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1.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 211-214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820736

RESUMO

Fluorosis is an endemic disease, prevailing in about 25 countries globally. Dental fluorosis is an acquired defect of enamel due to the exposure of an individual to excessive fluoride levels during tooth development. It could result in mild-to-severe discoloration of teeth, which might necessitate esthetic correction. Bleaching is one of the common treatment modalities used in the esthetic correction of such cases. In-office power bleaching is one of the techniques of tooth bleaching that involves clinical application and activation of the bleaching agent with light to accelerate the bleaching process. This case report describes the esthetic correction of severe dental fluorosis by power bleaching, without any need for invasive treatment. This report suggests that in-office power bleaching is an effective and conservative method for esthetic correction of tooth discoloration in severe dental fluorosis.


Assuntos
Fluorose Dentária/terapia , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Descoloração de Dente/etiologia , Adolescente , Estética , Fluorose Dentária/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Descoloração de Dente/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated if the use of a bioactive glass-ceramic-based gel, named Biosilicate (BS), before, after or mixed with bleaching gel, could influence the inflammation of the dental pulp tissue of rats' molars undergoing dental bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). METHODOLOGY: The upper molars of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus) were divided into Ble: bleached (35% H2O2, 30-min); Ble-BS: bleached and followed by BS-based gel application (20 min); BS-Ble: BS-based gel application and then bleaching; BS/7d-Ble: BS-based gel applications for 7 days and then bleaching; Ble+BS: blend of H2O2 with BS-based gel (1:1, 30-min); and control: placebo gel. After 2 and 30 days (n=10), the rats were euthanized for histological evaluation. The Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests were performed (P<0.05). RESULTS: At 2 days, the Ble and Ble-BS groups had significant alterations in the pulp tissue, with an area of necrosis. The groups with the application of BS-based gel before H2O2 had moderate inflammation and partial disorganization in the occlusal third of the coronary pulp and were significantly different from the Ble in the middle and cervical thirds (P<0.05). The most favorable results were observed in the Ble+BS, which was similar to the control in all thirds of the coronary pulp (P>0.05). At 30 days, the pulp tissue was organized and the bleached groups presented tertiary dentin deposition. The Ble group had the highest deposition of tertiary dentin, followed by the Ble-BS, and both were different from control (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: A single BS-based gel application beforehand or BS-based gel blended with a bleaching gel minimize the pulp damage induced by dental bleaching.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Vidro/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Pulpite/prevenção & controle , Clareadores Dentários/química , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Animais , Polpa Dentária/patologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Dente Molar , Pulpite/induzido quimicamente , Pulpite/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428059

RESUMO

Objective This study evaluated the clinical effect of violet LED light on in-office bleaching used alone or combined with 37% carbamide peroxide (CP) or 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). Methodology A total of 100 patients were divided into five groups (n=20): LED, LED/CP, CP, LED/HP and HP. Colorimetric evaluation was performed using a spectrophotometer (ΔE, ΔL, Δa, Δb) and a visual shade guide (ΔSGU). Calcium (Ca)/phosphorous (P) ratio was quantified in the enamel microbiopsies. Measurements were performed at baseline (T 0 ), after bleaching (T B ) and in the 14-day follow-up (T 14 ). At each bleaching session, a visual scale determined the absolute risk (AR) and intensity of tooth sensitivity (TS). Data were evaluated by one-way (ΔE, Δa, ΔL, Δb), two-way repeated measures ANOVA (Ca/P ratio), and Tukey post-hoc tests. ΔSGU and TS were evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney, and AR by Chi-Squared tests (a=5%). Results LED produced the lowest ΔE (p<0.05), but LED/HP promoted greater ΔE, ΔSGU and Δb (T 14 ) than HP (p<0.05). No differences were observed in ΔE and ΔSGU for LED/CP and HP groups (p>0.05). ΔL and Δa were not influenced by LED activation. After bleaching, LED/CP exhibited greater Δb than CP (p>0.05), but no differences were found between these groups at T 14 (p>0.05). LED treatment promoted the lowest risk of TS (16%), while HP promoted the highest (94.4%) (p<0.05). No statistical differences of risk of TS were found for CP (44%), LED/CP (61%) and LED/HP (88%) groups (p>0.05). No differences were found in enamel Ca/P ratio among treatments, regardless of evaluation times. Conclusions Violet LED alone produced the lowest bleaching effect, but enhanced HP bleaching results. Patients treated with LED/CP reached the same efficacy of HP, with reduced risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity and none of the bleaching protocols adversely affected enamel mineral content.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Carbamida/administração & dosagem , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Luz , Fototerapia/métodos , Clareadores Dentários/administração & dosagem , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Colorimetria , Terapia Combinada , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos da radiação , Sensibilidade da Dentina/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Espectrofotometria , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos da radiação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(1): 110-115, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929216

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare to effect of phototherapy and surface flattening after immediately bleaching on the shear bond strength to bleached enamel. Methods: Ninety-six human upper incisors were divided into 4 groups (n = 24). Group NB: no bleached, group P: phototherapy with YSGG laser, group F: 0.5 mm surface flattening, group PF: 0.5 mm surface flattening and phototherapy with Er;Cr:YSGG laser. Then, each group was assigned to 2 subgroups according to adhesive mode (n = 12) as; subgroup S (self-etching mode), subgroup T (total-etching mode) which are universal adhesives. All surface conditionings and restorations were performed with composite resin materials immediately after bleaching. Shear bond strength test was performed by using universal testing machine. The surfaces were also evaluated with SEM. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA post-hoc Tukey tests. Results: The lowest SBS values were achieved in FS (13.72 ± 2.29) while the highest ones in PT (28.01 ± 6.81). However, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). All surface conditioning methods provided SBS values similar to the control (P > 0.05). All subgroups of self-etching mode were significantly lower than their total-etching counterparts (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed that surface removal and phototherapy have a potential clinical application for eliminate to undesirable effect of bleaching treatment. Surface conditioning with either flattening and/or phototherapy may provide clinicians to restore bleached teeth at the same visit with bleaching and reduce chair-time.


Assuntos
Adesivos/farmacologia , Colagem Dentária/métodos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Corrosão Dentária/métodos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Fototerapia , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Clareamento Dental , Condicionamento Ácido do Dente/métodos , Resinas Compostas/química , Materiais Dentários/química , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Clareamento Dental/métodos
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 6(2): 101-112, 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1100314

RESUMO

Introdução:Oclareamento dental é o procedimento estético mais realizado nos consultórios odontológicos. O uso de fontes luminosas tem sido recomendado para acelerar a ação do gel clareador, entretanto evidências científicas são controversas no que se diz respeito a essas fontes.Objetivo:Avaliar protocolos de clareamento dentário modificados por fontes luminosas, objetivando verificar, qual a influência dessas fontes no procedimento de clareamento dentário.Metodologia:Sendo essa, uma pesquisa que utilizou material biológico, a mesma foi submetida e aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da UEPB. Realizou-se a obtenção de dentes(n = 20)por meio de parceria com o Banco de Dentes Humanos do curso de Odontologia da UEPB Campus VIII. Posteriormente realizou-se identificação dos dentes, em seguida registro inicial da cor do dente(escala VITA), o preparo dos blocos dentários e seleção dos grupos. Os dentes foram submetidos a dois protocolos de clareamentos distintos, com luz halógena e com LED, com ou sem troca do gel. Por fim, realizada a análise estatística. Resultados:A modificação do protocolo, seja quanto o tempo de aplicação do agente clareador, seja quanto à fonte de luz utilizada, alcança resultados satisfatórios. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os gruposda luz halógena (p = 0.041)Conclusões:Tendo em vista os resultados e a discussão encontrados na pesquisa, podemos verificar que as evidências científicas nos levam a observar que não há bases suficientes que comprovem a eficácia e benefícios a curto prazo da modificação dos protocolos de clareamento dental pelas fontes luminosas (AU).


Introduction:Tooth whitening is the most common cosmetic procedure performed in dental offices. The use of light sources has been recommended to accelerate the action of the whitening gel;however scientific evidence is controversial regardingthese sources.Objective:Evaluate tooth whitening protocols modified by light sources, aiming to verify, what is the influence of these sources in the tooth whitening procedure. Methodology:This being a research that used biological material, it was submitted and approved by theResearch Ethics Committee of UEPB. Teeth (n = 20) were obtained through a partnership with the Human Teeth Bank of the Dentistry course at UEPB Campus VIII. Subsequently, teeth identification was performed, followed by initial registration of tooth color(VITA scale), preparation of dental blocks and selection of groups. The teeth were submitted to two different whitening protocols, with halogen light and with LED, with or without changing the gel. Finally, statistical analysis was performed. Results:Themodification of the protocol, both in terms of the application time of the bleaching agent and in terms of the light source used, achieves satisfactory results. There was statistically significant difference between groupswith halogen light (p = 0.041). Conclusions:In view of the results and the discussion found in the research, we can see that the scientific evidence leads us to observe that there are not enough bases to prove the effectiveness and short-term benefits of modifying the teeth whitening protocols by light sources (AU).


Introducción: El blanqueamiento dental es el procedimiento cosmético más común que se realiza en consultorios dentales. Se ha recomendado el uso de fuentesde luz para acelerar la acción del gel blanqueador, sin embargo, la evidencia científica es controvertida con respecto a estas fuentes.Objetivo: Evaluar los protocolos de blanqueamiento dental modificados por fuentes de luz, con el objetivo de verificar cuál es la influencia de estas fuentes en el procedimiento de blanqueamiento dental. Metodología: Al tratarse de una investigación que utilizó material biológico, fue presentada y aprobada por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la UEPB. Los dientes (n = 20) se obtuvieron a través de una asociación con el Banco de Dientes Humanos del curso de Odontología en el Campus VIII de la UEPB. Posteriormente, se realizó la identificación de los dientes, seguida del registro inicial del color del diente(escala VITA), la preparación de los bloques dentales y la selección de grupos. Los dientes fueron sometidos a dos protocolos diferentes de blanqueamiento, con luz halógena y con LED, con o sin cambiar el gel. Finalmente, se realizó un análisis estadístico. Resultados: La modificación del protocolo, tanto en términos del tiempo de aplicación del agente blanqueador como en términos de la fuente de luz utilizada, logra resultados satisfactorios. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los gruposcom luz halógena (p =0.041).Conclusiones: En vista de los resultados y la discusión encontrada en la investigación, podemos ver que la evidencia científica nos lleva a observar que no hay suficientes bases para probar la efectividad y los beneficios a corto plazo de modificar los protocolos de blanqueamiento dental por fuentes de luz (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lasers , Luz , Brasil , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Dente Molar
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 72, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819788

RESUMO

Dental fluorosis is a developmental anomaly affecting aesthetic appearance. The association between microabrasion and external bleaching has shown satisfactory outcomes because it improves aesthetic outcome in patients with light dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to update the role of this association as well as its different effects on the enamelled surface.


Assuntos
Microabrasão do Esmalte/métodos , Fluorose Dentária/complicações , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Humanos
7.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180453, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed for the chemical activation of a 35% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) bleaching gel to increase its whitening effectiveness and reduce its toxicity. METHODOLOGY: First, the bleaching gel - associated or not with ferrous sulfate (FS), manganese chloride (MC), peroxidase (PR), or catalase (CT) - was applied (3x 15 min) to enamel/dentin discs adapted to artificial pulp chambers. Then, odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells were exposed for 1 h to the extracts (culture medium + components released from the product), for the assessment of viability (MTT assay) and oxidative stress (H2DCFDA). Residual H2O2 and bleaching effectiveness (DE) were also evaluated. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA complemented with Tukey's test (n=8. p<0.05). RESULTS: All chemically activated groups minimized MDPC-23 oxidative stress generation; however, significantly higher cell viability was detected for MC, PR, and CT than for plain 35% H2O2 gel. Nevertheless, FS, MC, PR, and CT reduced the amount of residual H2O2 and increased bleaching effectiveness. CONCLUSION: Chemical activation of 35% H2O2 gel with MC, PR, and CT minimized residual H2O2 and pulp cell toxicity; but PR duplicated the whitening potential of the bleaching gel after a single 45-minute session.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Clareadores Dentários/química , Clareadores Dentários/toxicidade , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Análise de Variância , Catalase/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Cloretos/química , Cor , Polpa Dentária/química , Polpa Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Dentina/química , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Compostos de Manganês/química , Odontoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/química , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Am J Dent ; 32(3): 124-132, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295393

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a clinical evaluation of dental bleaching techniques using hydrogen peroxide (HP), regarding tooth sensitivity, gingival irritation, subject's perception of color change, and calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) concentrations in enamel. METHODS: 75 volunteers were distributed according to the bleaching technique (n=25): (a) at-home: 10%HP (Opalescence GO) for 15 days of continuous use (1 hour per day); (b) in-office: 40%HP (Opalescence Boost) in three clinical sessions (40 minutes each session); (c) combined: one initial session with 40%HP, and the rest with 10%HP for 15 days of continuous use. Clinical evaluations and Ca and P concentration collections were obtained before, during bleaching treatment, and 15 days after conclusion of treatment. The generalized linear models were used to evaluate the data for VITA Classical scale, CIELAB, tooth sensitivity, degree of acceptability of the technique, Ca and P concentrations and to determine the ΔE variables and color change perception. Gingival irritation was analyzed by Fisher's Exact test. The total frequencies for each time interval (regardless of bleaching technique) were compared at 50% by the chi-square test. RESULTS: The in-office technique presented the lowest tooth sensitivity, but all techniques caused an increase in sensitivity over time (P< 0.0001). All techniques resulted in lower Ca and P concentrations in enamel at each time point, compared with the baseline concentrations. Calcium concentrations did not differ significantly among the treatments (P= 0.9360). Phosphorus concentration at the 8th day was higher for the in-office technique group (P< 0.05). All the bleaching techniques were effective in altering color, with ΔE values higher than 3.3, without any significant differences (P= 0.3255). Higher occurrence of gingival irritation was observed for at-home and combined techniques. The combined technique seemed to promote a color change faster than the other techniques. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: All the dental bleaching techniques proved equally effective in promoting tooth color change. These techniques may reduce calcium and phosphorous content in enamel. The at-home and the combined techniques may cause greater dental sensitivity than the in-office technique, and led to a higher prevalence of gingival irritation.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Descoloração de Dente , Esmalte Dentário , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Minerais , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Clareadores Dentários/uso terapêutico , Descoloração de Dente/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Gen Dent ; 67(3): 67-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199748

RESUMO

In-office dental bleaching allows the dentist to have greater control of the procedure and prevents patients from ingesting chemicals. To obtain optimum results, in-office bleaching usually requires a longer period of application as well as changes of the bleaching agent applied to the tooth surfaces at each appointment. The objective of this case report was to assess, by means of a split-mouth design in a single patient, the final tooth color and tooth sensitivity resulting from 2 different bleaching protocols: 1 application of 35% hydrogen peroxide for 45 minutes and 3 applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide for 15 minutes each. Neither the patient nor 5 individuals who were blinded to the techniques noted a difference in the final esthetic results of the 2 protocols immediately after the procedure. In addition, the patient reported that no tooth sensitivity was associated with either protocol. The results of dental bleaching on both sides were maintained after 15 days. The results shown in the present case report suggest that there may be no need to renew the gel during in-office dental bleaching.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina , Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Sensibilidade da Dentina/etiologia , Sensibilidade da Dentina/prevenção & controle , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Clareadores Dentários/administração & dosagem , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos
10.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 59-65, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze bleaching treatment performed with different products, with or without the use of Violet LED. METHODS: The color and dental sensitivity of six patients were evaluated as follows: (1)at-home bleaching with 10% Carbamide Peroxide (CP); (2)in-office bleaching with 17.5% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP), and (3)treatment with a placebo gel. All patients, including patients receiving at-home bleaching, received irradiation with violet LED in the office. The right hemiarch was protect with silicone. The color was evaluated using Vita Easyshade digital spectrophotometer and the Vita scale on teeth 13-23. Visual analog scale sensitivity analysis was performed per hemiarch, while the thermal sensation threshold was performed on teeth 11, 13, 21 and 23. RESULTS: Regarding the color change (ΔE) it can be observed that treatment 1, in which 10%CP was used, presented the highest values, followed by treatment 2, in which 17.5%HP was used. Regarding sensitivity, only patients who received 17.5%HP showed moderate sensitivity, and there was no difference between the arches. The analysis of dental thermal sensation threshold showed that there was more dental sensitization between 7 and 14 days and that the use of violet LED made the teeth more sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that violet LED enhanced the bleaching effect when used with 10%PC gels, and a discreet effect was seen when used either in conjunction with 17.5%PH or alone. Violet LED had no effect on pain sensation, but increased the detection threshold of thermal changes in the teeth that were irradiated.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Carbamida/uso terapêutico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Clareadores Dentários/uso terapêutico , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Adulto , Peróxido de Carbamida/efeitos adversos , Sensibilidade da Dentina/induzido quimicamente , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Luz , Masculino , Fotoquimioterapia/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180442, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess pulp oxygen saturation levels (SaO2) in maxillary central incisors after dental bleaching. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 participants (160 teeth) were randomly allocated to four groups: G1 In-office bleaching with two applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (20 minutes), followed by at-home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) (2 hours/day for 16 days); G2 - Same protocol as G1, plus desensitizing toothpaste; G3 - In-office bleaching with 35% HP and one application of placebo gel (20 minutes), followed by at-home bleaching with 10% CP (2 hours/day for 16 days); and G4 - Same protocol as G3, plus desensitizing toothpaste. Pulp SaO2 levels were measured before (T0) and immediately after (T1) in-office bleaching; on the 5th (T2), 8th (T3), 12th (T4), and 16th days of at-home bleaching (T5); and on the 7th (T6) and 30th (T7) days. Mean (SD) pulp SaO2 levels were compared within groups by generalized estimating equations (GEE) and Student's t-test (P<0.05). RESULTS: Mean pulp SaO2 at T0 was 84.29% in G1, 84.38% in G2, 84.79% in G3, and 85.83% in G4. At T1, these values decreased to 81.96%, 82.06%, 82.19%, and 81.15% in G1, G2, G3, and G4 respectively, with significant difference in G4 (P<0.05). During home bleaching, pulp SaO2 levels varied in all groups, with 86.55%, 86.60%, 85.71%, and 87.15% means at T7 for G1, G2, G3, and G4, respectively; G2 presented significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pulp SaO2 level in maxillary central incisors was similar at baseline, reducing immediately after in-office bleaching, regardless of using desensitizing toothpaste and increasing at 30 days after dental bleaching.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária/metabolismo , Incisivo/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peróxido de Carbamida/efeitos adversos , Polpa Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Dessensibilizantes Dentinários/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade da Dentina/induzido quimicamente , Sensibilidade da Dentina/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Incisivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Oximetria/métodos , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Tempo , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(17): 17427-17437, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016589

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated the side effects of tooth whiteners on the gastric mucosa. However, the impact of dental bleaching products on the liver, kidney, and heart remains obscure. The present study investigated the toxic potential of 35% carbamide peroxide (CPO) containing tooth whitening product (TWP) on the liver, kidney, heart, and stomach of mice, pointing to the role of oxidative stress and inflammation. Mice received 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight CPO-TWP orally for 3 weeks and samples were collected for analyses. Both doses of CPO-TWP induced a significant increase in circulating liver, kidney, and heart function markers. CPO-TWP-administered mice showed several histological alterations and a significant increase in liver, kidney, heart, and stomach lipid peroxidation levels along with diminished glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. In addition, administration of CPO-TWP provoked anemia, leukocytosis, and a significant increase in circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, exposure to 35% CPO-TWP induced functional, histological, and hematological alterations, oxidative stress, and inflammation in mice. Therefore, the frequent use of tooth bleaching agents should be monitored very carefully to avoid the application of excess amounts as well as the intake.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Carbamida/toxicidade , Clareadores Dentários/toxicidade , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Rim , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Peróxidos , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Ureia
13.
J Oral Sci ; 61(1): 103-110, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713266

RESUMO

The bleaching efficacy of common bleaching agents and deionized water treated with non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma in the pulp chamber for nonvital tooth bleaching was evaluated. A total of 120 extracted human maxillary first incisors were stained using human blood. Teeth were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 15). In the first four groups, teeth were bleached using 35% hydrogen peroxide gel, 37% carbamide peroxide gel, 2:1 (w/v) sodium perborate paste, and deionized water for 30 min. In the remaining groups, bleaching agents were treated with non-thermal atmospheric plasma for 5 min inside the pulp chamber. Overall color changes (∆E) were determined using Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage Lab Colour System. The plasma-assisted tooth bleaching has not increased tooth temperature beyond 37°C. Bleaching efficacies of bleaching agents were significantly improved when treated with non-thermal atmospheric plasma compared to their application (P < 0.05). A remarkable bleaching effect was obtained when bleaching agents were substituted with water and when treated with non-thermal atmospheric plasma. Non-thermal atmospheric plasma treatment could be a novel tool for activation of bleaching agents in the pulp chamber for nonvital tooth bleaching procedure. Moreover, water could be used as a novel bleaching agent when treated with the non-thermal atmospheric plasma to eliminate possible risks which might arise from peroxide-containing agents.


Assuntos
Clareadores/química , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Dente não Vital , Peróxido de Carbamida/química , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química
14.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180051, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673027

RESUMO

The efficacy of whitening toothpastes is questionable and controversial. Clinicians, patients and researchers have expressed concern with whitening toothpastes due to the risk of wearing the dental structure and the potential for disappointment if the advertised cosmetic results are not achieved. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the whitening performance of toothpastes with different whitening technologies after initial and continued use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety bovine incisors were stained using a concentrated solution of black tea. They were randomly distributed into 6 groups, according to the toothpaste whitening technology: activated charcoal (B&W), blue covarine (WAD), hydrogen peroxide (LWA), microbeads (Oral B 3D White Perfection - 3DW) and optimized abrasives (XW4D). They were compared to a traditional toothpaste without a whitening agent (TA - control). Specimens underwent a brushing machine with controlled pressure, time and temperature. A calibrated examiner measured the color using a VITA-Classical scale before the first brushing cycle (T0), after the first brushing cycle (TI), and after a brushing cycle that simulates continuous use (TCU). Whitening performance was evaluated by the difference of shades (ΔSGU) between T0-TI and T0-TCU timepoints, using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's non-parametric test. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the cumulative effect (α=0.05). RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed between toothpastes in both TI and TCU (p<0.05). The time of use also had a significant effect (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Only WAD and 3DW showed whitening performance after the first use (TI). The greatest whitening performance after continuous use was obtained by WAD, followed by LWA and 3DW. The use of conventional toothpaste (TA) promotes no tooth whitening. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Microbead abrasives (3DW) and blue covarine (WAD) were the active technology tested that presented the best global tooth whitening performance.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Isoindóis/química , Metaloporfirinas/química , Microesferas , Clareadores Dentários/química , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Cremes Dentais/química , Animais , Bovinos , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo , Dente/efeitos dos fármacos , Escovação Dentária/métodos
15.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 25: 344-348, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648641

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present in-vitro study was to explore bleached enamel reversal with phototherapy (Er,Cr:YSGG) when using two dissimilar bonding system to bond brackets on microleakage and shear bond strength. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Amongst one twenty samples, ninety samples were bleached using 35% hydrogen peroxide. After the bleaching procedure, the teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to surface conditioning treatment (n = 30 each). Group 1: treated with Er,Cr:YSGG (ECL) Group 2: 10% sodium ascorbate (SA) and Group 3: Bleached only (BO). Based on the type of adhesive, specimens were further classified into eight subgroups. In subgroup 1,2,3 and no treatment (NT) (n = 15) adhesive Transbond XT was applied on already etched surface and these subgroups were named as NT-TEP, BO-TEP, ECL-TEP and SA-TEP. Similarly, in subgroup 5,6,7 and NT specimens (n = 15) were conditioned with Transbond Plus self-etching primer and these subgroups were named as NT-SEP, BO-SEP, ECL-SEP and SA-SEP. Samples from each subgroup were exposed to increasing load for evaluation of shear bond strength. Microleakage among subgroups were tested by immersing samples in Methylene blue prior one day. Analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons test was used to assess data. RESULTS: The maximum and minimum bond strength was observed in group NT-TEP [17.14(2.54)] and BO-SEP [6.14(0.215)] respectively. Samples conditioned with phototherapy ECL-TEP [16.14(1.231)] exhibited comparable bond strength to specimens conditioned with sodium ascorbate (SA-TEP) [16.72(1.298)]. Similarly, bond strength values of ECL-SEP [13.43(0.921)] and SA-SEP were comparable. The highest microleakage score was demonstrated in BO-SEP [83.21(38.21)] whereas, the lowest microleakage scores were displayed in NT-TEP [23.73(13.45)]. CONCLUSION: Er,Cr:YSGG phototherapy reversal on bleached enamel with etch and rinse adhesives has a potential to be used in clinical settings alternate to conventional sodium ascorbate when bonding orthodontic brackets.


Assuntos
Adesivos/química , Colagem Dentária , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Ácido Ascórbico , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Clareamento Dental/métodos
16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(1): 82-86, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets after anti-oxidant treatment on previously bleached teeth.. METHODS: The experimental in-vitro study was conducted in Saudi Arabiaat Qassim University, Al-Qassim, and King Saud University, Riyadh, from December 2016 to March 2017, and comprised extracted maxillary and mandibular premolars which were divided randomly into three groups. In Group A, which was the control group, the teeth were etched and bonded, while those in Group B were bleached, etched and bonded. Group C was subjected to bleaching, followed by treatment with anti-oxidant 10% sodium ascorbate solution, then etched and bonded. All three groups were then tested and analysed for bond strength using the Instron, Universal testing machine. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis.. RESULTS: There were 60 teeth with 20(33.3%) in each of the three groups. Group C had the maximum mean shear bond strength of 12.231}2.1Mpa, followed by Group A with 10.948+/-2.1Mpa and Group B with 7.621}1.8Mpa. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-oxidant treatment had a positive effect on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets after tooth bleaching. Keywords: Anti-oxidant. Bleaching, Brackets, Extracted premolars, Shear bond strength.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ligas Dentárias/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Clareamento Dental , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Dente Pré-Molar , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareamento Dental/métodos
17.
Odontology ; 107(1): 118-125, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961213

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate color longevity after 2 years of whitening gel (6% hydrogen peroxide (HP), blue LED/infrared laser activation system) in comparison to a control 35% concentration in a split-mouth study and investigate the long-term effect on quality of life (QOL).Thirty-one patients were treated. Whitening using 6% or 35% HP gel was performed on half of the upper jaw in each patient. The color was measured at baseline and 1 week, 1 month, 1 and 2 years after treatment using the Easyshade Vita spectrophotometer and the Vita Bleached and Vita Classical Shade Guides organized by value. During 2 years of follow-up, color was evaluated before and after dental prophylaxis. Oral Health of Impact Profile (OHIP 14) and Psychosocial Impact Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) surveys measured QOL. Nineteen patients were evaluated at the 2-year follow-up. Significant differences in ΔE were measured between the two groups at all time points (p < 0.05). No significant differences in ΔSGU were observed at any time point (p > 0.05). The positive effect of bleaching on QOL was maintained in patients treated with a low concentration of the whitening gel. The two compounds remained effective after 2 years. An objective color difference was found between the groups, but no difference was observed in subjective reports. The positive effect on QOL remained after 2 years of follow-up in this cohort of patients.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02353611.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Qualidade de Vida , Clareadores Dentários/farmacologia , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Adulto , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Géis , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrofotometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Prosthet Dent ; 121(2): 340-346, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139674

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Whether tooth whitening alters the surface topography of enamel causing an increase in surface roughness that could increase susceptibility to restaining is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether immersing enamel in common solutions produces a color change of ΔE greater than 2; whether the highest concentration carbamide peroxide bleaching agent produces the greatest ΔE; whether bleaching increases the susceptibility to further staining by common solutions; and whether morphologic changes to the enamel surface are observed after staining and bleaching as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five extracted human teeth were immersed in 5 solutions (wine, coffee, tea, soda, and water) for 15 days at 80°C, and the change in ΔE was assessed with a colorimeter. The teeth were bleached using different concentrations of carbamide peroxide (20%, 35%, and 44%) and ΔE was measured at different time intervals. The teeth were then restained with the same solutions. The ΔE after initial staining was compared with the ΔE after bleaching and restaining of the same teeth. SEM was performed at baseline, after staining, bleaching, and restaining to evaluate the changes in the enamel surface topography. EDS was used to determine the elemental composition of tooth surfaces after restaining. RESULTS: All liquids caused a ΔE greater than 2 after 15 days. The concentration of bleaching agent was not significantly associated with ΔE for any stain types. No significant difference was found in the rate of staining between initial staining and restaining after bleaching. However, a significant effect of time was found for the staining, where the overall ΔE increased by 0.34 for each day in the solution (P<.001). SEM images showed no major changes to enamel topography after bleaching. However, a coating was noted on teeth stained with wine and tea, which had different elemental compositions when compared with the tooth surface. CONCLUSIONS: Based on SEM observation, bleaching teeth with carbamide peroxide does not increase the susceptibility of enamel to staining and does not alter the topography of the enamel. Using higher bleaching concentrations did not increase tooth whitening as a function of time.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Carbamida/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Clareadores Dentários/farmacologia , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Descoloração de Dente/induzido quimicamente , Peróxido de Carbamida/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Café , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Fatores de Risco , Propriedades de Superfície , Chá , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Água , Vinho
19.
Oper Dent ; 44(1): 24-33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:: This randomized clinical study evaluated two parameters: 1) the clinical color rebound of whitening patients' tooth discoloration using the walking bleaching technique and 2) the impact on psychological and aesthetic self-perception at the one-year follow-up of patients who underwent bleaching of nonvital teeth. METHODS AND MATERIALS:: Fifty study participants with nonvital tooth discoloration were recruited. Teeth were assigned randomly into one of two groups: 1) 35% hydrogen peroxide (n=25) and 2) 37% carbamide peroxide (n=25). Intracoronal bleaching was carried out over the course of four sessions using the walking bleach technique. Tooth color was evaluated after each session in order to measure the total color variation (ΔE). The guide was arranged from highest (B1) to lowest values (C4) for evaluating color, and color changes using Vita Classical Shade (ΔSGUs) units were calculated. Subjective and objective assessments were compared with the counterpart of the tooth. Aesthetic perception and psychosocial factors were evaluated before and after treatment by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) and Psychological Impact of Dental Impact Questionnaire (PIDAQ) surveys. RESULTS:: Color changes (ΔE) were 15.48 ± 5.17 and 14.02 ± 4.85 for carbamide and hydrogen peroxide groups, respectively. There were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between these two groups at the one-year follow-up. There was a decrease in the PIDAQ scores after treatment compared to baseline values ( p<0.05). The majority of OHIP values regressed to baseline values. CONCLUSION:: The technique of walking bleaching was highly effective and showed minimal color rebound in nonvital teeth and had a positive effect on patients' psychological impact at the one-year follow-up.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Clareadores Dentários/uso terapêutico , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Descoloração de Dente/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Peróxido de Carbamida/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo , Dente não Vital , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 25: 208-213, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a combination of photocatalysts-hydrogen peroxide at a low concentration (3.5%) and titanium dioxide (TiO2)-activated at a wavelength of 405 nm using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology, and to quantify their tooth-bleaching efficacy using fluorescence images obtained from QLF technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty bovine incisors were extrinsically stained according to Stookey's method, and were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group). Two bleaching solutions were prepared by mixing 3.5% H2O2 with 0.05% of anatase and rutile TiO2 powders. These solutions were applied to the stained teeth using a microbrush and then irradiated for 15 min at either 306 or 405 nm to activate the bleaching agent. The color difference (ΔE*) was assessed before and after every 5 min of treatment. The ΔE* and the changes in the fluorescence loss (ΔΔF) were obtained from white-light and fluorescence images, respectively. RESULTS: All of the low-H2O2/TiO2 treatments caused significant tooth-bleaching efficacy after irradiation at 306 and 405 nm (p < 0.05). The results did not differ significantly between the two wavelengths (p > 0.05), but the bleaching efficacy was greater with anatase TiO2 at 306 nm and rutile TiO2 at 405 nm. Analysis of the fluorescence images revealed that the ΔF values increased significantly in all groups with the treatment time (p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between ΔE* and the change in ΔΔF (r = 0.822, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Combining low-H2O2/TiO2 with QLF technology at 405 nm has an efficacy of tooth-bleaching as a less harmful and biofriendly method, while the fluorescence images obtained by QLF technology could be used to assess tooth-bleaching.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Fluorescência Quantitativa Induzida por Luz/métodos , Titânio/farmacologia , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Distribuição Aleatória
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