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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17071, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574806

RESUMO

Access to antiretroviral-based HIV prevention has been marked by sex asymmetries, and its effectiveness has been compromised by low clinical follow-up rates. We investigated risk profiles of women who received nonoccupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP), as well as the rates and predictive factors of loss to follow-up after nPEP initiation.Retrospective study evaluating 501 women who received nPEP between 2014 and 2015 at 5 HIV centers (testing centers-VCT, outpatient clinics, and infectious diseases hospital). Risk profiles were drawn based on the characteristics of the women and their sexual partners, and then stratified by sociodemographic indicators and previous use of HIV prevention services. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) was defined as not presenting for follow-up visits or for HIV testing after nPEP initiation. Predictors of LTFU were analyzed by calculating adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs).Approximately 90% of women had sexual encounters that met the criteria established in the Brazilian guidelines for nPEP. Those who declared to be sex workers (26.5%) or drug users (19.2%) had the highest social vulnerability indicators. In contrast, women who had intercourse with casual partners of unknown HIV risk (42.7%) had higher education and less experience with previous HIV testing (89.3%) or nPEP use (98.6%). Of the women who received nPEP after sexual intercourse with stable partners, 75.8% had HIV-infected partners. LTFU rate was 72.8% and predictors included being Black (aPR = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.30), using drugs/alcohol (aPR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32) and having received nPEP at an HIV outpatient clinic (aPR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.20-1.51) or at an infectious diseases hospital (aPR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.11-1.69) compared with a VCT. The risk of LTFU declined as age increased (aPR 41-59 years = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.96).Most women who used nPEP had higher socioeconomic status and were not part of populations most affected by HIV. In contrast, factors that contribute to loss to follow-up were: having increased social vulnerability; increased vulnerability to HIV infection; and seeking nPEP at HIV treatment services as opposed to at a VCT.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Sexo sem Proteção , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Coito , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assunção de Riscos , Trabalho Sexual , Classe Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 120(5): 18-23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621564

RESUMO

Modern medical care is based largely on a paradigm known as a "biomedical model," in which "objective," high-technology biomarkers guide clinical care, and most health outcomes are determined by health professionals rather than individuals, using drugs as the primary therapy. The biomedical model is spectacularly effective in the acute care inpatient hospital, the setting for 95% of medical education and training, and to guide management of many chronic diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, for which a "gold standard" biomarker is a major determinant of clinical decisions. This model also has contributed importantly to knowledge of biomarkers, biochemical and structural abnormalities in osteoarthritis (OA) and other rheumatic diseases. However, a biomedical model has many limitations in understanding the long-term course of OA and many chronic diseases in outpatient medicine, the setting of 95% of activities that determine long-term health outcomes. Patient self-report questionnaires provide the most informative data concerning OA patient status and changes in status, and more significant data in the prognosis of outcomes such as mortality than laboratory or radiographic measures. Furthermore, the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of OA is considerably greater in individuals of low versus high socioeconomic status. These associations are not unique to OA, and are seen in many diseases, including comorbid conditions which are the acute causes of death in OA. Associations of low socioeconomic and poor health are explained only in small part by limited access to medical services, the conventional explanation. Strong evidence suggests that socioeconomic status is a surrogate marker for patient self-management, actions and environment, in addition to actions of health professionals, in the pathogenesis, course and outcomes of chronic diseases. These observations suggest the value of a complementary "biopsychosocial model" to better understand pathogenesis, principles of treatments, and outcomes in OA and other chronic diseases. Inclusion of clinical information from patient questionnaires and socioeconomic status variables in clinical and research settings could add new understanding of biomarkers and pain in OA for both basic and clinical investigators. Furthermore, the data indicate that poor physical function assessed on a self-report questionnaire might be regarded as an important reversible risk factor in public health and research agendas, for which the OA community might be strong advocates.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190011.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High income concentration prevails in Brazil and socioeconomic status influences living and health conditions, including dietary quality. OBJECTIVE: To measure the magnitude of social inequalities in the food quality profile of the Brazilian population. METHOD: We analyzed data from 60,202 adults who participated in the 2013 National Health Survey. The prevalence of indicators of food quality was estimated according to gender, ethnicity, income, schooling, and health insurance. We calculated prevalence ratios using multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: Healthy food consumption was more prevalent among females, white people, and individuals with higher socioeconomic status. However, we also found a higher prevalence of some foods considered unhealthy, such as sweets, sandwiches, snacks, and pizzas, among the most favored social segments, in women, and white people, expressing the concomitance of healthy and unhealthy eating habits. The comparison between the consumption of skim and low-fat milk according to income (prevalence ratio - PR = 4.48) presented the most significant difference. CONCLUSION: In addition to the expressive social inequality identified in the Brazilian food profile, mixed patterns were detected, including healthy and unhealthy foods. These results point out the need for monitoring and promoting healthy eating habits, taking into account the social inequalities and contradictions concerning food intake.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Classe Social , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190013.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze social inequalities in the prevalence of indicators of active aging in the Brazilian older adult population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 11,177 older adults who participated in the Brazilian National Health Survey in 2013. We estimated the prevalence of five domains of active aging (social activities, civic engagement, leisure-time physical activity, paid work, and volunteer work) according to gender, ethnicity, schooling, income, and private health insurance. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The percentage of involvement in organized social activities, civic engagement, and physical activity was 25.1, 12.4, and 13.1%, respectively. Regarding work, 20.7% of the sample had a paid job, and 9.7% participated in volunteer work. Women had a higher prevalence of participation in organized social activities and volunteer work; while civic engagement and paid work were more frequent among men. White people were more likely to participate in social activities, volunteer work, and leisure-time physical activity, explained by their schooling. The strata with a higher level of schooling, income, and who had private health insurance showed a greater incidence of participation in all activities studied. CONCLUSION: The five activities analyzed are challenging for the proposed policy of active aging, as they are marked by considerable social inequality.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Classe Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trabalho/fisiologia , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190014.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the socioeconomic and demographic differences in medication use to control hypertension and diabetes mellitus in Brazil. METHOD: Data from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS) performed in Brazil in 2013 with a representative sample of the population aged 18years old or older were analyzed. The use of medications for hypertension and diabetes according to income, education, race, possession of a private health insurance plan and region of household were estimated. Theprevalence ratios adjusted for sex and age were also estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: 81.4% of the hypertensive population used medication to control the disease. The use was higher among females, white/Caucasian individuals and those with a private health plan. In the case of diabetes mellitus, 80.2% of the population used medication to control the disease and the use was higher in elderly patients, patients with a higher level of education, patients with a private health plan, and patients in the Southeast region. Inequalities according to income and health plan were small even in the strata of sex, age and geographic region analyzed. CONCLUSION: We found a high use of medication to control hypertension and diabetes. Socioeconomic inequalities in use were not expressive, probably due to medication policies that promote greater and equitable access to medicines in Brazil.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190015.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596386

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the improvement in oral health conditions observed in the Brazilian population, there are still high social inequalities that must be monitored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate income inequality in oral hygiene practices, oral health status and the use of dental services in the adult and senior Brazilian population. METHODS: Data from the National Health Survey conducted in 2013 (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS 2013) were used for the population aged 18 years old or older. RESULTS: Inequalities were found among the income strata in most of the oral health indicators evaluated. The greatest inequalities were observed in the use of dental floss, in hygiene practices (PR = 2.85 in adults and PR = 2.45 in seniors), and in total tooth loss (PR = 6.74 in adults and PR = 2.24 in seniors) and difficulty in chewing (PR = 4.49 in adults and PR = 2.67 in seniors) among oral condition indicators. The magnitude of inequalities was high in both groups in most oral condition indicators. Income was a factor that persisted in limiting access to dental services, and even the lower income segments had high percentages that paid for dental consultations. CONCLUSION: Based on data from the first PNS, the findings of this study enabled the identification of oral health and dental care aspects more compromised by income differentials, thus, contributing to the planning of dental care in Brazil and to stimulate the monitoring of these disparities with data from future surveys.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/métodos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though 36.5% of children and adolescents living in Germany have a migration background (MB), data on the health of this population is scarce. With population-based data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017), reliable statements can be given. METHODS: Data from KiGGS Wave 2 is used in order to report on general health status, mental health, and the distribution of allergic diseases among children and adolescents aged 3-17 years (n = 13,568). To determine overweight, standardized measurements of body weight and height (n = 3463) were used. In addition to the MB (none/one-sided/two-sided), the socioeconomic status (SES) is considered. In multivariate analyses among children and adolescents with MB, SES and the parents' duration of stay in Germany were included. RESULTS: Participants with a two-sided MB show lower prevalence of neurodermatitis (3.5% vs. 6.9%) and ADHS (2.0% vs. 5.1%) than those without a migration background and higher prevalence of fair to poor general health status (6.1% vs. 3.9%). Children and adolescents with a two-sided migration background are more often affected by overweight than those without migration background (22.1% vs. 12.2%). After considering SES, the chances of a diagnosed neurodermatitis and ADHS remain higher and the chances for overweight are lower in children and adolescents with a migration background than among those without migration background. If only children with MB are considered, SES and partially the parents' duration of stay in Germany are associated with health outcomes. CONCLUSION: Differences in the general health status of children and adolescents with and without MB vary depending on the observed indicators. The heterogeneity of children and adolescents with MB, e.g. regarding SES and parents' duration of stay, should be considered when planning and implementing measures of health promotion.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Classe Social , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(9): 1241-1251, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489861

RESUMO

Background: One of the most common neurodevelopmental problems affecting behavior of children all over the world is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies on ADHD prevalence in Africa used either parents' or teachers' disruptive behavioral disorder rating scale (DBDRS) to diagnose ADHD, but this study diagnose ADHD using both parents and teachers DBDRS simultaneously among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 1,385 primary school pupils in Ile-Ife using multistage random sampling. The parents' and teachers' DBDRS were used simultaneously to screen children who had ADHD. Results: Sixty-five (4.7%) of the pupils had ADHD. Among the 65 pupils with ADHD, 28 (43%) had the inattentive subtype, 25 (38.5%) had the combined subtype, whereas 12 (18.5%) had hyperactive/impulsive subtype. The prevalence of ADHD was significantly higher in the younger age group than the older age groups (χ2 = 7.153, P = 0.007). There was no significant association found between the prevalence of ADHD and the social class (χ2 = 3.852, P = 0.146). Conclusion: ADHD prevalence of 4.7% was found among the children in Ile-Ife. Assessment of children for ADHD was done by parents at home and teachers in the school with DBDRS. The inattentive subtype was the most common and the hyperactive subtype was the least seen in the study. Early diagnosis and treatment of this disorder will bring better outcome in the children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pais , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social
9.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For various psychiatric and somatic disorders, there is evidence of an association between patients' socioeconomic status (SES), healthcare utilisation, and the resulting costs. In the field of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, studies on this topic are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To exploratively analyse the association of healthcare expenditures for children and adolescents with conduct disorder (including oppositional-defiant disorder) - one of the most prevalent child and adolescent psychiatric disorders - and SES. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis is based on routine data from the German statutory health insurance company AOK Nordost for the calendar year 2011, covering 6461 children and adolescents (age 5-18 years) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of conduct disorder. The insureds' SES was estimated indirectly, based on the social structure of the postcode area, using the German Index of Multiple Deprivation (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg), and the Berliner Sozialindex I (Berlin), respectively. From the two indices, quintiles were derived. Based on these quintiles, average costs per case for the following cost types were analysed: inpatient healthcare, outpatient healthcare (general practitioners, paediatricians, child and adolescent psychiatrists, child and adolescent psychotherapists), and prescribed medication. RESULTS: There was no significant functional association between SES and healthcare costs for any of the analysed cost types. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to findings in adults, this study on children and adolescents with conduct disorders did not reveal an association between SES and healthcare costs. Within this group of patients, social inequality does not seem to have a significant influence on healthcare utilisation in Germany.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/economia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Alemanha , Humanos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16794, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393408

RESUMO

To investigate the emotional problems (depressive and anxiety symptoms) of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore the role of the mother's socioeconomic status (SES) and the core symptoms of the child on the mother's emotional problems.This cross-sectional survey was performed in 180 mothers of children with ASD in Chang Sha city of China. The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were used to assess the anxiety and depressive symptoms of the mothers of the autistic children. The education level and annual family income, as well as occupation, were be selected as components of the mother's SES. Autism Behaviour Checklist (ABC) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were used for the evaluation of the core symptoms of the children. A general information questionnaire was also used. The ordinal regression was used to examine the effect of the SES and children's core symptoms on maternal emotional problems.The valid response rate was 92.7% (167 of 180 questionnaires were returned). Of the mothers studied, 72.5% and 80.2% had depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively, and 67.1% suffered from both symptoms. Mother's SES was observed to be unrelated to maternal anxiety symptoms (P >.05). Only 1 component of the SES (junior high school education level) was related to depressive symptoms (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.80). SRS score under 115 (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.93) of autistic children was a protective factor against maternal anxiety symptoms. The borderline and mild behavioral problems (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-0.99; OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.94, respectively) of autistic children were protective factors against maternal depressive symptoms.Mothers of autistic children generally exhibited high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. The core symptoms of the autistic children were observed to be strongly associated with both maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms. Improvements in the core symptoms of children with ASD may help reduce maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms to some extent.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Linguagem , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
12.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e022, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269111

RESUMO

Oral hygiene, which is measured by the status of plaque-free tooth surfaces, is essential for the promotion of oral health. This study aimed to determine the social predictors of good oral hygiene for children in a suburban population in Nigeria. This was a secondary analysis of data. The study participants were 8- to 16-year-old children who were residents in Ile-Ife, which is a suburban population in Nigeria. Information on the age, gender, socioeconomic status, family structure, number of siblings and birth rank of each study participant was retrieved from the an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Oral hygiene status was determined through a simplified-oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and categorized as good, fair and poor. The association between oral hygiene status and sociodemographic variables was determined. The predictors of good oral hygiene were determined using a binomial regression analysis. Data on 2,107 individuals were retrieved, of which 44.8% had good oral hygiene and 17.1% had poor oral hygiene. The odds of having good oral hygiene were reduced for children who were 13 to 16 years old (p = 0.02) or male (P=0.002) and children with low socioeconomic status (p ≤ 0.001). The odds of having good oral hygiene increased for children who were last-born compared with those who were first-born (p = 0.02). Age, gender, socioeconomic status and birth-rank were significant social predictive factors of oral hygiene status among the study population. Based on these findings, targeted interventions can be conducted to improve the oral hygiene status of children and adolescents with these social profiles.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Índice de Higiene Oral , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the utilization of individual health services performed by a physician (IGeL) and the services and supplements provided outside a doctor's office (MuPaP) for osteoarthritis patients. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to analyze the use of osteoarthritis-specific IGeL and MuPaP as well as predictors for their utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, claims data was used to identify all persons with hip, knee, or polyarticular osteoarthritis in 2014 (n = 657,807). A random sample (n = 8995) was sent a questionnaire about their usage of IGeL and MuPaP. Furthermore, the type of physicians conducting or recommending services was evaluated. Applying multivariable logistic regression, predictors associated with the utilization of IGeL, MuPaP, and overall individual health services were analyzed. RESULTS: After validating the data and osteoarthritis diagnosis, 2363 persons were enrolled (mean age: 65.5 years, 72% female). In the last 12 months, 39% of patients had used at least one IGeL (MuPaP: 76%), with 86% being primarily performed by orthopedists (MuPaP: 88% patient self-motivated). Knee osteoarthritis was associated with increased utilization of IGeL. Having female gender, higher income, residence in Western Germany, higher disease burden, and lower satisfaction with the healthcare system were influences on the use of overall individual health services. CONCLUSIONS: Since patients with high disease burden in particular tend to use these therapies with varying treatment success, detailed information, especially about the risks and existing evidence, should be a prerequisite for trustworthy doctor-patient relationships.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/terapia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Osteoartrite/terapia , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 965, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity ranks as a major public health problem in many countries in the world. The obesity-socioeconomic status relationship is not well established in middle-income countries. METHODS: The aim of this study was to estimate the obesity and overweight trends from 2002 to 2013 by sex, age, and educational levels among Brazilian adults. The panel prevalence trend study was conducted, considering the sample weights and study design. Three nationwide surveys were analyzed: the Household Budget Survey 2002/2003 and 2008/2009, and the National Health Survey 2013. The total sample was 234,791 adults aged 20-59 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity increased from 7.5 to 17.0% from 2002 to 2013 among adults aged 20-39 years and from 14.7 to 25.7% among those aged 40-59 years, slightly higher among young women. In each survey, education was positively associated with the prevalence of obesity among men, whereas this association was negative among women. The greatest increase in the prevalence of obesity was 90% (11.9 to 22.5%) and occurred from 2008 to 2013 among women with secondary educational level, whereas at the pre-primary level there was a 42% (20.4 to 29.0%) increase. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity prevalence in Brazil continued to increase, mostly among women with secondary education. Policies aimed at reducing the prevalence of obesity should consider sociodemographic characteristics in the population.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Classe Social , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(9): 997-1007, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264140

RESUMO

Non-Hispanic black (NHB) men experience higher risk of prostate cancer than other racial/ethnic groups, and it is possible that socioenvironmental (SE) adversity and resulting stress may contribute to this disparity. Data from the Southern Community Cohort Study were used to evaluate associations between SE adversity and perceived stress in relation to prostate cancer risk, overall and by race/ethnicity and grade. Between 2002 and 2009, 26,741 men completed a questionnaire, from which an 8-item SE adversity composite was created (covering socioeconomic status, residential environment, and social support/buffers). Two items from the Perceived Stress Scale were assessed. With follow-up through 2011, 527 prostate cancer cases were diagnosed. In multivariable models, each one-unit increase in the SE adversity composite was associated with increased prostate cancer risk among non-Hispanic white (NHW) men (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.02-1.48) and reduced risk among NHB men (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.95) (p interaction: 0.001). This pattern held for low grade, but not high grade, cancers although power was limited for the latter. Perceived stress variables were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among NHW men, but not among NHB men. Results do not support the hypothesis that SE adversity my underlay the racial disparity in prostate cancer, over and above that of covariates, including healthcare utilization.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Meio Social
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 857, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When studying the influence of socioeconomic position (SEP) on health from data where individual-level SEP measures may be missing, ecological measures of SEP may prove helpful. In this paper, we illustrate the best use of ecological-level measures of SEP to deal with incomplete individual level data. To do this we have taken the example of a study examining the relationship between SEP and breast cancer (BC) stage at diagnosis. METHODS: Using population based-registry data, all women over 18 years newly diagnosed with a primary BC in 2007 were included. We compared the association between advanced stage at diagnosis and individual SEP containing missing data with an ecological level SEP measure without missing data. We used three modelling strategies, 1/ based on patients with complete data for individual-SEP (n = 1218), or 2/ on all patients (n = 1644) using an ecological-level SEP as proxy for individual SEP and 3/ individual-SEP after imputation of missing data using an ecological-level SEP. RESULTS: The results obtained from these models demonstrate that selection bias was introduced in the sample where only patients with complete individual SEP were included. This bias is redressed by using ecological-level SEP to impute missing data for individual SEP on all patients. Such a strategy helps to avoid an ecological bias due to the use of aggregated data to infer to individual level. CONCLUSION: When individual data are incomplete, we demonstrate the usefulness of an ecological index to assess and redress potential selection bias by using it to impute missing individual SEP.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Viés de Seleção , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Sistema de Registros
17.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(6): 369-375, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Israel, coronary heart disease mortality rates are significantly higher among the Arab population than the Jewish population. Dyslipidemia prevention should begin in childhood. OBJECTIVES: To identify sociodemographic disparities in the preventive health measurement of lipid profile testing and lipoprotein levels among Israeli children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 1.2 million children and adolescents insured by Clalit Health Services between 2007 and 2011 was conducted using sociodemographic data and serum lipid concentrations. RESULTS: Overall, 10.1% individuals had undergone lipid testing. Those with male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 0.813, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.809-0.816), Arab ethnicity (OR = 0.952, 95%CI 0.941-0.963), and low socioeconomic status (SES) (OR = 0.740, 95%CI 0.728-0.752) were less likely to be tested. By 2010, differences among economic sectors narrowed and Arab children were more likely to be tested (OR = 1.039, 95%CI 1.035-1.044). Girls had higher total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels compared to boys (P < 0.001). Jewish children had higher cholesterol and low-density and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, as well as lower triglyceride levels than Arabs (P < 0.001). Children with low SES had lower cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found that boys, Arab children, and those with low SES were less likely to be tested. Over time there was a gradual reduction in these disparities. Publicly sponsored healthcare services can diminish disparities in the provision of preventive health among diverse socioeconomic groups that comprise the national population.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pediatria/métodos , Fatores Sexuais
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 775, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The food environment can influence opportunities and barriers to food access. This study aimed to investigate whether access to healthy foods varies according to store types and the socioeconomic status of the users of the public health promotion program in Brazil, known as the Health Academy Program. METHODS: A total of 18 Health Academy Program centers were selected via simple conglomerate sampling. Health Academy Program users living up to 1 km from the food stores were evaluated (n = 2831). Their socioeconomic status was investigated via face-to-face interviews. The food stores were audited through direct observation. Variables included the community nutrition environment (type and location) and consumer nutrition environment (healthy food store index, involving variables such as availability, variety, and advertising of healthy and unhealthy products). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association between access to healthy foods, socioeconomic status, and food store type. RESULTS: A total of 336 stores were investigated. The majority were specialty fruit and vegetable markets/stores or open-air food markets. Access to healthy food was only associated with the food store type. An increase of 1% in the availability of specialized fruits and vegetable markets or open-air food markets and supermarket raised healthy food store index values by 0.12 and 0.07, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Public food supply policies aimed at improving the diet quality of the population and reducing inequality in access should prioritize the implementation of stores of better quality, such as specialty fruit and vegetable markets and open-air food markets.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas , Classe Social , Verduras , Idoso , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 785, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social position, traditionally measured by objective data on socioeconomic status (SES), is linked to health status in adults. In adolescents, the association is more uncertain and there are some studies suggesting that subjective social status (SSS) might be more adequate in relation to health. This study aimed to examine associations between SSS in school, SES and self-rated health (SRH) in adolescent boys and girls. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional research design with quantitative survey data was used. The study involved 705 Swedish adolescents in upper secondary school (17-18-year-olds). SRH was measured with a single-item question and SSS by a question where adolescents were asked to assess their social position within their school. Formal education level of the parents was used as a proxy for objective SES. Univariable and multivariable ordinal regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between SRH and SSS in school and SES. RESULTS: In the multivariable analysis, SSS in school was positively associated with SRH, whereas no significant association between SES and SRH was found. The proportion of adolescents with high SRH increased with higher steps on the SSS ladder. Significant gender differences were found in that boys rated their SRH and SSS in school higher than girls did. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that self-rated health in adolescents is related to perceived social position in school. Subjective social status in school seems to be a useful health-related measure of social position in adolescents.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suécia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 783, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India's economic development and urbanisation in recent decades has varied considerably between states. Attempts to assess how overweight (including obesity) varies by socioeconomic position at the national level may mask considerable sub-national heterogeneity. We examined the socioeconomic patterning of overweight among adults in India's most and least economically developed states between 1998 and 2016. METHODS: We used state representative data from the National Family Health Surveys from 1998 to 99, 2005-06 and 2015-16. We estimated the prevalence of overweight by socioeconomic position in men (15-54 years) and women (15-49 years) from India's most and least economically developed states using multilevel logistic regressions. RESULTS: We observed an increasing trend of overweight prevalence among low socioeconomic position women. Amongst high socioeconomic position women, overweight prevalence either increased to a smaller extent, remained the same or even declined between 1998 and 2016. This was particularly the case in urban areas of the most developed states, where in the main analysis, the prevalence of overweight increased from 19 to 33% among women from the lowest socioeconomic group between 1998 and 2016 compared to no change among women from the highest socioeconomic group. Between 2005 and 2016, the prevalence of overweight increased to similar extents among high and low socioeconomic status men, irrespective of residence. CONCLUSIONS: The converging prevalence of overweight by socioeconomic position in India's most developed states, particularly amongst urban women, implies that this subpopulation may be the first to exhibit a negative association between socioeconomic position and overweight in India. Programs aiming to reduce the increasing overweight trends may wish to focus on poorer women in India's most developed states, amongst whom the increasing trend in prevalence has been considerable.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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