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1.
Analyst ; 144(16): 4962-4971, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322144

RESUMO

The research of fungi is of great importance in a number of fields, such as environmental and healthcare studies. While there are a large number of optical and molecular methods available for characterization and identification of fungi and their spores, their isolation is still conducted using slow and labor-intensive methods. Here, we develop a microfluidic device for the continuous separation of fungal spores from other eukaryotic cells. The spores were separated through the microfluidic device by expanding pinched flow fractionation (PFF) containing the spores, achieving a spatial separation perpendicular to the flow direction according to the spore size. Further branch flow fractionation (BFF) and co-flow of a Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid were used to enhance the separation performance. Using this microfluidic device, we demonstrated the separation of two different types of fungal spores and further separation of fungal spores from eukaryotic cells with a separation efficiency of above 90%. Compared to the existing conventional methods, our microfluidic flow focusing device requires little manual handling and uses small amounts of samples without any pre-treatment steps of the samples.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/instrumentação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Desenho de Equipamento , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos
2.
J Mycol Med ; 29(2): 180-184, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056403

RESUMO

Emergence of saprophytic fungi thriving in dead plant material and soil as opportunistic human pathogens is of great concern. Cladosporium species are environmental saprophytes reported to cause various superficial and invasive fungal infections worldwide. C. sphaerospermum, a predominantly indoor fungus has been reported from cases of meningitis, subcutaneous and pulmonary fungal infections in the past. Herein we report the first case of cerebral abscess due to C. sphaerospermum in an immunocompetent host who was successfully managed by combined medical and surgical therapy.


Assuntos
Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Cladosporium/patogenicidade , Micoses/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Encefálico/cirurgia , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(3): 859-870, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997656

RESUMO

This report presents the pathologic findings associated with disseminated infection due to Cladosporium halotolerans in a dog that was simultaneously infected with canine adenovirus-1 (CAdV-1) and canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2). A 12-year-old, mixed breed dog, with a clinical history of neurological manifestations was submitted for routine autopsy due to poor prognosis. The principal pathologic findings were mycotic necrotizing nephritis, hepatitis, and splenitis with embolic dissemination to the brain resulting in mycotic necrotizing meningoencephalitis, ventriculitis, choroid plexitis, and obstructive hydrocephalus associated with intralesional and intravascular septate pigmented fungi. PCR and sequencing of the ITS region of fungi revealed that the intralesional fungal organisms had 82% nucleotide identity with members of the Cladosporium sphaerospermum complex of organisms. However, a PCR assay and sequencing of the beta tubulin gene confirmed that the organism identified in this dog had 100% nucleotide sequence identity with C. halotolerans. Using immunohistochemistry, intralesional antigens of CAdV-1 were identified within the epithelial cells of the liver and lungs; there was positive immunolabeling for CPV-2 antigens in degenerated cardiomyocytes. These findings confirmed the active participation of C. halotolerans in the development of disseminated cladosporiosis in this dog and represent a rare occurrence of concomitant infection with CAdV-1 and CPV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Adenovirus Caninos/isolamento & purificação , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Micoses/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Adenovirus Caninos/classificação , Adenovirus Caninos/genética , Animais , Cladosporium/classificação , Cladosporium/genética , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Cães , Melaninas/metabolismo , Micoses/microbiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/classificação , Parvovirus Canino/genética
4.
Indoor Air ; 29(1): 5-16, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368912

RESUMO

Different countries have tried to define guidelines to quantify what levels of fungi are considered as inappropriate for housing. This retrospective study analyzes indoor fungi by cultures of airborne samples from 1012 dwellings. Altogether, 908 patients suffering from rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma were compared to 104 controls free of allergies. Portuguese decree law no 118/2013 (PDL118), ANSES (a French environmental and health agency) recommendations, and health regulations of Besançon University Hospital were applied to determine the rates of non-conforming dwellings, which were respectively 55.2%, 5.2%, and 19%. Environmental microbiological results and medical data were compared. The whole number of colonies per cubic meter of air was correlated with asthma (P < 0.001) and rhinitis (P = 0.002). Sixty-seven genera and species were detected in bedrooms. Asthma was correlated to Aspergillus versicolor (P = 0.004) and Cladosporium spp. (P = 0.02). Thresholds of 300 cfu/m3 for A. versicolor or 495 cfu/m3 for Cladosporium spp. are able to discriminate 90% of the asthmatic dwellings. We propose a new protocol to obtain an optimal cost for indoor fungi surveys, excluding surface analyses, and a new guideline to interpret the results based on >1000 cfu/m3 of whole colonies and/or above threshold levels for A. versicolor or Cladosporium spp.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Asma/microbiologia , Rinite Alérgica/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Ar/normas , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , França/epidemiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Habitação , Humanos , Portugal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(10): 574, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191326

RESUMO

The airborne spores of some saprophytic and allergenic fungi such as Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Cladosporium are found throughout the world and exposure to these agents may result in various types of allergic diseases. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the frequency of different saprophytic, allergenic, and pathogenic fungi in indoor and outdoor environments. During a 6-month period, 780 samples were obtained from a number of houses, mosques, parks, public restrooms, grocery stores, laboratories, and hospitals. An open-plate method was applied for air sampling by exposing 90-mm plates containing chloramphenicol/potato dextrose agar and malt extract agar were exposed to air for 30 min. Alternatively, the sampling from surfaces was performed using sterile wet swab and tape-stripe method. All samples were then inoculated in media and incubated at 28 °C for 2-3 weeks. The isolated fungi were purified in order to detect the genus, and if possible, species level of the targeted fungi based on morphological and microscopic features using standard methods. The findings revealed that the dominant indoor and outdoor fungal species were Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium whose frequency values were 16.42%, 16.17%, and 14.92% respectively. The lowest frequency was related to Acrophialophora and Madurella (0.25%). More notably, the results for air and surface were similar. It was also found out that the three dominant genera were Aspergillus (16.53%), Penicillium (15.50%), and Cladosporium (11.93%), with Basidiobolus and Acrophialophora having the lowest frequency. It was observed that different environmental spaces have a great bearing on the spreading of such allergic agents, especially in subtropical humid climates.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Alérgenos/isolamento & purificação , Hipersensibilidade , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação
6.
Plant Dis ; 102(11): 2296-2307, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169137

RESUMO

Fungal rots in sugar beet roots held in long-term storage can lead to considerable sucrose loss but the incidence and distribution of fungal rots inside sugar beet piles and pathogenicity for some species is poorly understood. Thus, Idaho sugar beet held in five outdoor and two indoor piles in 2014 and 2015 were investigated. The root surface area covered by fungal growth and discolored and healthy tissue were assessed in nine 1-m2 areas per pile using a stratified random sampling design. Pathogenicity was evaluated indoors via plug inoculation in 2015 and 2016. Botrytis cinerea covered more root surface area inside indoor piles (6 to 22%) than outdoor piles (0 to 3%) (P < 0.0001). No trends were evident for the Athelia-like sp. (0 to 15%) and Penicillium-type spp. (0 to 8%). Penicillium-type isolates comprised the following species: 60% Penicillium expansum, 34% P. cellarum, 3% P. polonicum, and 3% Talaromyces rugulosus. Trace levels (<1% of root surface) of other fungi, including Cladosporium and Fusarium spp., were evident on roots and in isolations. Based on sample location in a pile, there were no trends or differences; however, two outdoor piles (OVP1 and OVP2) had more healthy tissue (90 to 96%) than other piles (28 to 80%) (P < 0.0001). When the pathogenicity tests were analyzed by species, all were significantly different from each other (P < 0.0001), except for P. polonicum and P. expansum: B. cinerea (61 mm of rot), P. polonicum (36 mm), P. expansum (35 mm), P. cellarum (28 mm), Athelia-like sp. (21 mm), T. rugulosus (0 mm; not different from check), and noninoculated check (0 mm). The OVP1 and OVP2 piles had negligible fungal growth on roots after more than 120 days of storage under ambient conditions, which indicates that acceptable storage can be achieved over this time period through covering piles with tarps and cooling with ventilation pipe.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Botrytis/genética , Botrytis/isolamento & purificação , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Cladosporium/genética , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Cladosporium/patogenicidade , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Idaho , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(10): 608, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255210

RESUMO

This quantitative and qualitative study aimed to evaluate the level of fungal contamination in computer keyboards from an Integrated Health Center (IHC) at Piauí, Brazil, and to evaluate the efficacy of 50% sodium bicarbonate and 50% alcoholic vinegar solutions to eliminate these microorganisms. Ten keyboards from six sectors of the IHC were chosen randomly, and the collection was performed in three situations: (i) before of disinfection, (ii) after disinfection with solution of sodium bicarbonate, and (iii) after disinfection with solution of alcoholic vinegar. Samples were inoculated in Petri dishes with dextrose agar potato plus chloramphenicol and incubated at room temperature for 72 h. All keyboards were contaminated with opportunistic fungi, with Cladosporium cladosporioides (29.4%) being the most frequent species, followed by Curvularia lunata (17.6%) and Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, and Curvularia clavata with 11.8% each. The two solutions were proven to be efficient in eliminating fungal contamination; however, the sodium bicarbonate solution caused esthetic damages in keyboards. In addition, this study is the first report of the antifungal activity of alcoholic vinegar in filamentous fungi. Based on our findings, we suggest a daily disinfection of keyboards with a 50% vinegar solution plus adequate hygiene from the hands of professionals before and after the use of the computer and its annexes, as key actions to reduce nosocomial infections, particularly in economically disadvantaged countries.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Cladosporium/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Computadores , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 289: e18-e23, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907404

RESUMO

The present study reports the mycological data collected from two corpses preserved in controlled conditions and monitored for 6 weeks at the mortuary. On the whole during the monitoring more than 70 fungal CFU (Colony Forming Units) were sampled from the corpses. The data collected were used to map the body fungal colonization of the corpses during 6 weeks. The two body maps show a huge difference between these cases, mainly due to the perimortem conditions. In particular, in the case one the facial area colonised by fungi rose from 15% to 63% in six weeks, while the fungal colonization of case two was about 1% for the whole monitoring period. This work shows, for the first time, the data about the pattern of colonization and distribution of fungi on real corpses after death and argues about the influence of perimortem settings on fungal colonization. Moreover, the paper suggests exploiting the study of fungal colony development and maturation to assess post-mortem interval (PMI).


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cladosporium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 68(7): 454-458, 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931138

RESUMO

Background: Dental care professionals are exposed to aerosols from the oral cavity of patients containing several pathogenic microorganisms. Bioaerosols generated during dental treatment are a potential hazard to dental staff, and there have been growing concerns about their role in transmission of various airborne infections and about reducing the risk of contamination. Aims: To investigate qualitatively and quantitatively the bacterial and fungal aerosols before and during clinical sessions in two dental offices compared with controls. Methods: An extra-oral evacuator system was used to measure bacterial and fungal aerosols. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of bacterial species and fungal strains was performed and strains of bacteria and fungi were identified based on their metabolic properties using biochemical tests. Results: Thirty-three bioaerosol samples were obtained. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation showed that during treatment, there is a significant increase in airborne concentration of bacteria and fungi. The microflora included mainly gram-positive organisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus spp.), gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria and those creating endospores as well as non-porous bacteria and mould fungi (Cladosporium and Penicillium). Conclusions: Exposure to the microorganisms identified is not a significant occupational hazard for dental care professionals; however, evidence-based prevention measures are recommended.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Assistentes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Odontólogos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolamento & purificação
11.
Food Microbiol ; 73: 93-98, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526231

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify fungal species present in 200 samples of rosemary, fennel, cinnamon, clove, pepperoni, black and white pepper and oregano and evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of the some Aspergilli isolated. Clove, black and white peppers were analyzed by direct plating. For rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano samples were used spread plate. Mycotoxigenic capacity was verified by the agar plug method. With the exception of clove, all the spices showed high fungal contamination, especially by Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. Frequency of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. was intense in white and black peppers, with presence of Aspergillus flavus (up to 32%), Aspergillus nomius (up to 12%), Aspergillus parasiticus (up to 4%), Aspergillus niger complex (up to 52%), Aspergillus ochraceus (up 12%) and Aspergillus carbonarius (up to 4%). 14,2% of A. flavus isolated from black pepper were aflatoxins producers. In the white pepper, 66.7% of A. flavus isolates and 100% of A. nomius were aflatoxigenic. Oregano showed the highest number of A. niger complex isolates (49), however, only 2.04% produced ochratoxin A. This study showed a huge fungal presence in spices, which could compromise the sensorial quality of these products and represent a hazard for consumers.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Especiarias/microbiologia , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Aspergillus niger/genética , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Cladosporium/genética , Cladosporium/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/metabolismo
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 272: 83-86, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550687

RESUMO

The effects of noble rot infection of grapes on the characteristics of different types of wine, including Italian passito wine, are well known. Nevertheless, there is still little information on filamentous fungi associated with noble-rotten grapes. In this study, withered Garganega grapes for passito wine production, naturally infected by noble rot, were analyzed and compared to sound grapes. Skin morphology and fungal population on berry surfaces were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed microcracks, germination conidia and branched hyphae on noble-rotten berries. Penicillium, Aureobasidium and Cladosporium were the most frequent genera present. Analysis of single berries displayed higher heterogeneity of epiphytic fungi in those infected by noble-rot than in sound berries. Penicillium adametzoides, Cladosporium cladospoirioides and Coniochaeta polymorpha were recovered. These, to the best of our knowledge, had never been previously isolated from withered grapes and, for C. polymorpha, from grapevine. This study provided novel data on noble rot mycobiota and suggests that fungi that co-habit with B. cinerea could have an important role on grape and wine quality.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Botrytis/isolamento & purificação , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cladosporium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/microbiologia , Itália , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Mycol Med ; 28(1): 87-93, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402620

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Airborne fungi are considered important causes of respiratory allergy and diseases. The knowledge of these fungi in a city or region is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of respiratory manifestations induced by inhalation of fungal agents. Therefore, in recent years bioaerosols and their density in the air is highly regarded. Identifying fungi with common mycological methods as well as molecular about 5% of people are prone to allergic symptoms of the respiratory tract caused by molds during their lives. Fungi are being considered as one of the most common triggers of asthma, allergic rhinitis and other respiratory problems. AIMS: We aimed at the investigation of the airborne fungi of Ahvaz, Khuzestan province, Iran, during spring and autumn months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 224 Petri dishes with Sabouraud dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol were exposed at seven different regions in the city. Two hundred and twenty-four samples (112 samples per season) were taken from outdoor air seven areas of Ahvaz using microbial sampler (Quick Take-30, SKC, USA) with Debbi 14.3L/min during 5minutes directly on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium with Chloramphenicol and Dechlorane. The effects of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and wind velocity on bioaerosol concentrations were studied. RESULTS: The dishes exposed yielded 1240 fungal colonies of 24 genera. The most predominant were: Cladosporium spp. (37.1%), Alternaria spp. (25.7%), Aspergillus spp. (13.5%), Penicillium spp. (5.9%), Drechslera spp. (3.46%) and Stemphylium spp. (3.46%). The maximum and minimum numbers of airborne fungi were isolated from humid (32.3%) and industrial (17%) environments, respectively. In addition, positive correlation was observed between the number of fungi and relative humidity (r=0.476, P=0.000) in spring and autumn seasons. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that the incidence of airborne fungi with clinical significance had a direct relationship with the variation of environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Cidades , Cladosporium/genética , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Umidade , Irã (Geográfico) , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/microbiologia , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação
14.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 47(1): 150-153, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29372563

RESUMO

A 3-year-old female mixed-breed dog was referred with a 2-day history of serious dyspnea, coughing, lethargy, anorexia, and a low-grade right anterior lameness. At presentation, the dog had an increased respiratory rate, dull heart and lung sounds, and cyanotic mucous membranes. It was hyperthermic and slightly dehydrated. Laboratory findings showed mild neutrophilia with a left shift, while serum biochemistry variables were in the normal range. However, urinalysis revealed mild proteinuria and rare erythrocytes and leukocytes on sediment examination. Thoracic radiographs showed a diffuse mixed interstitial and alveolar pattern with an air bronchogram, while appendicular radiographs showed a right humeral interrupted brush-like periosteal reaction. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed mediastinal lymph node enlargement. Cytology from a fine-needle aspirate of mediastinal lymph nodes revealed a pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis with numerous fungal hyphae. Culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar isolated dark fungal colonies with microscopic features consistent with Cladosporium spp. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region identified the fungus as a species of the Cladosporium cladosporioides-complex.


Assuntos
Cladosporium , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Cladosporium/classificação , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Feminino , Tipagem Molecular , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia/veterinária
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 129(2): 525-533, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055563

RESUMO

The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by marine-derived fungi was reported in this work. Marine-derived fungi (Trichoderma harzianum CBMAI 1677, Cladosporium sp. CBMAI 1237, Aspergillus sydowii CBMAI 935, Penicillium citrinum CBMAI 1186 and Mucor racemosus CBMAI 847) biodegraded anthracene (14days, 130rpm, 50mgmL-1 initial concentration in malt 2% medium). Cladosporium sp. CBMAI 1237 was the most efficient strain and biodegraded more anthracene in the presence (42% biodegradation) than in the absence (26%) of artificial seawater, suggesting that the biodegradation of PAHs may be faster in seawater than in non-saline environment. After 21days, Cladosporium sp. CBMAI 1237 biodegraded anthracene (71% biodegradation), anthrone (100%), anthraquinone (32%), acenaphthene (78%), fluorene (70%), phenanthrene (47%), fluoranthene (52%), pyrene (62%) and nitropyrene (64%). Previous undocumented metabolites were identified and, anthraquinone was a common product of different PAHs biodegradation. The marine-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. CBMAI 1237 showed potential for bioremediation of PAHs.


Assuntos
Cladosporium/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antracenos/análise , Antracenos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Brasil , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Teóricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11171, 2017 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894264

RESUMO

Quantitative estimations of fungal aerosols are important to understand their role in causing respiratory diseases to humans especially in the developing and highly populated countries. In this study we sampled and quantified the three most dominantly found allergenic airborne fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Alternaria alternata from ambient PM10 samples using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique in a southern tropical Indian region, for one full year. Highest concentrations of A. fumigatus and C. cladosporioides were observed during monsoon whereas A. alternata displayed an elevated concentration in winter. The meteorological parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation exhibited a substantial influence on the atmospheric concentrations of allergenic fungal aerosols. The morphological features of various allergenic fungal spores present in the PM10 were investigated and the spores were found to possess distinct structural features. In a maiden attempt over this region we correlate the ambient fungal concentrations with the epidemiological allergy occurrence to obtain firsthand and preliminary information about the causative fungal allergen to the inhabitants exposed to bioaerosols. Our findings may serve as an important reference to atmospheric scientists, aero-biologists, doctors, and general public.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Alérgenos/análise , Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Humanos , Índia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Clima Tropical
17.
Arch Microbiol ; 199(10): 1357-1370, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28733885

RESUMO

Some fungal endophytes confer novel phenotypes and enhance existing ones in plants, including tolerance to water deprivation stress. A range of fungal endophytes was isolated from wild Nicotiana plants growing in arid parts of northern Australia. These were screened for ability to enhance water deprivation stress tolerance by inoculating seedlings of the model plant N. benthamiana in two in vitro tests. Sixty-eight endophyte isolates were co-cultivated with N. benthamiana seedlings on either damp filter paper or on agar medium before being subjected to water deprivation. Seventeen isolates were selected for further testing under water deprivation conditions in a sand-based test in a glasshouse. Only two fungal isolates, Cladosporium cladosporioides (E-162) and an unknown fungus (E-284), significantly enhanced seedling tolerance to moisture deprivation consistently in both in vitro and sand-based tests. Although a strongly significant correlation was observed between any two screening methods, the result of filter paper test was more strongly reflected (r = 0.757, p < 0.001) in results of the glasshouse test, indicating its relative suitability over the agar-based test. In another experiment, the same 17 isolates carried forward to the sand-based test used in the glasshouse screening test were inoculated to N. benthamiana plants in pots in a nutrient-limiting environment to test their influence on growth promotion. Isolates related to C. cladosporioides, Fusarium equiseti, and Thozetella sp. promoted seedling growth by increasing shoot length and biomass. The fungal isolate E-162 (C. cladosporioides) significantly enhanced moisture deprivation tolerance as well as promoted seedling growth.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Cladosporium/fisiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Fusarium/fisiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia , Privação de Água/fisiologia , Austrália , Biomassa , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Secas , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia , Água
18.
Extremophiles ; 21(5): 851-860, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28660362

RESUMO

We assessed the diversity of culturable fungi associated with rocks of continental Antarctica to evaluate their physiological opportunistic virulence potential in vitro. The seventy fungal isolates obtained were identified as nine species of Acremonium, Byssochlamys, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Penicillium, and Rhodotorula. Acremonium sp., D. hansenii, P. chrysogenum, P. citrinum, P. tardochrysogenum, and R. mucilaginosa were able to grow at 37 °C; in addition, B. spectabilis displayed a high level of growth at 37 and 45 °C. Thirty-one isolates of P. chrysogenum, P. citrinum, and P. tardochrysogenum were able to produce partial haemolysis on blood agar at 37 °C. Acremonium sp., P. citrinum, and P. tardochrysogenum showed spore sizes ranging from 2.81 to 5.13 µm diameters at 37 °C. Of these, P. chrysogenum and P. tardochrysogenum displayed macro- and micro morphological polymorphism. Our results suggest that rocks of the ultra-extreme cold and dry environment of Antarctica harbour cryptic fungi phylogenetically close to opportunistic pathogenic and mycotoxigenic taxa with physiologic virulence characteristics in vitro.


Assuntos
Ambientes Extremos , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Hemólise , Micobioma , Acremonium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Células Sanguíneas/microbiologia , Byssochlamys/isolamento & purificação , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Baixa , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Rhodotorula/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos , Esporos/citologia
19.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 32(1): 1-8, jun. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-868818

RESUMO

La apertura de nuevos mercados para los productos hidrobiológicos chilenos ha impuesto el análisis del estatus sanitario de cámaras frigoríficas donde estos productos son almacenados. Para medir el estatus sanitario, la Unión Econó- mica Euroasiática (UEE) exige un recuento total de mohos e identificación de los géneros Cladosporium y Thamnidium en paredes y ambiente de las cámaras frigoríficas. Poco se sabe sobre los niveles de contaminación de mohos en cámaras frigoríficas de productos de exportación en Chile. Aquí, los resultados de 88 análisis de mohos en paredes y aire, realizados a 24 empresas diferentes que poseen cámaras frigoríficas conteniendo productos hidrobiológicos, son mostrados. El recuento total de mohos y el número de colonias de Cladosporium spp. y Thamnidium spp. fueron determinados. Además, los niveles de contaminación por mohos fueron comparados entre plantas procesadoras de alimentos y empresas frigoríficas. Thamnidium spp. no fue encontrado en ninguno de los análisis realizados. Los resultados indican que los niveles de contaminación por mohos son aceptables para la UEE. Este es el primer reporte de niveles de contaminación de mohos en cámaras frigoríficas de productos hidrobiológicos en el sur de Chile.


The opening of new markets for Chilean hydrobiological products had imposed the analysis of the sanitary status of frigorific chambers where those products are kept. To measure the sanitary status, the Euroasiatic Economical Union (EEU) requires a total mould count and identification of Cladosporium and Thamnidium in walls and air of the frigorific chambers. Little is known about contamination levels of moulds in frigorific chambers of export products in Chile. Here, the results of 88 mould analyses in walls and air, performed to 24 different enterprises that possess frigorific chambers containing hydrobiological products, are shown. Total mould count and Cladosporium spp. and Thamnidium spp. colony number were determined. Additionally the levels of moulds contamination were compared between food-processing plants and frigorific enterprises. Thamnidium spp. was not found in any of the analyses performed. The results indicate that levels of moulds contamination are acceptable to the EEU. This is the first report of mould contamination levels in frigorific chambers of hydrobiological products from south of Chile.


Assuntos
Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Congelados , Fungos/patogenicidade , Chile , Indústrias Extrativas e de Processamento , Qualidade dos Alimentos
20.
Mycologia ; 109(2): 244-260, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422608

RESUMO

Cladosporium species are ubiquitous in various environments but are hitherto rarely isolated from soil. In the present study, six new Cladosporium species inhabiting the plateau soils of China are described as C. neopsychrotolerans, C. paralimoniforme, C. prolongatum, C. sinuatum, C. tianshanense, and C. verruculosum. These species are phylogenetically distinct and morphologically different from known species. This study increased the number of species classified in the C. cladosporioides and C. herbarum complexes and revealed Chinese plateau soil as a rich niche of Cladosporium species diversity.


Assuntos
Cladosporium/classificação , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodiversidade , China , Cladosporium/citologia , Cladosporium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
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