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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 9-16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957375

RESUMO

Ephemeral plants are a major component of biodiversity in the deserts of Northwest China, with important ecological functions. Information on plant morphological characteristics and biomass accumulation and allocation during different growth stages could enhance our understanding of the functional features and survival strategy of ephemeral plants. We examined the effects of increased precipitation on ephemeral species Eremopyrum distans and Nepeta micrantha in the Gurbantunggut Desert. Changes in morphological characteristics and biomass accumulation and allocation were analyzed under increasing precipitation 30% and 50% treatments. The results showed that increased precipitation 30% and 50% treatments promoted the growth of E. distans, with leaf area and reproductive organ biomass being increased by 14.2%-188.5% and 55.9%, respectively. The effects of increased precipitation on the growth of N. micrantha varied across different growth stages. At leaf expansion stage, increased precipitation promoted growth of N. micrantha, while at fruit ripening stage, increased precipitation 50% treatment reduced leaf area, plant height, and reproduction biomass by 54.9%, 20.5%, 43.2%, respectively. Thus, the responses of the two species to increased precipitation was species-specific. Increased precipitation would change the survival strategies of the two species, with consequence on the species composition and structure of desert community.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Plantas , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , China
2.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 327-329, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397891

RESUMO

Skeletal remains were retrieved from a cave in an arid desert environment. The submitted material consisted of dried grass, soil, and malodorous skeletal remains wrapped in leather. After examination, it was revealed that the smell had not been due to recent decomposition but to adipocere. The cause of death was listed as "undetermined" and a suggested date of death as "unknown." Although adipocere usually requires a damp environment or submersion in water to develop, this case provides further evidence for the rare possibility of adipocere formation in an otherwise very dry environment. Wrapping of the body in leather material had produced an impermeable barrier which had sequestrated and preserved bodily fluids allowing anaerobic decay with fat hydrolysis and adipocere formation. Microenvironments may have potentially significant and quite idiosyncratic effects on decompositional processes which may initially confuse investigations.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Clima Desértico , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Antropologia Forense , Patologia Legal , Humanos
3.
Ground Water ; 58(1): 132-142, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407317

RESUMO

In arid northwestern China, as many inland areas around the world with arid or semi-arid climate, inland river flow recharges groundwater; vegetation pattern depends on the water table, which characterizes the landscapes of oasis, transition zone and desert, within different distances from an inland river. The water table conditions play an important role in water and land management-a high water table causes salinization within the oasis while a low water table causes desertification around the oasis. This study applies a theoretical-empirical method to calculating critical groundwater depths including the depth of critical groundwater level causing salinization (DCGS) and the depth of critical groundwater level causing desertification (DCGD); the calculations are validated with field observations in the Luocheng Irrigation District located in the middle reach of the Heihe River, an inland river of the northwestern China. Specifically, the calculated DCGS is 1.29 m for the case study area and the range of water table depth at the locations with saline soil is 0.5-1.2 m. The calculated DCGD for three vegetation communities, Nitraria tangutorum + Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch community, Tamarix chinensis + Phragmites australis community, and Alhagi sparsifolia + Phragmites communis, are 8.26, 11.26, and 13.26 m, respectively, basically within an observed range of 6.0-13.0 m in the study area. The critical depths can be used to design an engineering approach to control water tables and mitigate salinization and desertification problem for ecosystem restoration in the study region.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água Subterrânea , China , Clima Desértico , Ecologia , Água
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 143-151, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535159

RESUMO

A gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium strain R4HLG17T was isolated from Tamarix ramosissima roots growing in Kumtag desert. The strain grew at salinities of 0-16% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5-6%), pH 5-9 (optimum 7) and at 16-45 °C. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain R4HLG17T belonged to the family Halomonadaceae and was most closely related to Halomonas lutea DSM 23508T(95.1%), followed by Halotalea alkalilenta AW-7T(94.8%), Salinicola acroporae S4-41T(94.8%), Salinicola halophilus CG4.1T(94.6%), and Larsenimonas salina M1-18T(94.4%). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of 16S rRNA, atpA, gyrB, rpoD, and secA genes indicated that the strain R4HLG17T formed an independent and monophyletic branch related to other genera of Halomonadaceae, supporting its placement as a new genus in this family. The draft genome of strain R4HLG17T was 3.6 Mb with a total G + C content of 55.1%. The average nucleotide identity to Halomonas lutea DSM 23508T was 83.5%. Q-9 was detected as the major respiratory quinone and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c/C18:1ω6c), summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c), and C16:0 as predominant cellular fatty acids. On the basis of chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic, and phenotypic evidence, strain R4HLG17T is concluded to represent a novel species of a new genus within Halomonadaceae, for which the name Phytohalomonas tamaricis gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is R4HLG17T (=ACCC 19929T=KCTC 52415T).


Assuntos
Halomonadaceae/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Tamaricaceae/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Clima Desértico , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Halomonadaceae/química , Halomonadaceae/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(6): 865-870, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637447

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) concentrations in fine (2) and coarse (3) rice varieties belonging to Hafizabad, Gujranwala and Sheikhupura districts was assessed initially by means of field survey, followed by pot experiments. Bulk soil samples collected from same rice districts (Hafizabad and Gujtanwala) were spiked with As (0, 10, 20 mg kg-1) and each was amended with iron sulphate (0, 25, 50 g kg-1) to investigate their effect on plant growth and uptake under anaerobic conditions. Survey results revealed that mainly fine long grain (Super Basmati and KSK 515) and coarse long grain (Basmati 386 and Kainat) rice varieties were grown in the area. Overall, 16% rice grain samples were above the recommended permissible limit (RPL) of 300 mg kg-1. Among varieties, 24% grain samples of coarse and 12% of fine varieties had As concentration above the RPL. Results of pot experiments showed a significant decrease in straw and grain yield and increase in As concentration with increasing rates of As spiking. Paddy yield increased significantly when As spiked soils were amended with iron sulfate; and opposite was true for As concentration.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Anaerobiose , Clima Desértico , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paquistão , Solo/química
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3367-3375, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621222

RESUMO

Studying the effects of rainfall change on morphological characteristics, spatial pattern and spatial correlation of desert dominant plants could help to predict the response of desert ecosystem to global climate change. We conducted a 10-year simulated rainfall addition experiment and examined the morphological characteristics, spatial pattern and spatial correlation of typical desert plant species, Nitraria tangutorum and Artemisia ordosica, under long-term simulated rainfall enhancement conditions in Ulanbuh desert, using Programita software, Ripley's K function, and Monte Carlo method. The results showed that there were significant differences in the number, height, average crown and base diameter of the desert plants under different treatments. The number, height, average crown and base diameter of N. tangutorum and A. ordosica were significantly larger than CK, all of which increased with the amount of rainfall. When the amount of rainfall addition was less than 72 mm, the branch of N. tangutorum showed cluster distribution. When it was larger than 72 mm, it showed a tendency to decrease the aggregation intensity with rainfall increasing. The spatial distribution of A. ordosica population was characterized by random distribution-cluster distribution-random distribution pattern with rainfall increasing. In terms of spatial association, branch of N. tangutorum and A. ordosica showed negative correlation under control, but no correlation or positive correlation with rainfall increasing. When the amount of rainfall increased to 144 mm, the spatial association between two species changed from negative to positive. Under the scenario of increasing rainfall, soil moisture was improved, which would lead to a positive correlation between species and be more conducive to the coexistence and growth of N. tangutorum and A. ordosica.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Magnoliopsida , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Chuva , Solo
7.
Oecologia ; 191(3): 697-708, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578614

RESUMO

Changing precipitation regimes can profoundly affect plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. However, how changing precipitation, especially extreme precipitation events, alters plant diversity and community composition is still poorly understood. A 3-year field manipulative experiment with seven precipitation treatments, including - 60%, - 40%, - 20%, 0% (as a control), + 20%, + 40%, and + 60% of ambient growing-season precipitation, was conducted in a semi-arid steppe in the Mongolian Plateau. Results showed total plant community cover and forb cover were enhanced with increased precipitation and reduced under decreased precipitation, whereas grass cover was suppressed under the - 60% treatment only. Plant community and grass species richness were reduced by the - 60% treatment only. Moreover, our results demonstrated that total plant community cover was more sensitive to decreased than increased precipitation under normal and extreme precipitation change, and species richness was more sensitive to decreased than increased precipitation under extreme precipitation change. The community composition and low field water holding capacity may drive this asymmetric response. Accumulated changes in community cover may eventually lead to changes in species richness. However, compared to control, Shannon-Weiner index (H) did not respond to any precipitation treatment, and Pielou's evenness index (E) was reduced under the + 60% treatment across the 3 year, but not in each year. Thus, the findings suggest that plant biodiversity in the semi-arid steppe may have a strong resistance to precipitation pattern changes through adjusting its composition in a short term.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Chuva , Biodiversidade , Clima Desértico , Poaceae
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 2999-3009, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529875

RESUMO

Two typical soil profiles of sand dune (mixed sandy loam with sandy soil; uniform sandy soil) were selected from the arid region on the edge of the Badain Jaran desert to analyze soil physical characteristics. The effects of soil physical characteristics on capillary rise were monitored and simulated. The relationship between two typical soil profiles of sand dune and capillary rise were investigated to reveal the interactive processes among groundwater, capillary water, and soil water. Results showed that capillary rise was mainly affected by soil bulk density and soil clay content in the arid-desert area. The capillary rise could reach to 152 cm above shallow layer in the profile of mixed sandy loam with sandy soils, and 120 cm in the profile of sandy soil, respectively. Soil water distribution driven by the capillary rise was more uniform in the profile of sandy soil. Soil water content showed a diminishing trend from the groundwater to the maximum distance of capillary rise. In contrast, soil water distribution was markedly varied in the profile of mixed sandy loam with sandy soil. The process of capillary movement could be well simulated with Hydrus-3D model. Soil structure above the groundwater was the critical factor, which could affect the capillary rise and soil water distribution. However, the effects of soil in-season evaporation and plant root uptake on capillary rise movement need to be explored in further studies.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Solo/química , Clima Desértico , Modelos Químicos , Estações do Ano , Água
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3028-3038, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529878

RESUMO

Reasonable rotation is of great significance to grassland management. We examined the distribution characteristics, stability, organic carbon content and contribution rate of 0-30 cm soil aggregates in the forbidding grazing, continuous grazing, and rotation in the two-paddock, four-paddock and six-paddock rotational districts in a desert steppe in Ningxia. The results showed that except for the forbidding grazing grassland that was dominated by mechanically stable large aggrega-tes, other water-stable aggregates were mainly composed of microaggregates. Increasing the rotational grazing zoning was conducive to maintain the content of water-stable aggregates in the surface soil and increase the content of large aggregates. The mechanical stability aggregate fractal dimension was the largest in continuous grazing, increased the fractal dimension of the rotation and shepherd partition to reduce the trend, but the fractal dimension of water-stable aggregates did not change. The average weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the aggregates were the largest in the pastoral grassland and increased with the increases of the rotational grassland partition. MWD and GMD were negatively correlated with the microaggregate content. The organic carbon content in water-stable large aggregate was higher in the six-paddock rotational district and forbidding grazing, and the two-paddock rotational grazing and continuous grazing were lower. The contribution rate of micro-aggregates organic carbon to soil organic carbon content was higher in this region. In the 0-20 cm soil layer, the contribution rate of organic carbon in large aggregates increased with the increases of rotation. Considering the characteristics of soil aggregates and their organic carbon, the rotation of six-paddock was the most suitable method for rotational grazing in the desert steppe of the study area.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Carbono , Herbivoria , Solo , China , Clima Desértico , Fractais , Água
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3057-3065, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529881

RESUMO

Vegetation patch is one of the most basic characteristics of natural grazing grassland. To explore the effects of vegetation patch on soil microbial community, the changes of soil microbial biomass and community structure under four different vegetation patches in Ningxia desert steppe were quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The results showed that: 1) Soil microbial groups were abundant in vegetation patches, with the highest bacterial content, low fungal and actinomycete content, and the Gram-positive bacteria content being higher than that of Gram-negative bacteria in the patches of the four plant communities; 2) The total soil microbial biomass of Glycyrrhiza uralensis patch was significantly higher than that of Artemisia scoparia, Sophora alopecuroides, and Astragalus melilotoides patches; 3) Total PLFAs, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, anaerobic bacteria and fungi/bacteria were significantly positively correlated with soil organic C, and significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, indicating that soil organic C and pH were important factors affecting the growth and development of soil microorganisms in desert steppe.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Bactérias , China , Clima Desértico , Fungos , Pradaria
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3944, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477724

RESUMO

Microscale interactions in soil may give rise to highly localised conditions that disproportionally affect soil nitrogen transformations. We report mechanistic modelling of coupled biotic and abiotic processes during drying of soil surfaces and biocrusts. The model links localised microbial activity with pH variations within thin aqueous films that jointly enhance emissions of nitrous acid (HONO) and ammonia (NH3) during soil drying well above what would be predicted from mean hydration conditions and bulk soil pH. We compared model predictions with case studies in which reactive nitrogen gaseous fluxes from drying biocrusts were measured. Soil and biocrust drying rates affect HONO and NH3 emission dynamics. Additionally, we predict strong effects of atmospheric NH3 levels on reactive nitrogen gas losses. Laboratory measurements confirm the onset of microscale pH localisation and highlight the critical role of micro-environments in the resulting biogeochemical fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Dessecação/métodos , Gases/análise , Ácido Nitroso/análise , Solo/química , Algoritmos , Amônia/química , Atmosfera/química , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Microbiologia Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Teóricos , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/química , Ácido Nitroso/química , Água/metabolismo
12.
Zoology (Jena) ; 135: 125689, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383298

RESUMO

Heterorhabditis nematodes are parasites of a wide range of soil-dwelling insect species. Although these nematodes have been exploited as biological control agents since the last half of the 20th century, much research remains to be done to understand how these organisms function in agricultural and other ecosystems. In this study, we present some ecological traits of Heterorhabditis sonorensis, a natural parasite of the cicada Diceroprocta ornea, from the Sonoran Desert. Specifically, we evaluated its infectivity across a diverse panel of insect groups and assessed its fitness (infectivity and reproduction) considering different temperatures, and soil moisture levels. Three other Heterorhabditis species served as points of comparison for temperature and soil moisture assays. Host range experiments indicate that H. sonorensis, although isolated from seasonal cicada nymphs, is more virulent and reproductively fit in the lepidopteran hosts tested. This nematode has an optimum temperature range at 25-30 °C but can also successfully reproduce at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 °C. Additionally, this nematode is adapted to a variety of soil moisture conditions with successful infections across the tested moisture range (3%-20%). Finally, we demonstrate that H. sonorensis infective juveniles have a high survival rate (over 80%) at various storage temperatures (10-25 °C) after 24 weeks of storage and remain infective as revealed by the post-storage infection assays.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Meio Ambiente , Nematoides , Animais , Hemípteros/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Lepidópteros/parasitologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Solo/química , Solo/parasitologia , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(11): 3426-3436, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395106

RESUMO

A Micromonospora strain, designated 5R2A7T, isolated from a high altitude Atacama Desert soil was examined by using a polyphasic approach. Strain 5R2A7T was found to have morphological, chemotaxonomic and cultural characteristics typical of members of the genus Micromonospora. The cell wall contains meso- and hydroxy-diaminopimelic acid, the major whole-cell sugars are glucose, ribose and xylose, the predominant menaquinones MK-10(H4), MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8) and MK-9(H6), the major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and an unknown glycolipid, and the predominant cellular fatty acids iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and 10-methyl C17 : 0. The digital genomic DNA G+C content is 72.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain 5R2A7T was closely related to Micromonospora coriariae DSM 44875T (99.8 %) and Micromonospora cremea CR30T (99.7 %), and was separated readily from the latter, its closest phylogenetic neighbour, based on gyrB and multilocus sequence data, by low average nucleotide identity (92.59 %) and in silico DNA-DNA relatedness (51.7 %) values calculated from draft genome assemblies and by a range of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic properties. Consequently, strain 5R2A7T is considered to represent a novel species of Micromonospora for which the name Micromonospora acroterricola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 5R2A7T (=LMG 30755T=CECT 9656T).


Assuntos
Altitude , Clima Desértico , Micromonospora/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , Chile , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Micromonospora/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2654-2666, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418190

RESUMO

To understand the intra- and inter-annual population dynamics of Artemisia scoparia in the desert steppe, we set up three treatments, i.e., increasing the precipitation by 30%, reducing the precipitation by 30%, and the control (CK) in each soil habitat of aeolian sandy soil, sierozem soil, and bedrock weathered sedimentary soil. We drew up the dynamic life table to produce population survival and death curves and analyzed the population dynamics of A. scoparia in different habitats. Results showed that the survival curve of A. scoparia was approached to Deevey-1type. The survival rate was high in the early growth stage and tended to be relatively stable. The mortality rate maintained at a low level, but rose fast at the end of the growth stage. The individual survival number of A. scoparia in all habitats fluctuated at the early stage and declined at the later stage. The mortality rates of A. scoparia in habitats of both aeolian sandy soil and sierozem soil fluctuated greatly. There was no significant difference in the effects of increased and decreased precipitation treatments on the mortality rate of A. scoparia. Soil types had significant effects on all parameters, including the plant height, crown width, density, cover, and biomass of A. scoparia. Precipitation treatments had significant impacts on plant height, crown width and coverage of A. scoparia, and had no significant effect on plant density and biomass. The interactions between soil type and precipitation treatments had only a significant impact on plant height and crown width. The plasticity index of biomass in the habitat of bedrock weathered sedimentary soil was significantly higher than that in habitats of aeolian sandy soil and sierozem soil, while the plasticity index of plant coverage in the habitats of both sierozem soil and bedrock weathered sedimentary soil were significantly higher than that in the habitat of aeolian sandy soil. The density plasticity index of increased precipitation treatment was significantly higher than those of CK and the decreased precipitation treatments. The plasticity index of plant height and crown width were higher than other parameters, indicating that A. scoparia could respond to habitat changes by giving priority to these two parameters under different habitat pressures.


Assuntos
Artemisia/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Clima Desértico , Dinâmica Populacional , Solo
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2691-2698, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418194

RESUMO

Using an approach of spatial sequence instead of temporal succession, we investigated the variation and driving factors of soil microbial biomass and microbial entropy in desert grasslands across four different desertification stages (grassland, fixed dune, semi-fixed dune and mobile dune) in Yanchi County, Ningxia, China. The results showed that soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus reduced by 46.1%, 80.8% and 30.0% from grassland to mobile dunes, respectively. The soil microbial entropy (qMBC, qMBN, and qMBP) decreased but soil-microbial stoichiometry imbalance (C:Nimb, C:Pimb and N:Pimb) generally increased with the development of desertification. There were significantly positive relationship between soil microbial biomass nitrogen and C:Nimb, soil microbial biomass phosphorus and C:Pimb, while negative relationship between soil microbial biomass nitrogen and N:Pimb. The RDA result showed that soil ecological stoichiometry (C:N, C:P) had the strongest negative effect on soil microbial entropy carbon (qMBC). Soil microbial biomass and microbial entropy were significantly affected by desertification in desert grassland.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Biomassa , Carbono , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Clima Desértico , Entropia , Nitrogênio
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109529, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416013

RESUMO

Radioactive cesium (Cs) is more likely to be trans-located via rainfall into surrounding environments. Upon Cs-contaminated water reaching soil, Cs is retained on soil components, mainly organic matter and clay fraction. This study aims are i) comparing the relative ability of five arid soils, differing in their textural and chemical properties, to accumulate Cs when subjected to Cs-artificially contaminated rain droplets and ii) testing whether K fertilizer can decrease the uptake of Cs and its translocation within plants or not. A lab experiment was then conducted to simulate artificial rain droplets contaminated with 1000 becquerel (Bq) of 134Cs L-1 precipitated on soil columns each of 10.5 cm inner diameter at a rate of 1.15 mL cm-2 over a period of 2-months. At least 89% of 134Cs accumulated within the uppermost 5-cm layer of these soils. Another greenhouse experiment was set to test the hypothesis which indicates that Cs uptake increases unexpectedly by supplying plants with K-fertilizers. In this experiment, canola (Brassica napus L.) seeds were cultivated into three K-deficient soils (Typic Haplotorrent, Typic Haplocalcid, and Typic Torripsamment) which were contaminated with 100 mg Cs kg-1 soil (stable-Cs was used instead of radioactive-Cs to designate its behavior on the long run). Canola plants were fertilized with 0, 80 and 120 mg K2SO4 kg-1 soil. Results carried on Typic Haplotorrent soil confirmed the aforementioned assumption as K-addition increased Cd-uptake up to 40.1%. Contradictory results were achieved in the other two soils where Cs-uptake decreased by 21.5 and 15.3% in Typic Haplocalcid and Typic Torripsamment soils, respectively due to the application of the aforementioned dose of K. In the K non-amended soils, Cs shoot-root translocation factor was >1; yet, it was <1 in response to K addition, regardless of its application rate.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Césio/toxicidade , Fertilizantes/análise , Potássio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Césio/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Clima Desértico , Egito , Chuva/química , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
17.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126302, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442862

RESUMO

Endophytic bacteria isolated from cactus were characterized and assessed for their capability to induce drought tolerance and growth promotion in tomato. A total of 191-bacteria representing 13-genera and 18-species were isolated from wild cactus, Euphorbia trigonas. Bacillus (58), Lysinibacillus (36), Enterobacter (29), Stenotrophomonas (18), Lelliottia (12) and Pseudomonas (12) were the most represented genera. 16S rDNA sequence (>1400-bp) comparison placed the bacterial isolates with Bacillus xiamenensis; Bacillus megaterium; Bacillus cereus; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus velezensis; Brevibacillus brevis; Lysinibacillus fusiformis; Enterobacter cloacae; Lelliottia nimipressuralis; Proteus penneri; Sphingobacterium multivorum; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Pseudomonas putida; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; Citrobacter freundii; Chryseobacterium indologenes and Paracoccus sp. Bacillus xiamenensis was identified for the first time as plant endophyte. Upon bacterization, the endophytes triggered germination and growth promotion in tomato as indicated by 118 % and 52 % more root-biomass under drought-free and drought-induced conditions, respectively. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CBa_RA37 and B. megaterium RR10 displayed broad spectrum endophytism in tomato. Bacterization of tomato with cactus endophyte showed altered oxidative status, stomatal and photosystem II functioning, internal leaf temperature and relative water content suggestive of physiological de-stressing from moisture stress. Activity of oxidative stress enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase and catalase was also indicative of endophyte assisted de-stressing of tomato. Re-irrigation on 20-days of drought infliction showed 86.9% recovery of B. amyloliquefaciens CBa_RA37 primed tomato when non-primed plantlets succumbed. The cactus endophytic bacterial strain B. amyloliquefaciens CBa_RA37 showed promise for low-cost, efficient and environmentally friendly bio-inoculant technology to mitigate drought in arid zones of Asian and African continents.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/microbiologia , Secas , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Aclimatação , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/fisiologia , Biomassa , Camarões , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Clima Desértico , Endófitos/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência , Microbiologia do Solo , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 592, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446496

RESUMO

Air temperature records in remote deserts and inaccessible mountainous regions rely upon data acquired from the nearest meteorological stations, which could be at tens of kilometers apart. The present study provides a reliable approach to extract air temperatures for any distant region using thermal data of satellite images. The study postulates that if there is a strong correlation between land surface temperatures (LST) from satellite images and air temperature records from ground meteorological stations, hence, air temperatures (day/night) could be directly extrapolated from regression equations with high confidence results. Data utilized in this study were obtained from 12 meteorological stations settled and distributed upon different physiographic units of Oman. Satellite images were acquired from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST product. Regression analysis of max and min air temperatures from weather stations was conducted versus day and night LST from MODIS Aqua LST (MYD11A2) images. Results showed that the regression coefficients for the selected locations are strong for the night/min (R2 = 0.81-0.94) and day/max (R2 = 0.72-0.92) correlations of the 12 stations. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the statistical models are 0.97 and 1.98 for the night and day temperatures, respectively. Moreover, the association between each pair of the data is significant at the 99% level (p < 0.01). As MODIS data cover large geographic extents, it was possible to produce national diurnal and annual air temperature maps of accurate records with considering the variation of the physiographic setting.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Meteorologia/métodos , Imagens de Satélites , Temperatura Ambiente , Modelos Estatísticos , Omã
19.
Nature ; 572(7768): 230-234, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391559

RESUMO

Groundwater in sub-Saharan Africa supports livelihoods and poverty alleviation1,2, maintains vital ecosystems, and strongly influences terrestrial water and energy budgets3. Yet the hydrological processes that govern groundwater recharge and sustainability-and their sensitivity to climatic variability-are poorly constrained4,5. Given the absence of firm observational constraints, it remains to be seen whether model-based projections of decreased water resources in dry parts of the region4 are justified. Here we show, through analysis of multidecadal groundwater hydrographs across sub-Saharan Africa, that levels of aridity dictate the predominant recharge processes, whereas local hydrogeology influences the type and sensitivity of precipitation-recharge relationships. Recharge in some humid locations varies by as little as five per cent (by coefficient of variation) across a wide range of annual precipitation values. Other regions, by contrast, show roughly linear precipitation-recharge relationships, with precipitation thresholds (of roughly ten millimetres or less per day) governing the initiation of recharge. These thresholds tend to rise as aridity increases, and recharge in drylands is more episodic and increasingly dominated by focused recharge through losses from ephemeral overland flows. Extreme annual recharge is commonly associated with intense rainfall and flooding events, themselves often driven by large-scale climate controls. Intense precipitation, even during years of lower overall precipitation, produces some of the largest years of recharge in some dry subtropical locations. Our results therefore challenge the 'high certainty' consensus regarding decreasing water resources4 in such regions of sub-Saharan Africa. The potential resilience of groundwater to climate variability in many areas that is revealed by these precipitation-recharge relationships is essential for informing reliable predictions of climate-change impacts and adaptation strategies.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/análise , Chuva , África ao Sul do Saara , Clima Desértico , Secas/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 263-277, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323572

RESUMO

The carbon (C) dynamics of desert steppes play an important role in the C budget of temperate steppes. Using the Terrestrial Ecosystem Regional model (TECO-R) model for desert steppes, we examined the dynamics and potential driving mechanisms for C stocks at different temporal and spatial scales from 2000 to 2017 in northern China. The ecosystem C density averaged 2.73 kg C m-2 and soil organic C accounted for 91.6%. The grassland biome stored 2.85 kg C m-2, which is higher than the shrub biome (2.19 kg C m-2). The ecosystem storage increased by an average of 27.75 g C m-2 yr-1, with the fastest increase in the southeastern part of the study area. The grassland biome storage increased by an average of 33.54 g C m-2 yr-1, versus 25.74 g C m-2 yr-1 for the shrub biome. The desert steppe C stock totaled 288.29 Tg C, and increased at 3.09 Tg C yr-1. An average of >45% of the aboveground biomass was browsed by livestock. The growing season precipitation was significantly positively correlated with changes in the C stock. Increasing temperature was negatively correlated with the C stock, especially for soil carbon. Precipitation was an important driving factor, but warming interacted with precipitation to affect C sequestration during the growing season. Outside the growing season, the increased precipitation and temperature stabilized C sequestration in the desert steppe. This improved understanding of feedbacks between the desert steppe's C cycle and climate will improve predictions of C dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems and of the impacts of climate change.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , China , Mudança Climática , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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