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1.
Science ; 366(6466): 731-734, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601705

RESUMO

Revealing and understanding the mechanisms behind social inequality in prehistoric societies is a major challenge. By combining genome-wide data, isotopic evidence, and anthropological and archaeological data, we have gone beyond the dominating supraregional approaches in archaeogenetics to shed light on the complexity of social status, inheritance rules, and mobility during the Bronze Age. We applied a deep microregional approach and analyzed genome-wide data of 104 human individuals deriving from farmstead-related cemeteries from the Late Neolithic to the Middle Bronze Age in southern Germany. Our results reveal individual households, lasting several generations, that consisted of a high-status core family and unrelated low-status individuals; a social organization accompanied by patrilocality and female exogamy; and the stability of this system over 700 years.


Assuntos
Características da Família/história , Classe Social/história , Antropologia , DNA Antigo , Feminino , Alemanha , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389353

RESUMO

The history of the racial classification of the people of India can be looked at in three temporal phases: (1) at the national level, the initial studies of racial classification attempted along with the Census of India; (2) at the regional level, studies by anthropologists and statisticians following systematic sampling and statistical procedures were conducted after the initial national-level studies and (3) population-specific studies in different regions across the country including micro-evolutionary studies of individual populations followed the regional studies. Initially the racial classification was part of the Census survey conducted by British anthropologists in some parts of the country among castes and tribes and was based on a few physical traits. This was followed by a systematic anthropometric survey in particulars regions (e.g., UP, Bengal, etc.) by anthropologists and statisticians. This was followed by population specific micro-evolutionary studies across different regions by numerous anthropologists investigating the role of selection, drift, migration and admixture and other population structure variables among endogamous castes and tribes.


Assuntos
Antropologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Idioma/história , Antropometria/métodos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Classe Social/história
3.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389355

RESUMO

Scientists and social scientists often read the same text differently. They also construct categories having the same nomenclature independently. Many of us also work in isolated domains, rarely reading texts researched and documented by others. We conduct our research within the defined format of our disciplines. We engage with others only when contestations emerge and challenge some of the rooted paradigms of each other's disciplines. This paper reflects the reactions of a social scientist to texts on population genetics and attempts to arrive at the genetic theory of the origin of ethnological history of human populations in India. Inadvertently, most of these intensely researched and passionately documented DNA evidence present a serious challenge to the discourse of cultural pluralism and social diversity that the humanist perspective of science and social science takes pride in documenting. This paper is based on secondary resource materials and the methodology adopted is that of narrative research.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Diversidade Cultural , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Idioma/história , Características Culturais/história , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Classe Social/história
4.
Med Hist ; 63(3): 352-374, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208484

RESUMO

In the first half of the nineteenth century, many Americans visited phrenological practitioners. Some clients were true believers, who consulted phrenology to choose an occupation, select a marriage partner and raise children. But, as this article demonstrates, many others consumed phrenology as an 'experiment', testing its validity as they engaged its practice. Consumers of 'practical phrenology' subjected themselves to examinations often to test the phrenologist and his practice against their own knowledge of themselves. They also tested whether phrenology was true, according to their own beliefs about race and gender. While historians have examined phrenology as a theory of the mind, we know less about its 'users' and how gender, race and class structured their engagement. Based on extensive archival research with letters and diaries, memoirs and marginalia, as well as phrenological readings, this study reveals how a continuum of belief existed around phrenology, from total advocacy to absolute denunciation, with lots of room for acceptance and rejection in between. Phrenologists' notebooks and tools of salesmanship also show how an experimental environment emerged where phrenologists themselves embraced a culture of testing. In an era of what Katherine Pandora has described as 'epistemological contests', audiences confronted new museums, performances and theatres of natural knowledge and judged their validity. This was also true for phrenology, which benefited from a culture of contested authority. As this article reveals, curiosity, experimentation and even scepticism among users actually helped keep phrenology alive for decades.


Assuntos
Frenologia/história , Grupos de Populações Continentais/história , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social/história , Estados Unidos
5.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 169(4): 730-746, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Histomorphometric studies show consistent links between physical activity patterns and the microstructure underlying the size and shape of bone. Here, we adopt a combined bone approach to explore variation in microstructure of ribs and humeri related to physical activity and historical records of manual labor in skeletal samples of children (n = 175) from medieval England. The humerus reflects greater biomechanically induced microstructural variation than the rib which is used here as a control. Variation in microstructure is sought between regions in England (Canterbury, York, Newcastle), and between high- and low-status children from Canterbury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thin-sections were prepared from the humerus or rib and features of bone remodeling were recorded using high-resolution microscopy and image analysis software. RESULTS: The density and size of secondary osteons in the humerus differed significantly in children from Canterbury when compared to those from York and Newcastle. Among the older children, secondary osteon circularity and diameter differed significantly between higher and lower status children. DISCUSSION: By applying bone remodeling principles to the histomorphometric data, we infer that medieval children in Canterbury engaged in less physically demanding activities than children from York or Newcastle. Within Canterbury, high-status and low-status children experienced similar biomechanical loading until around 7 years of age. After this age low-status children performed activities that resulted in more habitual loading on their arm bones than the high-status children. This inferred change in physical activity is consistent with historical textual evidence that describes children entering the work force at this age.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Osteon/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Antropologia Física , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra , Osteon/diagnóstico por imagem , História Medieval , Humanos , Úmero/anatomia & histologia , Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia , Costelas/anatomia & histologia , Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem , Classe Social/história
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(17): 8239-8248, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910983

RESUMO

The historic event of the Late Antique Little Ice Age (LALIA) was recently identified in dozens of natural and geological climate proxies of the northern hemisphere. Although this climatic downturn was proposed as a major cause for pandemic and extensive societal upheavals in the sixth-seventh centuries CE, archaeological evidence for the magnitude of societal response to this event is sparse. This study uses ancient trash mounds as a type of proxy for identifying societal crisis in the urban domain, and employs multidisciplinary investigations to establish the terminal date of organized trash collection and high-level municipal functioning on a city-wide scale. Survey, excavation, sediment analysis, and geographic information system assessment of mound volume were conducted on a series of mounds surrounding the Byzantine urban settlement of Elusa in the Negev Desert. These reveal the massive collection and dumping of domestic and construction waste over time on the city edges. Carbon dating of charred seeds and charcoal fragments combined with ceramic analysis establish the end date of orchestrated trash removal near the mid-sixth century, coinciding closely with the beginning of the LALIA event and outbreak of the Justinian Plague in the year 541. This evidence for societal decline during the sixth century ties with other arguments for urban dysfunction across the Byzantine Levant at this time. We demonstrate the utility of trash mounds as sensitive proxies of social response and unravel the time-space dynamics of urban collapse, suggesting diminished resilience to rapid climate change in the frontier Negev region of the empire.


Assuntos
Civilização/história , Classe Social/história , População Urbana/história , Resíduos , Arqueologia , Bizâncio , Cerâmica , Sedimentos Geológicos , História Antiga , Humanos
8.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 168(3): 595-605, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous work by Vercellotti et al. in 2011 found significant status-related differences in body size in males but not in females from the Italian bioarchaeological assemblage of San Michele di Trino (8th-14th centuries CE). The purpose of the present work is twofold: (a) to determine if status-related body size differences could be observed in the nearby collection of San Lorenzo di Alba (7th-15th centuries CE) and (b) to add to the emerging narrative of medieval Italians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteometric data (maximum length for the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and fibula; bicondylar length of the femur, condylo-malleolar length of the tibia, foot height, maximum vertebral heights, and basion-bregma height) were collected for 50 (20 female, 30 male) individuals from Alba, and Monte Carlo analysis was used to assess differences in skeletal element size, skeletal height, living stature, and body mass across sex and status. RESULTS: Significant differences were detected between high status and low status males in Alba for radial maximum length (p = 0.013), tibial maximum length (p = 0.011), tibial condylo-malleolar length (p = 0.012), skeletal height estimated from condylo-malleolar tibial length (p = 0.002), and stature estimated from condyle-malleolar tibial length with the age component (p = 0.003). In contrast, no significant status-based differences were observed between female subsamples (p > 0.05). DISCUSSION: The patterns of intrapopulation variation observed at Alba are similar but not as pronounced as those observed at Trino, suggesting that overall life conditions experienced by the two groups were comparable.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Classe Social/história , Antropometria , Arqueologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Sepultamento/história , Feminino , História do Século XV , História Medieval , Humanos , Itália , Masculino
9.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4771, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998251

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the impact of untreated dental caries on the oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children from low social class in an urban Nigerian population. Material and Methods: The study was conducted among 6 to 15-year-old pupils from low social class in randomly selected primary schools in Ibadan. An interviewer-administered Child Oral Impact on Daily Performances (C-OIDP) questionnaire was used to obtain required information. Oral examination was conducted by calibrated examiners. Data obtained were analyzed with SPSS and test of association done with Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results: A total of 1286 pupils participated in the study and 130 (10.1%) had untreated dental caries, out of which 26 (20.0%) had pain from carious tooth. The C-OIDP of children with dental caries was similar to that of children without caries [median 0.0 vs. median 0.0; r = -0.025; p=0.368]. The median COIDP (3.0) of those with untreated dental caries and pain was higher than that of participants with painless caries [0.0; r=-0.768; p<0.001]. There were significant impacts on all eight domains of the OHRQoL of those with untreated dental caries and pain (71.4 ­ 100.0%) when compared to those with painless caries (0.0 ­ 28.6%; p<0.05). Conclusion: Untreated dental caries significantly impacts on OHRQoL of pupils from low social class only when associated with pain.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Classe Social/história , Odontalgia , Criança , África , Cárie Dentária , População Urbana , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Saúde Bucal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
10.
Lit Med ; 35(2): 334-354, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276200

RESUMO

This chapter focuses on the individualistic nature of medicine by considering manuscript recipe collections, and the concerns and rhetoric of the elite patients who wrote about fashionable diseases and experienced them. Domestic medicine in the eighteenth century was a facet of elite health care that included commercial medicine and professional assistance. Looking broadly at the fashionability of health care, including the fashionability of the consumer goods and services linked to self-management and leisure time, reveals the realities of fashionable diseases in elite lives. The sociocultural rhetoric of fashionable diseases was incorporated into the recipe collecting tradition, but experiences of suffering and a need for care continued to be at the forefront of the discourse in domestic medicine and this writing tradition. This essay argues also that domestic rhetoric and experiences of fashionable disease were significantly driven by consumerism.


Assuntos
Livros de Culinária como Assunto/história , Doença/história , Medicina Tradicional/história , Cultura Popular , Automedicação/história , Classe Social/história , Transtornos Somatoformes/história , Inglaterra , Feminino , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Lit Med ; 35(2): 387-408, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276202

RESUMO

Throughout the eighteenth century the issue of authenticity shaped portrayals of fashionable diseases. From the very beginning of the century, writers satirized the behavior of elite invalids who paraded their delicacy as a sign of their status. As disorders such as the spleen came to be regarded as "fashionable," the legitimacy of patients' claims to suffer from distinguished diseases was called further into question, with some observers questioning the validity of the disease categories themselves. During the early and middle decades of the century, criticism was largely confined to periodicals, plays, and poetry, while medical writers wrote in defense of the authenticity of such conditions. The adoption of fashionable ailments and nervous sensibility grew increasingly popular, however, and from the 1770s onwards practitioners and novelists increasingly suggested that such diseases should not be trusted as signifiers of personal qualities or social status.


Assuntos
Doença/história , Hipocondríase/história , Cultura Popular , Papel do Doente , Classe Social/história , Transtornos Somatoformes/história , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido
12.
Nature ; 551(7682): 619-622, 2017 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143817

RESUMO

How wealth is distributed among households provides insight into the fundamental characters of societies and the opportunities they afford for social mobility. However, economic inequality has been hard to study in ancient societies for which we do not have written records, which adds to the challenge of placing current wealth disparities into a long-term perspective. Although various archaeological proxies for wealth, such as burial goods or exotic or expensive-to-manufacture goods in household assemblages, have been proposed, the first is not clearly connected with households, and the second is confounded by abandonment mode and other factors. As a result, numerous questions remain concerning the growth of wealth disparities, including their connection to the development of domesticated plants and animals and to increases in sociopolitical scale. Here we show that wealth disparities generally increased with the domestication of plants and animals and with increased sociopolitical scale, using Gini coefficients computed over the single consistent proxy of house-size distributions. However, unexpected differences in the responses of societies to these factors in North America and Mesoamerica, and in Eurasia, became evident after the end of the Neolithic period. We argue that the generally higher wealth disparities identified in post-Neolithic Eurasia were initially due to the greater availability of large mammals that could be domesticated, because they allowed more profitable agricultural extensification, and also eventually led to the development of a mounted warrior elite able to expand polities (political units that cohere via identity, ability to mobilize resources, or governance) to sizes that were not possible in North America and Mesoamerica before the arrival of Europeans. We anticipate that this analysis will stimulate other work to enlarge this sample to include societies in South America, Africa, South Asia and Oceania that were under-sampled or not included in this study.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/história , Classe Social/história , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Ásia , América Central , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/história , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Características da Família/história , História Antiga , América do Norte , Política
13.
Homo ; 68(4): 274-282, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28625342

RESUMO

Within the framework of the Sicily Mummy Project, the orofacial complex of a significant sample of individuals (n=111) from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy, was inspected. The heads and dentitions of the mummies were documented and the recorded findings described: the state of preservation of skeletal and soft tissues; dental pathologies such as carious lesions and alveolar bone loss; enamel hypoplasia; and ante- and post-mortem tooth loss. Despite limitations in data collection, the oral health of these mummies was assessed and the frequencies of pathologies were compared to those of similar populations. From their position within the corridors of the Catacombs, sex and social status of the mummies were also inferred, allowing the dental pathologies to be specified in the social and historical context. Most interestingly, the rate of oral health problems did not differ between the groups of the members of the Capuchin Order and the laymen of the city of Palermo, despite their different lifestyles.


Assuntos
Múmias/patologia , Saúde Bucal/história , Sepultamento/história , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/história , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/história , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paleodontologia , Paleopatologia , Prevalência , Classe Social/história , Doenças Dentárias/história , Doenças Dentárias/patologia , Perda de Dente/história , Desgaste dos Dentes/história
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 162(4): 794-809, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28101915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Stone-lined graves, which first appear in Bavarian territory during the 7th century AD, are assumed to be tombs of emerging nobility. While previous research on stone-lined grave goods supports their status as elite burials, an important factor defining nobility-kinship-has not been examined so far. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Morphological analysis of the commingled skeletal remains of 21 individuals from three archaeological sites was carried out. Radiocarbon dating was conducted on these individuals to gain information on usage intervals of these graves. To test whether stone-lined graves can be considered family graves, analyses of mitochondrial HVR I, Y-chromosomal and autosomal STRs were carried out. RESULTS: Morphological examination revealed a surplus of males buried in stone-lined graves and radiocarbon dating points to usage of the tombs for several generations. According to aDNA analysis, kinship can be assumed both between and within stone-lined graves. DISCUSSION: Taken together, these results hint at burials of family members with high social status being inhumed at the same site, in some cases even the same grave, for several generations. They also suggest, for the first time, that an early medieval linear cemetery was structured according to biological kinship.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Cemitérios/história , Classe Social/história , Adulto , Idoso , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Alemanha , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Datação Radiométrica , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hist Psychiatry ; 28(1): 44-57, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698075

RESUMO

Puerperal insanity has been described as a nineteenth-century diagnosis, entrenched in contemporary expectations of proper womanly behaviour. Drawing on detailed study of establishment registers and patient case notes, this paper examines the puerperal insanity diagnosis at Dundee Lunatic Asylum between 1820 and 1860. In particular, the study aims to consider whether the class or social status of the patients had a bearing on how their conditions were perceived and rationalized, and how far the puerperal insanity diagnosis, coloured by the values assigned to it by the medical officers, may have been reserved for some women and not for others. This examination of the diagnosis in a Scottish community, suggesting a contrast in the way that middle-class and working-class women were diagnosed at Dundee, engages with and expands on work on puerperal insanity elsewhere.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/história , Classe Social/história , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Escócia
16.
J Biosoc Sci ; 49(3): 364-379, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27724998

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social and occupational status on the BMI of the gentry and peasantry in the Kingdom of Poland at the turn of 19th and early 20th centuries. Use was made of data on the height and weight of 304 men, including 200 peasants and 104 gentlemen, and 275 women, including 200 from the peasantry and 75 from the gentry. Gentlemen were characterized by a greater body height than peasants (169.40 cm and 166.96 cm, respectively), a greater body weight (67.09 kg and 60.99 kg, respectively) and a higher BMI (23.33 kg/m2 and 21.83 kg/m2, respectively). Landowners and intelligentsia had a greater BMI than peasants (23.12 kg/m2 and 24.20 kg/m2 vs 21.83 kg/m2, respectively). In the case of women, there were no statistically significant differences in mean height, weight and BMI by their social position, and in BMI by occupational status. Underweight occurred less frequently in the gentry and more frequently in the peasantry (0.97% and 2.04%, respectively). Overweight was five times more common in gentlemen than in peasants (26.21% and 5.10%, respectively). Differences in the BMI of gentlefolk and peasants resulted from differences in diet and lifestyle related to socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Classe Social/história , Adulto , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia
17.
Odontology ; 105(3): 267-274, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27853978

RESUMO

So-called "Ohaguro", teeth blackening, in the married females was a general custom regardless of class in the early modern period. As a result, Ohaguro was thought to have enhanced the acid resistance of tooth substance and tightened gingiva and prevented tooth morbidity due to periodontal disease. For investigation into the influence of Ohaguro, the skeletal remains of early modern samurai and commoners at Kokura were examined for differences in the dental pathology based on sex. Though females from archeological sites have significantly more carious teeth and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) than males in the previous studies, the prevalence of caries and AMTL in males was higher than in females among the early modern samurai and commoners in Kokura. The efficacies of Ohaguro may influence the good dental health of females. On the other hand, as females were considered inferior to males under the feudal system in Japan, males, including children, might tend to consume more nutritious foods compared to females. However, those foods are certainly not better with regard to dental health, since those foods are more highly cariogenic. These factors may have caused higher caries and AMTL prevalence among males compared to females in early modern Kokura.


Assuntos
Características Culturais/história , Assistência Odontológica/história , Cárie Dentária/história , Classe Social/história , Perda de Dente/história , Antropologia Física , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Casamento , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia
18.
Anthropol Anz ; 73(4): 265-274, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27643683

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Background: There is a common perception that tall stature results in social dominance. Evidence in meerkats suggests that social dominance itself may be a strong stimulus for growth. Relative size serves as the signal for individuals to induce strategic growth adjustments. Aim: We construct a thought experiment to explore the potential consequences of the question: is stature a social signal also in humans? We hypothesize that (1) upward trends in height in the lower social strata are perceived as social challenges yielding similar though attenuated upward trends in the dominant strata, and that (2) democratization, but also periods of political turmoil that facilitate upward mobility of the lower strata, are accompanied by upward trends in height. Material and methods: We reanalyzed large sets of height data of European conscripts born between 1856-1860 and 1976-1980; and annual data of German military conscripts, born between 1965 and 1985, with information on height and school education. Results: Taller stature is associated with higher socioeconomic status. Historic populations show larger height differences between social strata that tend to diminish in the more recent populations. German height data suggest that both democratization, and periods of political turmoil facilitating upward mobility of the lower social strata are accompanied by a general upward height spiral that captures the whole population. Discussion: We consider stature as a signal. Nutrition, health, general living conditions and care giving are essential prerequisites for growth, yet not to maximize stature, but to allow for its function as a lifelong social signal. Considering stature as a social signal provides an elegant explanation of the rapid height adjustments observed in migrants, of the hitherto unexplained clustering of body height in modern and historic cohorts of military conscripts, and of the parallelism between changes in political conditions, and secular trends in adult human height since the 19th century.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/história , Estado Nutricional , Classe Social/história , Predomínio Social/história , I Guerra Mundial , II Guerra Mundial , Adulto Jovem
19.
Med Ges Gesch ; 34: 11-50, 2016.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27263216

RESUMO

This contribution focuses on the medical practice of the policlinics in Würzburg and Göttingen in the first half of the nineteenth century. In these institutions patients were treated free of charge by medical students and assistant physicians who, in turn, were able to gain further experience and develop their skills. The policlinics were therefore an important part of poor-healthcare in both these cities. The essay tries in particular to illustrate healthcare for poor patients against the background of their everyday lives and working environment. Based on the situation of individual poor patients, the concepts of 'sickness' and 'poverty' are discussed as mutually dependent determinants of the 'reality of life' among the urban lower classes. This contribution combines the evaluation of medical practice journals and patient histories with the analysis of source materials on urban poor relief and healthcare. It looks particularly at the children and elderly people who attended the policlinics. The encounters between physicians and poor patients documented in the sources not only provide valuable insights into historical patient behaviours, they also open up new perspectives of the physician-patient relationship during the nineteenth century transition from the 'sickbed-society' to hospital medicine.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/história , Doença/história , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/história , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/história , Pobreza/história , Classe Social/história , Cuidados de Saúde não Remunerados/história , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
20.
Econ Hum Biol ; 22: 155-160, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27130990

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to document and explain secular trends in stature among Northern Jordanian men and women between the years of birth 1960 and 1990, as they relate to overall per capita socio-economic improvement, the stature of 360 adults from two Northern governorates, those of Jerash and Irbid, was measured. General linear model (GLM) was used to examine the effect of birth-decade, education level of subject, and their interaction on mean stature of each sex separately. GLM results revealed that women who were born during the following three decades pooled together (1951-1980) did not differ significantly in mean stature from those born during (1981-1990). Among men, stature of those born in the two pooled birth-decades together (1951-1970) did not significantly differ of those were born in the two pooled birth-decades (1971-1990).


Assuntos
Estatura , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social/história , Adulto , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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