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1.
Soins ; 65(851): 55-56, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357949

RESUMO

This issue of Soins, focusing on the notion of time, is published in the midst of an unprecedented global health, social and economic crisis, due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This crisis highlights a multiplicity of dimensions and timescales and raises questions, in particular, about our era and our civilisational model.


Assuntos
Civilização , Assistência à Saúde , Pandemias , Saúde Global , Humanos , Filosofia
2.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111077, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854884

RESUMO

China needs to balance between current population pressures and a vulnerable marine environment, creating a national, political outline or management strategy dubbed an ecological civilization construction. The nation's effort to protect and maintain a sustainable ocean and address the relevant economic, resource and environmental issues relies on Marine Ecological Civilization (MEC) construction. The quantification of MEC progress is essential to track the management performance and guide the subsequent development and implementation. This study evaluates the performance of China's MEC from 2006 to 2016 based on a comprehensive index system. Our findings are as follows: During 2006-2016, the overall MEC performance score increased from 0.3426 to 0.4850 nationwide. Large space-time variations exist among the eleven coastal regions. The Shandong and Guangdong regions showed relatively good performances, whereas the Jiangsu, Guangxi and Shanghai regions had low scores. A decade long change in MEC scores showed that Hebei achieved the largest increase ratio. Marine management was improved by implementing various conservation strategies by China's government. Marine education and human talent introduction deserve more attention in less developed areas such as Hainan and Guangxi, and poor marine environmental quality was an urgent issue of the Yangtze river estuary economic zone. More accessible marine monitoring dataset are needed to track future space-time progress dynamics towards MEC construction. Our results provide a decade long retrospect of China's MEC achievements, and the quantified evaluation for each coastal region can provide valuable insight to policy-makers.


Assuntos
Civilização , Biologia Marinha , Logro , China , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614836

RESUMO

Human societies exhibit a diversity of social organizations that vary widely in size, structure, and complexity. Today, human sociopolitical complexity ranges from stateless small-scale societies of a few hundred individuals to complex states of millions, most of this diversity evolving only over the last few hundred years. Understanding how sociopolitical complexity evolved over time and space has always been a central focus of the social sciences. Yet despite this long-term interest, a quantitative understanding of how sociopolitical complexity varies across cultures is not well developed. Here we use scaling analysis to examine the statistical structure of a global sample of over a thousand human societies across multiple levels of sociopolitical complexity. First, we show that levels of sociopolitical complexity are self-similar as adjacent levels of jurisdictional hierarchy see a four-fold increase in population size, a two-fold increase in geographic range, and therefore a doubling of population density. Second, we show how this self-similarity leads to the scaling of population size and geographic range. As societies increase in complexity population density is reconfigured in space and quantified by scaling parameters. However, there is considerable overlap in population metrics across all scales suggesting that while more complex societies tend to have larger and denser populations, larger and denser populations are not necessarily more complex.


Assuntos
Modelos Organizacionais , Política , Densidade Demográfica , Ciências Sociais/métodos , Civilização , Diversidade Cultural , Etnologia , Governo , Humanos , Liderança , Teoria Social
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722160

RESUMO

Ecological civilization is a transcendence of industrial civilization. The improvement of China's ecological civilization system can not only provide developing countries with an empirical reference for ecological civilization construction, but also make a huge contribution to the progress of global ecological civilization. This paper focuses on improving the provincial ecological civilization evaluation system. First, the Provincial Ecological Civilization Construction Evaluation Index System is established according to the Green Development Index System issued by the Chinese government in 2016, and then the applicability of the Spatio-Temporal Factor Analysis (STFA) is verified as the evaluation method of the provincial ecological civilization construction level. Further, taking Jiangsu Province, China as an example, this paper evaluates the level of ecological civilization construction in each city of Jiangsu Province, and analyzes the main factors affecting ecological civilization based on the evaluation results. Finally, according to the relationship between the ecological civilization construction and economic quality of each city, the four-quadrant method is applied to divide Jiangsu Province into four types of regions to help each city position itself in ecological civilization construction. This paper mainly draws the following conclusions: (1) Due to its simple operation and accurate evaluation results, STFA is applicable in evaluating the provincial ecological civilization construction level. (2) Taking Jiangsu Province as an example, it is found that the level of ecological civilization construction in the southwestern region is higher than that of the northeast coastal region in Jiangsu. Three inequality indices are applied to measure the regional inequality of ecological civilization construction among 13 cities, which is relatively high in recent years. (3) By analyzing the results of STFA, it is found that economic quality and natural protection are not only the main factors affecting the ecological civilization construction in Jiangsu province, but also the main reasons for the regional heterogeneity of provincial ecological civilization. (4) For the four types of regions, suggestions are proposed according to the characteristics of each region to help improve the provincial ecological civilization construction level. This paper not only improves China's ecological civilization construction system, but also provides information for the provincial ecological civilization construction in developing countries.


Assuntos
Civilização , Ecossistema , China , Cidades , Indústrias
5.
Nature ; 582(7813): 530-533, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494009

RESUMO

Archaeologists have traditionally thought that the development of Maya civilization was gradual, assuming that small villages began to emerge during the Middle Preclassic period (1000-350 BC; dates are calibrated throughout) along with the use of ceramics and the adoption of sedentism1. Recent finds of early ceremonial complexes are beginning to challenge this model. Here we describe an airborne lidar survey and excavations of the previously unknown site of Aguada Fénix (Tabasco, Mexico) with an artificial plateau, which measures 1,400 m in length and 10 to 15 m in height and has 9 causeways radiating out from it. We dated this construction to between 1000 and 800 BC using a Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. To our knowledge, this is the oldest monumental construction ever found in the Maya area and the largest in the entire pre-Hispanic history of the region. Although the site exhibits some similarities to the earlier Olmec centre of San Lorenzo, the community of Aguada Fénix probably did not have marked social inequality comparable to that of San Lorenzo. Aguada Fénix and other ceremonial complexes of the same period suggest the importance of communal work in the initial development of Maya civilization.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/história , Civilização/história , Arqueologia , Teorema de Bayes , História Antiga , México , Datação Radiométrica
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1929): 20200662, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576113

RESUMO

Collapses of food producer societies are recurrent events in prehistory and have triggered a growing concern for identifying the underlying causes of convergences/divergences across cultures around the world. One of the most studied and used as a paradigmatic case is the population collapse of the Rapa Nui society. Here, we test different hypotheses about it by developing explicit population dynamic models that integrate feedbacks between climatic, demographic and ecological factors that underpinned the socio-cultural trajectory of these people. We evaluate our model outputs against a reconstruction of past population size based on archaeological radiocarbon dates from the island. The resulting estimated demographic declines of the Rapa Nui people are linked to the long-term effects of climate change on the island's carrying capacity and, in turn, on the 'per-capita food supply'.


Assuntos
Civilização , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , Arqueologia , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Humanos , Polinésia , Densidade Demográfica
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370133

RESUMO

Aim: This historical medical literature review aims at understanding the evolution of the medical existence of oral cancer over times, particularly better comprehending if the apparent lower prevalence of this type of cancer in antiquity is a real value due to the absence of modern environmental and lifestyle factors or it is linked to a misinterpretation of ancient foreign terms found in ancient medical texts regarding oral neoplasms. Methods: The databases MedLne, PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier's EMBASE.com, Cochrane Review, National Library of Greece (Stavros Niarchos Foundation, Athens) and the Library of the School of Health Sciences of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece) were extensively searched for relevant studies published during the past century on the history of oral cancer and its treatment from antiquity to modern times, in addition to the WHO website to analyse the latest epidemiological data. In addition, we included historical books on the topic of interest and original sources. Results: Historical references reveal that the cradle of the oral oncology was in ancient Egypt, the Asian continent and Greece and cancer management was confined to an approximate surgical practice, in order to remove abnormal masses and avoid bleeding with cauterization. In the Medieval Age, little progress occurred in medicine in general, oral cancers management included. It is only from the Renaissance to modern times that knowledge about its pathophysiological mechanisms and histopathology and its surgical and pharmacological treatment approaches became increasingly deep all over the world, evolving to the actual integrated treatment. Despite the abundant literature exploring oncology in past civilizations, the real prevalence of oral cancer in antiquity is much less known; but a literature analysis cannot exclude a consistent prevalence of this cancer in past populations, probably with a likely lower incidence than today, because many descriptions of its aggressiveness were found in ancient medical texts, but it is still difficult to be sure that each single description of oral masses could be associated to cancer, particularly for what concerns the period before the Middle Ages. Conclusions: Modern oncologists and oral surgeons must learn a lot from their historic counterparts in order to avoid past unsuccessful efforts to treatment oral malignancies. Several descriptions of oral cancers in the antiquity that we found let us think that this disease might be linked to mechanisms not strictly dependent on environmental risk factors, and this might guide future research on oral cavity treatments towards strategical cellular and molecular techniques.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Civilização , Grécia , História Antiga , Humanos
9.
Food Chem ; 327: 127084, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446029

RESUMO

Edible mushrooms are classified as a functional food. The study aimed to initiate in vitro cultures of selected species of Pleurotus: P. citrinopileatus, P. djamor, P. eryngii, P. florida, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius and to optimize the method of cultivation of these species to obtain raw materials characterized by pro-health properties. Another objective was to analyze the biologically active substances in the obtained mushroom materials. By determining the organic compounds and bioelements present in the species selected for the study, it was found that the fruiting bodies obtained by cultivation were characterized by a high content of phenolic and indole compounds. Similarly, the mycelia obtained from in vitro culture were found to contain significant amounts of organic compounds exhibiting biological effects such as lovastatin. The study revealed that the composition of biologically active substances varied between the mycelia obtained from in vitro cultures and the fruiting bodies obtained by cultivation.


Assuntos
Pleurotus/química , Civilização , Lovastatina/química , Micélio/química , Fenóis/química
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255773

RESUMO

It is well known that the development of the ancient Maya civilization had significant and long-lasting impacts on the environment. This study assesses a large collection of faunal remains (>35,000 specimens) recovered over a span of several kilometers in and around the archaeological site of Ceibal, Guatemala, in order to determine whether the composition of animal resources was continuous throughout the site's history between 1000 BC and AD 1200, or whether there were any changes that could be attributed to sociopolitical or environmental causes. Results show a steep uniform decline in the number of freshwater mollusks across the site that occurred during the Preclassic to Classic transition, when large region-wide political changes, including the development of more complex and centralized political organization, took place throughout the Maya region. Evidence of species introductions (e.g., turkeys from central Mexico and possibly the Dermatemys river turtle from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec) and variations in resource exchange (e.g. marine shells) over time indicate that Ceibal was one of likely many communities involved in long-distance animal exchange networks. The results of the faunal analysis at Ceibal show how the ancient Maya had a complex and ever-changing relationship with the local wildlife, with outcomes that can still be observed in the environment today.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Civilização , Animais , Guatemala
11.
Sci Adv ; 6(11): eaay6964, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201726

RESUMO

The ballgame represents one of the most enduring and iconic features of ancient Mesoamerican civilization, yet its origins and evolution remain poorly understood, primarily associated with the Gulf Coast and southern Pacific coastal lowlands. While one early ballcourt dates to 1650 BCE from the Chiapas lowlands, ballcourts have remained undocumented in the Mesoamerican highlands until a millennium later, suggesting less involvement by highland civilizations in the ballgame's evolution. We provide new data from the southern highlands of Mexico, from the Early Formative period (1500-1000 BCE), that necessitate revising previous paradigms. Along with ballplayer imagery, we recently excavated the earliest highland Mesoamerican ballcourt, dating to 1374 BCE, at the site of Etlatongo, in the Mixtec region of Oaxaca. We conclude that Early Formative highland villagers played an important role in the origins of the formal Mesoamerican ballgame, which later evolved into a crucial component of subsequent states.


Assuntos
Civilização , Geografia , Humanos , México
12.
Anat Sci Int ; 95(2): 286-292, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578677

RESUMO

Despite academic efforts to study the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), there have as yet been no successful attempts to unveil the IVC people's craniofacial appearance. We investigated the IVC cemetery area of Rakhigarhi site, which was estimated to be of 2273 ± 38 and 2616 ± 73 years BCE. By craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) procedure using computed tomography (CT) data of two Rakhigarhi skulls (A1 BR02 and A2 BR36), we successfully reconstructed the faces of the IVC individuals who were buried about 4500 years ago. This is the first attempt to unveil scientifically accurate representations of IVC people's actual facial morphology.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Cemitérios , Civilização , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Índia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 47(280): 157-161, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760400

RESUMO

People are more and more often taking up shift work, which in the long run may have harmful health effects. Whether a person working in a shift system gets sick is influenced by many external factors (rotation and type of changes and work performed, socio-psychological factors) and endogenous (sex, age, health and physiological status, individual, internal biological clock - chronotype, physiological tolerance work at night). Many authors in their work prove that work in a rotational rotation system affects the occurrence of various types of cancer, hormone production, occurrence of metabolic disorders and civilization diseases (type II diabetes, insulin resistance, overweight and obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease), microflora differentiation intestinal and contributes to increased stress of the body. In addition, the time in which a person works has a direct impact on the consumption and quality of meals. Shift workers often do not have time to eat regular, properly balanced meals that would satisfy their energy and nutritional needs. For this reason, most often reach for ready-to-eat foods that are characterized by low nutritional value at a relatively high energy value. Shift work also carries a risk of circadian rhythm disturbances and sleep disorders. Many studies indicate that there is an increased risk of some types of cancer and civilization diseases, but there is no clear evidence as to whether this is only the fault of rotary night work.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Ritmo Circadiano , Civilização , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade
15.
Cell ; 179(3): 586-588, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626767

RESUMO

Shinde et al. report the first genome-wide data from an ancient individual from the Indus Valley Civilization in South Asia. Their findings have implications for the origins and spread of farming and Indo-European languages in the region and the makings of the South Asian gene pool.


Assuntos
Cemitérios , Civilização , Arqueologia , Ásia , Humanos , Índia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(43): 21469-21477, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591202

RESUMO

We report on a large area of ancient Maya wetland field systems in Belize, Central America, based on airborne lidar survey coupled with multiple proxies and radiocarbon dates that reveal ancient field uses and chronology. The lidar survey indicated four main areas of wetland complexes, including the Birds of Paradise wetland field complex that is five times larger than earlier remote and ground survey had indicated, and revealed a previously unknown wetland field complex that is even larger. The field systems date mainly to the Maya Late and Terminal Classic (∼1,400-1,000 y ago), but with evidence from as early as the Late Preclassic (∼1,800 y ago) and as late as the Early Postclassic (∼900 y ago). Previous study showed that these were polycultural systems that grew typical ancient Maya crops including maize, arrowroot, squash, avocado, and other fruits and harvested fauna. The wetland fields were active at a time of population expansion, landscape alteration, and droughts and could have been adaptations to all of these major shifts in Maya civilization. These wetland-farming systems add to the evidence for early and extensive human impacts on the global tropics. Broader evidence suggests a wide distribution of wetland agroecosystems across the Maya Lowlands and Americas, and we hypothesize the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane from burning, preparing, and maintaining these field systems contributed to the Early Anthropocene.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Arqueologia , Belize , Civilização/história , Florestas , História Antiga , Humanos , Lasers , Fotometria , Solo/química , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 41(12): 1525-1527, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346682

RESUMO

This article describes a retrospective diagnosis through an artistic representation of a pre-Columbian Central America bowl figuring a child with clinical characteristics of Crouzon syndrome. The report also highlights the importance of icono-diagnosis for a better description of the existing diseases into ancient societies.


Assuntos
Civilização/história , Disostose Craniofacial/diagnóstico , Corpo Humano , Escultura/história , Antropologia Cultural , Antropologia Médica , Criança , História Antiga , Humanos
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(26): 12615-12623, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209020

RESUMO

The transition from a human diet based exclusively on wild plants and animals to one involving dependence on domesticated plants and animals beginning 10,000 to 11,000 y ago in Southwest Asia set into motion a series of profound health, lifestyle, social, and economic changes affecting human populations throughout most of the world. However, the social, cultural, behavioral, and other factors surrounding health and lifestyle associated with the foraging-to-farming transition are vague, owing to an incomplete or poorly understood contextual archaeological record of living conditions. Bioarchaeological investigation of the extraordinary record of human remains and their context from Neolithic Çatalhöyük (7100-5950 cal BCE), a massive archaeological site in south-central Anatolia (Turkey), provides important perspectives on population dynamics, health outcomes, behavioral adaptations, interpersonal conflict, and a record of community resilience over the life of this single early farming settlement having the attributes of a protocity. Study of Çatalhöyük human biology reveals increasing costs to members of the settlement, including elevated exposure to disease and labor demands in response to community dependence on and production of domesticated plant carbohydrates, growing population size and density fueled by elevated fertility, and increasing stresses due to heightened workload and greater mobility required for caprine herding and other resource acquisition activities over the nearly 12 centuries of settlement occupation. These changes in life conditions foreshadow developments that would take place worldwide over the millennia following the abandonment of Neolithic Çatalhöyük, including health challenges, adaptive patterns, physical activity, and emerging social behaviors involving interpersonal violence.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Migração Humana/história , Estilo de Vida/história , Civilização/história , Nível de Saúde , História Antiga , Humanos , Turquia
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