1307, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355635

RESUMO

Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the Chinese watermelon was investigated. The polysaccharides were obtained by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and deproteinization with HCl, respectively. The molecular weight was 3.02 × 104. It showed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and TLC that Chinese watermelon polysaccharides consisted of six monosaccharides, namely glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose. The polysaccharides contained the ß-glycosidic bond. Moreover, it was proved that the polysaccharides had high scavenging ability to superoxide anions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Citrullus/química , Monossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Arabinose/química , Arabinose/isolamento & purificação , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Manose/química , Manose/isolamento & purificação , Monossacarídeos/classificação , Monossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/classificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Xilose/química , Xilose/isolamento & purificação
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