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1.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600477

RESUMO

The explosion of disinformation accompanying the COVID-19 pandemic has overloaded fact-checkers and media worldwide, and brought a new major challenge to government responses worldwide. Not only is disinformation creating confusion about medical science amongst citizens, but it is also amplifying distrust in policy makers and governments. To help tackle this, we developed computational methods to categorise COVID-19 disinformation. The COVID-19 disinformation categories could be used for a) focusing fact-checking efforts on the most damaging kinds of COVID-19 disinformation; b) guiding policy makers who are trying to deliver effective public health messages and counter effectively COVID-19 disinformation. This paper presents: 1) a corpus containing what is currently the largest available set of manually annotated COVID-19 disinformation categories; 2) a classification-aware neural topic model (CANTM) designed for COVID-19 disinformation category classification and topic discovery; 3) an extensive analysis of COVID-19 disinformation categories with respect to time, volume, false type, media type and origin source.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Comunicação , Redes Neurais de Computação , Curadoria de Dados
2.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 4, 2021 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Widespread bioinformatic resource development generates a constantly evolving and abundant landscape of workflows and software. For analysis of the microbiome, workflows typically begin with taxonomic classification of the microorganisms that are present in a given environment. Additional investigation is then required to uncover the functionality of the microbial community, in order to characterize its currently or potentially active biological processes. Such functional analysis of metagenomic data can be computationally demanding for high-throughput sequencing experiments. Instead, we can directly compare sequencing reads to a functionally annotated database. However, since reads frequently match multiple sequences equally well, analyses benefit from a hierarchical annotation tree, e.g. for taxonomic classification where reads are assigned to the lowest taxonomic unit. RESULTS: To facilitate functional microbiome analysis, we re-purpose well-known taxonomic classification tools to allow us to perform direct functional sequencing read classification with the added benefit of a functional hierarchy. To enable this, we develop and present a tree-shaped functional hierarchy representing the molecular function subset of the Gene Ontology annotation structure. We use this functional hierarchy to replace the standard phylogenetic taxonomy used by the classification tools and assign query sequences accurately to the lowest possible molecular function in the tree. We demonstrate this with simulated and experimental datasets, where we reveal new biological insights. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that improved functional classification of metagenomic sequencing reads is possible by re-purposing a range of taxonomic classification tools that are already well-established, in conjunction with either protein or nucleotide reference databases. We leverage the advances in speed, accuracy and efficiency that have been made for taxonomic classification and translate these benefits for the rapid functional classification of microbiomes. While we focus on a specific set of commonly used methods, the functional annotation approach has broad applicability across other sequence classification tools. We hope that re-purposing becomes a routine consideration during bioinformatic resource development. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Software , Filogenia
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 77-84, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161541

RESUMO

Protists are mostly unicellular eukaryotes. Some protists are beneficial for plants, while others live as endosymbionts and can cause severe plant diseases. More detailed studies on plant-protist interactions exist only for plant pathogens and parasites. A number of protists live as inconspicuous endophytes and cause no visible disease symptoms, while others appear closely associated with the rhizosphere or phyllosphere of plants, but we still have only a vague understanding on their identities and functions. Here, we provide a protocol on how to assess the plant-associated protist community via Illumina-sequencing of ribosomal marker-amplicons and describe how to assign taxonomic affiliation to the obtained sequences.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Rizosfera , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 85-112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161542

RESUMO

Plants harbor a large reservoir of fungal diversity, encompassing endophytic, epiphytic, phytopathogenic, and rhizosphere-associated fungi. Despite this diversity, relatively few fungal species have been characterized as sources of bioactive secondary metabolites. The role of secondary metabolites is still not fully understood; however, it is suggested that these metabolites play important roles in defense mechanisms and fungal interactions with other organisms. Hence, fungal secondary metabolites have potential biotechnological applications as prototype molecules for the development of therapeutic drugs. In this chapter, we describe the main methods used for routine fungi isolation, production of crude fungal extracts, and chemical characterization of bioactive compounds. In addition, explicative notes about the steps described are provided to explore the diversity of the endophytic, phytopathogenic, epiphytic, and rhizosphere fungi and to evaluate the biotechnological potential of each group.


Assuntos
Bioprospecção/métodos , Classificação/métodos , Fungos/genética , Plantas/genética , Antifúngicos/química , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/química , Fungos/classificação , Plantas/microbiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378341

RESUMO

In order to understand and represent the importance of nodes within networks better, most of the studies that investigate graphs compute the nodes' centrality within their network(s) of interest. In the literature, the most frequent measures used are degree, closeness and/or betweenness centrality, even if other measures might be valid candidates for representing the importance of nodes within networks. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a methodology that allows one to understand, compare and validate centrality indices when studying a particular network of interest. The proposed methodology integrates the following steps: choosing the centrality measures for the network of interest; developing a theoretical taxonomy of these measures; identifying, by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), latent dimensions of centrality within the network of interest; verifying the proposed taxonomy of centrality measures; and identifying the centrality measures that best represent the network of interest. Also, we applied the proposed methodology to an existing graph of interest, in our case a real friendship student network. We chose eighteen centrality measures that were developed in SNA and are available and computed in a specific library (CINNA), defined them thoroughly, and proposed a theoretical taxonomy of these eighteen measures. PCA showed the emergence of six latent dimensions of centrality within the student network and saturation of most of the centrality indices on the same categories as those proposed by the theoretical taxonomy. Additionally, the results suggest that indices other than the ones most frequently applied might be more relevant for research on friendship student networks. Finally, the integrated methodology that we propose can be applied to other centrality indices and/or other network types than student graphs.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Análise de Componente Principal , Apoio Social
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48274, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1146052

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar os diagnósticos de enfermagem segundo a taxonomia NANDA Internacional, Inc. evidenciados em pacientes com diabetes mellitus. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura realizada no mês de maio de 2020, nas bases CINAHL, Scopus, PUBMED, LILACS, BDEnf e Biblioteca Eletrônica Científica Online SciELO. Foram selecionados artigos científicos que abordavam diagnósticos de enfermagem em pacientes adultos com diabetes mellitus tipo 1 e 2, no recorte temporal de 2004 a 2020. Resultados: selecionados 21 artigos, sendo a maioria brasileiros, do tipo descritivo e transversal. Encontrou-se 60 diferentes diagnósticos de enfermagem, destes, 43 eram com foco no problema, 15 de risco e dois de promoção da saúde. Conclusão: os domínios predominantes foram: Promoção da Saúde, Nutrição, Eliminação e Troca, Atividade/repouso, Enfrentamento/Tolerância ao Estresse e Segurança/proteção. As evidências de diagnósticos de enfermagem norteiam o cuidado de enfermagem, subsidiam o raciocínio clínico e científico dos profissionais potencializando, assim, a sistematização da assistência.


Objective: to identify nursing diagnoses in patients with diabetes mellitus, by the NANDA International, Inc. taxonomy. Method: this integrative review was conducted in May 2020 in the CINAHL, Scopus, PUBMED, LILACS, BDENF and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) databases, resulting in a selection of scientific articles on nursing diagnoses in adult patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, published between 2004 and 2020. Results: most of the 21 articles selected were Brazilian, descriptive and cross-sectional. Sixty different nursing diagnoses were identified, of which 43 focused on the problem, 15 on the risk, and two on health promotion. Conclusion: the predominant areas were Health Promotion, Nutrition, Elimination and Exchange, Activity/Rest, Coping and Stress Tolerance, and Safety/Protection. Evidence from nursing diagnoses in diabetic patients guides nursing care and informs health personnel's clinical and scientific reasoning, thus making for more systematic care.


Objetivo: identificar los diagnósticos de enfermería, según la taxonomía de la NANDA International, Inc., evidenciados en pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Método: revisión integradora, celebrada en el mes de mayo de 2020, en las bases de datos CINAHL, Scopus, PUBMED, LILACS, BDENF y Scientific Electronic Library Online SciELO. Se seleccionaron los artículos científicos que abordan diagnósticos de enfermería en pacientes adultos con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 y 2, en el recorte temporal de 2004 a 2020. Resultados: se seleccionaron 21 artículos, siendo la mayoría brasileña, descriptiva y transversal. Se encontraron 60 diferentes diagnósticos de enfermería; de éstos, 43 se centraron en el problema, 15 en el riesgo y dos en la promoción de la salud. Conclusión: las áreas predominantes fueron: Promoción de la Salud, Nutrición, Eliminación e Intercambio, Actividad/descanso, Enfrentamiento y Tolerancia al Estrés y Seguridad/protección. Las evidencias de diagnósticos de enfermería en pacientes diabéticos guían la atención de enfermería, subsidian el razonamiento clínico y científico de los profesionales y, por lo tanto, potencian la sistematización de la asistencia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem/classificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/enfermagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enfermagem , Terminologia Padronizada em Enfermagem , Classificação/métodos
7.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3079-3083, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025196

RESUMO

On several occasions over the past century it has been proposed that Latinized (Linnaean) binomial names (LBs) should be used for the formal names of virus species, and the opinions expressed in the early debates are still valid. The use of LBs would be sensible for the current Taxonomy if confined to the names of the specific and generic taxa of viruses of which some basic biological properties are known (e.g. ecology, hosts and virions); there is no advantage in filling the literature with formal names for partly described viruses or virus-like gene sequences. The ICTV should support the time-honoured convention that LBs are only used with biological (phylogenetic) classifications. Recent changes have left the ICTV Taxonomy and its Code uncoordinated, and its aims and audience uncertain.


Assuntos
Virologia/tendências , Vírus/classificação , Classificação/métodos , Terminologia como Assunto
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886692

RESUMO

Supervised classification methods often assume the train and test data distributions are the same and that all classes in the test set are present in the training set. However, deployed classifiers often require the ability to recognize inputs from outside the training set as unknowns. This problem has been studied under multiple paradigms including out-of-distribution detection and open set recognition. For convolutional neural networks, there have been two major approaches: 1) inference methods to separate knowns from unknowns and 2) feature space regularization strategies to improve model robustness to novel inputs. Up to this point, there has been little attention to exploring the relationship between the two approaches and directly comparing performance on large-scale datasets that have more than a few dozen categories. Using the ImageNet ILSVRC-2012 large-scale classification dataset, we identify novel combinations of regularization and specialized inference methods that perform best across multiple open set classification problems of increasing difficulty level. We find that input perturbation and temperature scaling yield significantly better performance on large-scale datasets than other inference methods tested, regardless of the feature space regularization strategy. Conversely, we find that improving performance with advanced regularization schemes during training yields better performance when baseline inference techniques are used; however, when advanced inference methods are used to detect open set classes, the utility of these combersome training paradigms is less evident.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Classificação/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
9.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 13): 390, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in mobile sequencing devices and laptop performance make metagenomic sequencing and analysis in the field a technologically feasible prospect. However, metagenomic analysis pipelines are usually designed to run on servers and in the cloud. RESULTS: MAIRA is a new standalone program for interactive taxonomic and functional analysis of long read metagenomic sequencing data on a laptop, without requiring external resources. The program performs fast, online, genus-level analysis, and on-demand, detailed taxonomic and functional analysis. It uses two levels of frame-shift-aware alignment of DNA reads against protein reference sequences, and then performs detailed analysis using a protein synteny graph. CONCLUSIONS: We envision this software being used by researchers in the field, when access to servers or cloud facilities is difficult, or by individuals that do not routinely access such facilities, such as medical researchers, crop scientists, or teachers.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Computadores/normas , Metagenômica/métodos , Humanos
10.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2737-2748, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816125

RESUMO

This article reports the changes to virus classification and taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in March 2020. The entire ICTV was invited to vote on 206 taxonomic proposals approved by the ICTV Executive Committee at its meeting in July 2019, as well as on the proposed revision of the ICTV Statutes. All proposals and the revision of the Statutes were approved by an absolute majority of the ICTV voting membership. Of note, ICTV has approved a proposal that extends the previously established realm Riboviria to encompass nearly all RNA viruses and reverse-transcribing viruses, and approved three separate proposals to establish three realms for viruses with DNA genomes.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Vírus/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Virologia/organização & administração , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2733-2736, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740831

RESUMO

Virus classification arranges viruses showing similar properties into groups and, even though this depends on choices of which specific properties have a value for classification, it does have certain important features. It aims to give a structured arrangement of viruses so that the human mind can comprehend them more easily. It helps with communication between virologists, and between virologists and non-virologists (e.g. regulators, advisers, other stakeholders etc.). It enables properties of new viruses to be predicted, and it could reveal possible evolutionary relationships. We need appropriate unambiguous names for virus species, which is the keystone taxon, howsoever these are defined. We react to the recent consultation paper [1] and suggest that, before deciding on a binomial (Latinized or non-Latinized) system for virus species names, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses develops a 21st century virus classification system that handles the large numbers of new virus species expected from metagenomic studies. This system should be user-friendly for easy communication, especially between virologists and non-virologist stakeholders.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Terminologia como Assunto , Vírus/classificação , Virologia/organização & administração , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
12.
Nature ; 584(7822): 579-583, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760001

RESUMO

New Guinea is the world's largest tropical island and has fascinated naturalists for centuries1,2. Home to some of the best-preserved ecosystems on the planet3 and to intact ecological gradients-from mangroves to tropical alpine grasslands-that are unmatched in the Asia-Pacific region4,5, it is a globally recognized centre of biological and cultural diversity6,7. So far, however, there has been no attempt to critically catalogue the entire vascular plant diversity of New Guinea. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, expert-verified checklist of the vascular plants of mainland New Guinea and surrounding islands. Our publicly available checklist includes 13,634 species (68% endemic), 1,742 genera and 264 families-suggesting that New Guinea is the most floristically diverse island in the world. Expert knowledge is essential for building checklists in the digital era: reliance on online taxonomic resources alone would have inflated species counts by 22%. Species discovery shows no sign of levelling off, and we discuss steps to accelerate botanical research in the 'Last Unknown'8.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Classificação/métodos , Ilhas , Plantas/classificação , Mapeamento Geográfico , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Internet , Nova Guiné , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634147

RESUMO

Survey cruises by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in 2016 and 2019 yielded specimens of an undetermined red alga that rapidly attained alarming levels of benthic coverage at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, Hawai'i. By 2019 the seaweed had covered large expanses on the northeast side of the atoll with mat-like, extensive growth of entangled thalli. Specimens were analyzed using light microscopy and molecular analysis, and were compared to morphological descriptions in the literature for closely related taxa. Light microscopy demonstrated that the specimens likely belonged to the rhodomelacean genus Chondria, yet comparisons to taxonomic literature revealed no morphological match. DNA sequence analyses of the mitochondrial COI barcode marker, the plastidial rbcL gene, and the nuclear SSU gene confirmed its genus-level placement and demonstrated that this alga was unique compared to all other available sequences. Based on these data, this cryptogenic seaweed is here proposed as a new species: Chondria tumulosa A.R.Sherwood & J.M.Huisman sp. nov. Chondria tumulosa is distinct from all other species of Chondria based on its large, robust thalli, a mat-forming tendency, large axial diameter in mature branches (which decreases in diameter with subsequent orders of branching), terete axes, and bluntly rounded apices. Although C. tumulosa does not meet the criteria for the definition of an invasive species given that it has not been confirmed as introduced to Pearl and Hermes Atoll, this seaweed is not closely related to any known Hawaiian native species and is of particular concern given its sudden appearance and rapid increase in abundance in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument; an uninhabited, remote, and pristine island chain to the northwest of the Main Hawaiian Islands.


Assuntos
Rodófitas/classificação , Rodófitas/genética , Classificação/métodos , Hawaii , Espécies Introduzidas , Ilhas , Filogenia , Alga Marinha , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
14.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(3): 29, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591904

RESUMO

The so-called 'type method' widely employed in biological taxonomy is often seen as conforming to the causal-historical theory of reference. In this paper, I argue for an alternative account of reference for biological nomenclature in which taxon names are understood as descriptive names (the 'DN account'). A descriptive name, as the concept came to be known from the work of Gareth Evans, is a referring expression introduced by a definite description. There are three main differences between the DN and the causal account. First, according to the DN account, rather than fixing a name to a referent, the assignment of a type specimen to serve as the name-bearer for a taxon should be seen as performatively establishing a synonymy between a name and a definite description of the form "the taxon whose type is t". Each taxon name is therefore associated with a criterion of application, a semantic rule that establishes the connection between the name and the descriptive content. This is the second major difference from the causal account: taxon names do have some descriptive content associated with them. The final locus of dissent concerns the strength of the modality resulting from the usage of taxon names. In order to address this point, I use the DN account to focus on the debate between Matt Haber and Joeri Witteveen concerning misidentification of type specimens, misapplication of names, and the truth conditions of Joseph LaPorte's de dicto necessary sentence "Necessarily, any species with a type specimen contains its type specimen". Using a pragmatic variant of the distinction between attributive and referential uses of descriptions, I argue that a metalinguistic version of the de dicto sentence is in fact falsified, as previously argued by Haber.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Terminologia como Assunto , Animais
15.
Surg Today ; 50(11): 1443-1451, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440825

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 9th Japanese Classification of Colorectal Cancer (9th JSCCR) has two main differences from the TNM classification (8th AJCC): first, main or lateral lymph node metastasis is classified as jN3; second, tumor nodules (ND) are treated as lymph node metastasis. In this study, we verified the 9th JSCCR for rectal cancer, focusing on the differences with the 8th AJCC. METHODS: This retrospective analysis involved 212 patients with stage I-III rectal cancer. ND was evaluated using whole-mount sections. We evaluated the relapse-free survival of each staging system, and compared the prognostic significance of the different staging systems using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Harrell's concordance index (c-index). RESULTS: Main or lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in nine of 212 (4%) patients. ND was detected in 79 of 212 (37%) patients. The best risk stratification power was observed in the 9th JSCCR (AIC, 759; c-index, 0.708) compared with the 7th JSCCR (AIC, 771; c-index, 0.681), 8th JSCCR (AIC, 768; c-index, 0.696), and the 8th AJCC (AIC, 766; c-index, 0.691). CONCLUSIONS: The 9th JSCCR, which includes the concepts of jN3 and ND, is useful for the risk stratification of rectal cancer, and the contributes to precise decision-making for follow-up management and adjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/classificação , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e018819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428180

RESUMO

The cheyletid mites that parasitize mammals have been neglected for a long time in Brazil, although they can be common on pets and cause injury to their hosts. Recently, Cheyletiella parasitivorax was found parasitizing a rabbit in Brazil which represents a new host and distribution record for the mite species. An illustrated dichotomous key for the identification of the species in this genus and data from the literature are provided.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Ácaros/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Classificação/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/anatomia & histologia , Coelhos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 185, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microorganisms are important occupants of many different environments. Identifying the composition of microbes and estimating their abundance promote understanding of interactions of microbes in environmental samples. To understand their environments more deeply, the composition of microorganisms in environmental samples has been studied using metagenomes, which are the collections of genomes of the microorganisms. Although many tools have been developed for taxonomy analysis based on different algorithms, variability of analysis outputs of existing tools from the same input metagenome datasets is the main obstacle for many researchers in this field. RESULTS: Here, we present a novel meta-analysis tool for metagenome taxonomy analysis, called TAMA, by intelligently integrating outputs from three different taxonomy analysis tools. Using an integrated reference database, TAMA performs taxonomy assignment for input metagenome reads based on a meta-score by integrating scores of taxonomy assignment from different taxonomy classification tools. TAMA outperformed existing tools when evaluated using various benchmark datasets. It was also successfully applied to obtain relative species abundance profiles and difference in composition of microorganisms in two types of cheese metagenome and human gut metagenome. CONCLUSION: TAMA can be easily installed and used for metagenome read classification and the prediction of relative species abundance from multiple numbers and types of metagenome read samples. TAMA can be used to more accurately uncover the composition of microorganisms in metagenome samples collected from various environments, especially when the use of a single taxonomy analysis tool is unreliable. TAMA is an open source tool, and can be downloaded at https://github.com/jkimlab/TAMA.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Classificação/métodos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130246

RESUMO

A remarkable new genus and species of Nemourinae, Sinonemura balangshana gen. et sp. n., is described from Balang Mountains, Sichuan, southwestern China. The description is based on morphology and molecular data. The Nemourinae genera related to the new taxon are re-evaluated on the basis of comparative functional morphology of male epiproct. Notes on the Asian distribution of the Nemourinae are also given.


Assuntos
Insetos/classificação , Neópteros/classificação , Filogenia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Classificação/métodos , Demografia , Feminino , Especiação Genética , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Neópteros/anatomia & histologia , Neópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Jt Dis Relat Surg ; 31(1): 34-8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the reliability of the Lichtman classification among residents, orthopedic surgeons, and hand surgeons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out with 30 male observers (mean age 37.8 years; range, 26 to 62 years) who agreed to participate in the study. All observers were orthopedic surgeons. The observers were separated into three groups that consist of 10 residents, 10 orthopedic surgeons, and 10 hand surgeons. The anteroposterior and lateral wrist radiographs of 20 patients (12 males, 8 females; mean age 49 years; range, 38 to 74 years) diagnosed as Kienböck's disease were sent to observers via e-mail as a survey. All 40 radiographs were asked to be kept classified. RESULTS: The classification of Kienböck's disease was analyzed by 30 observers on 40 digital radiographs. The overall agreement with the Lichtman classification was fair within all of the observers (kappa=0.203). When groups were evaluated within themselves, the agreement level was found poor in group 1 (kappa=0.162) and fair in group 2 (kappa=0.210) and group 3 (kappa=0.252). CONCLUSION: A useful classification system in orthopedics and traumatology should classify the type of musculoskeletal disorder reliably, facilitate communication in clinical practice, guide preoperative planning, and enable comparison of results between studies. The Lichtman classification alone is insufficient and should be supported by other imaging and measurement techniques.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Osteonecrose , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Ortopedia/normas , Osteonecrose/classificação , Osteonecrose/diagnóstico , Radiografia/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traumatologia/normas
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