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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131065, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560336

RESUMO

Citrus fruits are a good source of flavanones. The present study aimed to assess the effect of food matrix elements [dietary fibres (DFs)] on the flavanone profile of grapefruit peel (GFP) and on the gut microbiota during in vitro digestion and simulated colonic fermentation. The contents of low-molecular-weight metabolites (dihydrocaffeic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid) were increased by pectin, konjac and chitosan in medium- and high-viscosity matrices. Compared with the GFP group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Clostridium leptum were significantly increased in medium-viscosity food matrices (konjac and chitosan) (p < 0.05). Moreover, the acetic and propionic acid contents were significantly elevated in the GFP + DF groups after 12 h of fermentation (p < 0.05). GFP flavanones were retained by DF, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potency composite (APC) index decreased during in vitro digestion. These findings indicate that medium-viscosity DFs (konjac and chitosan) could act as key food matrix elements for the retention of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi , Flavanonas , Microbiota , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Fezes/química , Fermentação
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570813

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death in American men. Several therapies have been developed to treat advanced prostate cancer, but these therapies often have severe side effects. To improve the outcome with fewer side effects we focused on the furanocoumarin bergamottin, a natural product found in grapefruit juice and a potent CYP3A inhibitor. Our recent studies have shown that CYP3A5 inhibition can block androgen receptor (AR) signaling, critical for prostate cancer growth. We observed that bergamottin reduces prostate cancer (PC) cell growth by decreasing both total and nuclear AR (AR activation) reducing downstream AR signaling. Bergamottin's role in reducing AR activation was confirmed by confocal microscopy studies and reduction in prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, which is a marker for prostate cancer. Further studies revealed that bergamottin promotes cell cycle block and accumulates G0/G1 cells. The cell cycle block was accompanied with reduction in cyclin D, cyclin B, CDK4, P-cdc2 (Y15) and P-wee1 (S642). We also observed that bergamottin triggers apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines as evident by TUNEL staining and PARP cleavage. Our data suggests that bergamottin may suppress prostate cancer growth, especially in African American (AA) patients carrying wild type CYP3A5 often presenting aggressive disease.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/uso terapêutico , Furocumarinas/uso terapêutico , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Fracionamento Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citrus paradisi/química , Regulação para Baixo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Receptores Androgênicos/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502276

RESUMO

Tested in vitro on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, grapefruit IntegroPectin is a powerful protective, antioxidant and antiproliferative agent. The strong antioxidant properties of this new citrus pectin, and its ability to preserve mitochondrial membrane potential and morphology, severely impaired in neurodegenerative disorders, make it an attractive therapeutic and preventive agent for the treatment of oxidative stress-associated brain disorders. Similarly, the ability of this pectic polymer rich in RG-I regions, as well as in naringin, linalool, linalool oxide and limonene adsorbed at the outer surface, to inhibit cell proliferation or even kill, at high doses, neoplastic cells may have opened up new therapeutic strategies in cancer research. In order to take full advantage of its vast therapeutic and preventive potential, detailed studies of the molecular mechanism involved in the antiproliferative and neuroprotective of this IntegroPectin are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrus paradisi/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Difração de Raios X
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444881

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between taste responsiveness and food liking in preadolescents. Model food samples of grapefruit juice (GF) and vegetable broth (VB) modified with four additions of sucrose and sodium chloride, respectively, were employed. Intensity perception for sweetness, sourness, and bitterness were measured in GF while saltiness and umami were measured in VB. The children (N = 148) also completed food choice, familiarity, stated liking and neophobia questionnaires. The test was conducted at school, with instructions provided remotely via video call. Four segments were defined differing in basic taste responsiveness. Segments and sucrose concentrations significantly affected liking for GF, while no significant effect of segments and sodium chloride concentrations occurred on liking for VB. An increasing sucrose concentration was positively associated with liking for GF only in the segment with low responsiveness to bitter and sour tastes. No significant differences across segments were found for food choice, familiarity, stated liking, and neophobia. Conclusively, relationships between taste responsiveness and liking are product and basic taste-dependent in addition to being subject-dependent. Strategies to improve acceptance by using sucrose as a suppressor for warning sensations of bitterness and sourness can be more or less effective depending on individual responsiveness to the basic tastes.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Percepção Gustatória , Criança , Citrus paradisi , Sacarose na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205060

RESUMO

The medicinal potential and volatile composition of different parts of three cultivars of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-inflammatory activities. Fresh leaf and fruit peel were separately isolated by hydrodistillation for 4 h. The essential oils were subjected to GC/GC-MS analysis for chemical profile. Toxicity of the essential oils in mice were evaluated using Lorke's method, while an anti-inflammatory assay was performed in a rat model using egg albumin-induced oedema. The oils obtained were light yellow in colour, and odour varied from strong citrus smell to mild. Percentage yield of fresh peel oil (0.34-0.57%) was greater than the fresh leaf oil yield (0.21-0.34%). D-limonene (86.70-89.90%) was the major compound identified in the leaf oil, while ß-phellandrene (90.00-91.01%) dominated the peel oil. At a dosage level of 5000 mg/kg, none of the oils showed mortality in mice. An anti-inflammatory bioassay revealed that all the oils caused a significant (p < 0.05-0.01) reduction in oedema size when compared to the negative control group throughout the 5 h post induction assessment period. The study reveals that the oils are non-toxic and demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity. Our findings suggest that the leaf and peel oils obtained from waste parts of grapefruit plants can be useful as flavouring agents, as well as anti-inflammatory agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Citrus paradisi/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno/análise , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ratos , África do Sul
6.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 35(11): e5201, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148241

RESUMO

Brexpiprazole (BRX) is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and major depressive disorders and it is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Grapefruit juice (GFJ), pomegranate juice (PJ) and tomato juice (TJ) have the potential to inhibit CYP3A4 enzymes in the body. However, fruit juice-drug interactions between BRX and GFJ, PJ and TJ have not been studied extensively. The present study describes the influence of GFJ, PJ and TJ on the pharmacokinetic parameters of BRX in rats. The study samples were analyzed using a mass-accurate and single-step bioanalytical method by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry over a wide calibration range of 20-1,500 ng/ml. The results of the pharmacokinetic study denoted that the combined administration of GFJ and PJ could increase systemic exposure of BRX. The area under the curve of BRX increased 3.43- and 1.88-fold with co-administration of GFJ and PJ, respectively, while TJ with BRX had no effect on the area under the curve. Time to peak concentration and half-life were not significantly changed by any juice co-administration. The results show that GFJ and PJ affect the pharmacokinetic profile of BRX and hence advice needs to be given to patients.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Quinolonas , Tiofenos , Animais , Citrus paradisi/química , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Masculino , Romã (Fruta)/química , Quinolonas/análise , Quinolonas/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tiofenos/análise , Tiofenos/farmacocinética
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(42): 59665-59672, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142322

RESUMO

The red imported fire ant is one of the world's most devastating invasive species, adversely affecting humans, wildlife, crops, and livestock. To control infestations, chemical pesticides are deployed extensively around the world. However, their extensive use has led to negative effects on the environment and human health. Essential oils, which are safe and ecofriendly, can potentially be used as alternatives to chemical pesticides. In this study, grapefruit essential oils were used as fumigant agents to control red imported fire ants. The crude grapefruit oil (GO1) contained 28 compounds, and the concentrated grapefruit oil (GO2), which was refined from GO1 by vacuum distillation, contained 20 compounds. D-Limonene was the dominant constituent in both GO1 (70.1%) and GO2 (73.96%), and other important constituents included ß-pinene, α-pinene, ß-phellandrene, octanal, d-carvone, α-terpineol, and linalool. Both the essential oils and their individual constituents (α-pinene, α-terpineol, ß-phellandrene, octanal, and d-carvone) showed strong lethal fumigant effects against workers. Workers were more susceptible to GO2 than GO1, and octanal was more toxic to workers as compared with the other four constituents. When antennas of workers were treated with the two oils or the five constituents, their walking and gripping abilities were significantly suppressed, and there was an obvious bending or breaking phenomenon on the sensilla of the antennas. Fumigant activity by grapefruit essential oils and their main compounds were associated with their effects on the walking and gripping behavior of workers, and this confirmed that grapefruit essential oil is a promising, ecofriendly, and safe fumigant for the control of red imported fire ants.


Assuntos
Formigas , Citrus paradisi , Óleos Voláteis , Praguicidas , Animais , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais
8.
Food Chem ; 361: 130113, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062453

RESUMO

Lycopene was extracted from pink grapefruit using SC-CO2 and rice bran oil as co-solvent. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of three process parameters varied at five levels i.e. pressure (250, 300, 375, 450 & 500 bar), temperature (55, 60, 70, 80 & 85 °C), and extraction time (60, 90, 135, 180 & 210 min). Single optimum point for multiple response variables was achieved at 325 bar, 64 °C, and 143 min with overall desirability of 0.92 at which 70.52 ± 3.65% (lycopene extraction efficiency) and 11154 ± 148 ppm (γ-oryzanol) were predicted. Extraction temperatures of more than 80 °C and time beyond 180 min led to the isomerization of lycopene. Lycopene storage at 3 °C, 10 °C, & 25 °C showed average k and half-life values as 0.018, 0.030, & 0.075 and 40, 23, & 9 days, respectively for first-order degradation kinetics; depicting faster degradation at higher storage temperatures.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Citrus paradisi/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Licopeno/isolamento & purificação , Licopeno/química , Fenilpropionatos/química , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz/química , Solventes/química , Temperatura
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10273, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986424

RESUMO

In this study, an underutilized citrus family fruit named grapefruit was explored for the extraction of lycopene using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction technique. An experimental design was developed using response surface methodology to investigate the effect of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) operating parameter viz., pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate, and extraction time on the extraction yield of lycopene yield from grapefruit. A total of 30 sets of experiments were conducted with six central points. The statistical model indicated that extraction pressure and extraction time individually, and their interaction, significantly affected the lycopene yield. The central composite design showed that the polynomial regression models developed were in agreement with the experimental results, with R2 of 0.9885. The optimum conditions for extraction of lycopene from grapefruit were 305 bar pressure, 35 g/min CO2 flow rate, 135 min of extraction time, and 70 °C temperature.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Citrus paradisi/química , Licopeno/isolamento & purificação , Pressão , Temperatura
10.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 44(5): 653-658, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952821

RESUMO

Alogliptin (ALG), an inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-4, is used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and has a high absorption rate (>60-71%), despite its low lipophilicity (logP=-1.4). Here, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of its intestinal absorption. ALG uptake into Caco-2 cells was time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent, but was not saturated at concentrations up to 10 mmol/L. The uptake was significantly inhibited by the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrate fexofenadine and by the OATP inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), but was not inhibited by organic cation transporter (OCT)/organic cation/carnitine transporter (OCTN) or peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) substrates. Grapefruit, orange, and apple juices and their constituents, which are known to strongly inhibit intestinal OATPs, significantly inhibited ALG uptake into Caco-2 cells. The pH dependence was bell-shaped, indicating the involvement of a pH-sensitive transporter. However, ALG uptake by HEK293 cells overexpressing OATP2B1, a key intestinal OATP transporter of amphiphilic drugs, was not different from that of mock cells. In a rat in vivo study, apple juice reduced systemic exposure to orally administered ALG without changing the terminal half-life. These observations suggest that intestinal absorption of ALG is carrier-mediated, and involves a fruit-juice-sensitive transporter other than OATP2B1.


Assuntos
Interações Alimento-Droga , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Ácido 4,4'-Di-Isotiocianoestilbeno-2,2'-Dissulfônico/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Citrus paradisi , Citrus sinensis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Células HEK293 , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Masculino , Malus , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Terfenadina/análogos & derivados , Terfenadina/farmacologia , Uracila/administração & dosagem , Uracila/farmacocinética
11.
Food Funct ; 12(11): 5144-5156, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977960

RESUMO

Due to the prevalence of individuals suffering from chronic wounds, developing safe and effective wound care agents are one of the more prominent fields of research in biology. However, wound healing is a complex, multi-stage biological process, involving multiple sequences of biological responses from different types of cells, secreted mediators, and extracellular matrix elements. Plants have a long history of use in the treatment of wounds. Plant-derived extracellular vesicles, which are secreted nano vesicle messengers responsible for intercellular communications, show promise as a new, biotechnological wound-care agent. In this study, we assessed the wound healing potential of extracellular vesicles isolated from grapefruits - a plant with well-known anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. Grapefruit extracellular vesicles (GEVs) increased cell viability and cell migration while reducing intracellular ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells. Expression of proliferation and migration-related genes were raised by GEV treatment in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, GEV treatment increased the tube formation capabilities of treated HUVEC cells. These findings suggest that GEVs can be used as plant-derived wound healing agents, and have shown potential as a biotechnological agent for wound healing. Further development and study of plant-derived extracellular vesicles may lead to the realization of their full potential.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citrus paradisi/química , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular , Células HaCaT , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Cicatrização/genética
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2255-2263, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997988

RESUMO

Freeze-drying and spray-drying are two techniques used to produce dehydrated food products. Both techniques are easy to use and offer high sensory, nutritive value, and functional quality to foods. However, both processes become difficult for foods with high sugar and acid content, such as fruits. This is because these products, once dehydrated, moisten quickly, causing a change in their physical properties, mainly in the mechanical aspects related to the start of a caking phenomenon. Therefore, incorporating high molecular weight biopolymers that act as facilitators or processors, prevent the structural collapse of the product. The aim of this study was to select the best process, between freeze-drying or spray-drying, to obtain a powdered grapefruit product with the higher quality. The impact of the biopolymers used to stabilize the powdered product was also tested. The properties analyzed were the solubility, wettability, hygroscopicity, porosity, and color of the powder together with the flow behavior, both in air and water. The results of this study show that using the freeze-drying technique, products have a better flow behavior, greater porosity, and a color more like fresh grapefruit. Biopolymers, especially when in combination, have a positive effect on the quality parameters studied. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study allow freeze-drying to be proposed as a process to obtain a grapefruit product with better properties, both powdered and rehydrated, than that obtained by spray-drying. On the other hand, although the incorporation of biopolymers is necessary to facilitate the process and stabilize the product, no significant differences have been found between the different formulations tested, although it seems that their combination favours some of the properties of the powder, such as solubility, hygroscopicity, wetting time and dispersibility.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi/química , Frutas/química , Biopolímeros , Dessecação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Liofilização , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pós , Solubilidade , Água/análise , Molhabilidade
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883279

RESUMO

Plants produce ∼300 aromatic compounds enzymatically linked to prenyl side chains via C-O bonds. These O-prenylated aromatic compounds have been found in taxonomically distant plant taxa, with some of them being beneficial or detrimental to human health. Although their O-prenyl moieties often play crucial roles in the biological activities of these compounds, no plant gene encoding an aromatic O-prenyltransferase (O-PT) has been isolated to date. This study describes the isolation of an aromatic O-PT gene, CpPT1, belonging to the UbiA superfamily, from grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi, Rutaceae). This gene was shown responsible for the biosynthesis of O-prenylated coumarin derivatives that alter drug pharmacokinetics in the human body. Another coumarin O-PT gene encoding a protein of the same family was identified in Angelica keiskei, an apiaceous medicinal plant containing pharmaceutically active O-prenylated coumarins. Phylogenetic analysis of these O-PTs suggested that aromatic O-prenylation activity evolved independently from the same ancestral gene in these distant plant taxa. These findings shed light on understanding the evolution of plant secondary (specialized) metabolites via the UbiA superfamily.


Assuntos
Angelica/genética , Citrus paradisi/genética , Evolução Molecular , Furocumarinas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prenilação , Angelica/metabolismo , Citrus paradisi/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment ; 20(2): 237-245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, increasing health awareness in consumers has motivated breweries to expand their beverage ranges with products with increased biological value. The aim of the present research was to develop probiotic wort-based beverages with grapefruit or tangerine zest essential oil addition. METHODS: Wort was produced with 60% Pilsen malt, 20% Vienna malt and 20% Caramel Munich ІІ malt with and without the addition of 0.05% (v/v) grapefruit or tangerine essential oils. It was inoculated with the probiotic yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Y1. Fermentations were carried out at a constant temperature of 10°C for 5 days. The dynamics of the extract, the alcohol content and the concentration of viable cells were monitored daily. The total phenolic content, phenolic acid and flavonoid phenolic compounds were determined because of their antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by radical scavenging assay (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). A descriptive organoleptic evaluation of the final beverages was performed. RESULTS: The essential oils inhibited yeast growth to some extent at the beginning of the fermentation, even at a concentration of 0.05% (v/v), which resulted in lower alcohol content in the beverages with essential oil addition. Nevertheless, at the end of fermentation the concentration of viable cells was almost equal in all the beverages. Tangerine essential oil addition led to the highest content of phenolics, of which phenolic acids predominated. Therefore, the highest antioxidant activity of the beverage with tangerine essential oil can be ascribed to phenolic acids. The results of the sensorial evaluation also showed that the panel had preference towards the beverage with tangerine essential oil. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of essential oil and the probiotic yeast strain resulted in beverages with higher biological value than the beverages produced with the probiotic strain alone. The results obtained will be used for optimisation of process variables in the production of pilot-scale wort-based probiotic beverages with essential oil addition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bebidas/microbiologia , Citrus/química , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Probióticos , Antioxidantes/análise , Bebidas/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Citrus paradisi/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111421, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752061

RESUMO

Allergic asthma is one of the inflammatory diseases, which has become a major public health problem. Qu zhi qiao (QZQ), a dry and immature fruit of Citrus paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou, has various flavonoids with pharmacological properties. However, there is a knowledge gap on the pharmacological properties of QZQ on allergic asthma. Therefore, here, we explored the efficacy and mechanism of total flavonoids from QZQ (TFCH) on allergic asthma. We extracted and purified TFCH and conducted animal experiments using an Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mice model. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and Swiss-Giemsa staining were used to count different inflammatory cells in allergic asthma mice. We conducted histopathology and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the changes in the lungs of allergic asthma mice. Moreover, we used ELISA assays to analyze chemokines and inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, western blot analyses were conducted to elucidate the mechanism of TFCH on allergic asthma. We established that TFCH has anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits airway remodeling, providing a potential therapeutic strategy for allergic asthma.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Asma/prevenção & controle , Citrus paradisi , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Smad2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Smad3/antagonistas & inibidores , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/fisiologia , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 352: 129367, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684718

RESUMO

About 90% of grapefruit in Florida are affected by Huanglongbing (HLB). HLB negatively affects the organoleptic properties of grapefruit juice because affected trees overproduce bitter secondary-metabolites, mostly naringin. The objective of this research was to remove naringin from HLB-affected grapefruit juice using microporous-adsorbents and to investigate how debittering affected narirutin, limonoids, bergamottin, and consumer acceptability. The adsorption kinetics of naringin on seven adsorbent resins obeyed pseudo-second order. PAD550 and PAD600 showed better static adsorption/desorption. Adsorption-isotherms on these resins were better fitted on Temkin-Pyzhev-model. On a fixed-bed-column packed with PAD550 resin, a slower loading rate increased its breakthrough volume before naringin in effluent reached its taste-threshold. In addition to naringin being reduced to below its taste-threshold, debittering significantly decreased the content of limonin, nomilin, and bergamottin. A consumer taste panel rated debittered and half-debittered juices higher for overall acceptability than the untreated. The half-debittered juice was ranked the most preferred while untreated was the least preferred.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi/química , Citrus paradisi/microbiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Furocumarinas/análise , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Paladar , Porosidade
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6489, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753795

RESUMO

Plant-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) gain more and more attention as promising carriers of exogenous bioactive molecules to the human cells. Derived from various edible sources, these EVs are remarkably biocompatible, biodegradable and highly abundant from plants. In this work, EVs from grapefruit juice were isolated by differential centrifugation followed by characterization of their size, quantity and morphology by nanoparticle tracking analysis, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM). In Cryo-EM experiments, we visualized grapefruit EVs with the average size of 41 ± 13 nm, confirmed their round-shaped morphology and estimated the thickness of their lipid bilayer as 5.3 ± 0.8 nm. Further, using cell culture models, we have successfully demonstrated that native grapefruit-derived extracellular vesicles (GF-EVs) are highly efficient carriers for the delivery of the exogenous Alexa Fluor 647 labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) into both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and colon cancer cells. Interestingly, loading to plant EVs significantly ameliorated the uptake of exogenous proteins by human cells compared to the same proteins without EVs. Most importantly, we have confirmed the functional activity of human recombinant HSP70 in the colon cancer cell culture upon delivery by GF-EVs. Analysis of the biodistribution of GF-EVs loaded with 125I-labeled BSA in mice demonstrated a significant uptake of the grapefruit-derived extracellular vesicles by the majority of organs. The results of our study indicate that native plant EVs might be safe and effective carriers of exogenous proteins into human cells.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi/química , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Células Cultivadas , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Células HCT116 , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Nanocápsulas/ultraestrutura , Soroalbumina Bovina/administração & dosagem
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 253-262, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775762

RESUMO

The synergistic effects of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) combined with Cryptococcus laurentii FRUC DJ1 were studied on controlling green mould resulting from Penicillium digitatum in grapefruit fruit. The results indicate that both C. laurentii and the CMC treatment suppressed P. digitatum conidia germination. In addition, C. laurentii growth in vitro was not affected by low CMC concentrations, nevertheless, the biofilm of C. laurentii was enhanced. Compared with the control fruit, the grapefruit had a lower green mould in all treatments. Significantly synergistic effects were caused by combining C. laurentii and CMC on minimum decay incidence and lesion diameter. Combined treatment induced defence enzyme activities, including chitinase, ß-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, together with disease tolerance-associated total phenol. Also, this combination inhibited the pathogen growth by adhered to the hyphae and reduced its infection in fruit wounds. Moreover, the commercial quality parameters in the combined treatment of C. laurentii and CMC, including weight loss, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and titratable acidity, were superior to single treatment. The combination of C. laurentii and CMC can not only control postharvest decay but also maintain fruit qualities. Thus, it can be used in grapefruit for commercial purposes.


Assuntos
Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/farmacologia , Citrus paradisi/microbiologia , Cryptococcus/fisiologia , Penicillium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrus paradisi/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrus paradisi/enzimologia , Citrus paradisi/ultraestrutura , Cryptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penicillium/classificação , Fenóis/metabolismo
19.
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment ; 20(1): 5-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bio-preservation of food products using various natural ingredients and metabolites from various types of beneficial microorganisms released during targeted fermentation is a method that simultaneously has a preservative effect on the food product and provides a model of its composition in order to ensure its functional and health properties. This double effect can be achieved by incorporating ingredients with proven preservative and functional effects into the food product, such as essential oils from various plant species and probiotic bacteria. The aim of the present research was to study the synergistic effect of selected probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and essential oils with high antimicrobial activity against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms for the bio-preservation of chocolate mousse food emulsion. METHODS: The susceptibility of the selected probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum D2 to different concentrations of the selected lemon or grapefruit essential oil was examined using the disc-diffusion method. Nine chocolate mousse variants were prepared with the inclusion of free or immobilized cells of the probiotic strain L. plantarum D2 and/or lemon or grapefruit zest essential oils. The chocolate mousse variants were stored for 20 days in refrigerated conditions, and changes in the concentration of viable lactobacilli cells, the pH and the microbiological purity were monitored in accordance with standard requirements by taking samples on the 0th, 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th days of storage. An organoleptic evaluation of the chocolate variants was performed on the 0th day. RESULTS: Concentrations of up to 1% lemon or grapefruit essential oil did not affect the growth of the probiotic strain L. plantarum D2, which revealed opportunities for their joint application for the bio-preservation of food emulsions. The obtained chocolate mousse variants were characterized by preserved organoleptic characteristics and microbiological safety. Free or immobilized probiotic L. plantarum D2 cells applied alone or in combination with lemon or grapefruit essential oils provided bio-preservation of the food emulsions, maintaining a high concentration of viable cells (106-107 cfu/g) during storage under refrigerated conditions for 20 days. CONCLUSIONS: The combined application of free or immobilized probiotic LAB and lemon or grapefruit essential oils resulted in better bio-preservation results than in the use of probiotic LAB or essential oils alone, thus suggesting a synergistic effect between the two bio-preservative agents. Moreover, the obtained chocolate mousse emulsions can be classified as functional foods and the chocolate mousse food matrix can successfully be used as a vehicle for delivery of probiotic LAB to a wide range of food consumers. The obtained results and the developed successful bio-preservation strategy for the production of chocolate mousse food emulsions would provide grounds for the future selection of other probiotic lactobacilli strains, essential oils and synergistic combinations of them for the development of successful bio-preservation strategies for other types of food and beverage products.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Citrus paradisi/química , Citrus/química , Conservação de Alimentos , Lactobacillus plantarum , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Emulsões/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Probióticos/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467390

RESUMO

Citrus fruit are sensitive to chilling injury (CI) during cold storage, a peel disorder that causes economic losses. C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) are related to cold acclimation and tolerance in different plants. To explore the role of Citrus CBFs in fruit response to cold, an in silico study was performed, revealing three genes (CBF1, CBF2, and CBF3) whose expression in CI sensitive and tolerant cultivars was followed. Major changes occurred at the early stages of cold exposure (1-5 d). Interestingly, CBF1 was the most stimulated gene in the peel of CI-tolerant cultivars (Lisbon lemon, Star Ruby grapefruit, and Navelina orange), remaining unaltered in sensitive cultivars (Meyer lemon, Marsh grapefruit, and Salustiana orange). Results suggest a positive association of CBF1 expression with cold tolerance in Citrus cultivars (except for mandarins), whereas the expression of CBF2 or CBF3 genes did not reveal a clear relationship with the susceptibility to CI. Light avoidance during fruit growth reduced postharvest CI in most sensitive cultivars, associated with a rapid and transient enhance in the expression of the three CBFs. Results suggest that CBFs-dependent pathways mediate at least part of the cold tolerance responses in sensitive Citrus, indicating that CBF1 participates in the natural tolerance to CI.


Assuntos
Citrus/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Citrus/classificação , Citrus paradisi/genética , Citrus sinensis/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
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