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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 43, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015160

RESUMO

Backfat thickness could reflect the energy reserve of female pigs that is required for their reproductivity, especially gilts that might be selected as replacements. In this study, genetic and phenotypic correlations between backfat thickness (BF) and body weight (BW) at 28 weeks of age, and reproduction traits were estimated. They were considered for the possibility of using BF at the pre-selective stage as an early indicator of sow's reproduction potential. Pedigree information, BF and BW at 28 weeks of age, age at first farrowing (AFF), transformed proportion of piglet loss at birth (tPL), and transformed weaning to first service interval (tWSI) of 806 primiparous Landrace sows were used to estimate the variance components by a restricted maximum likelihood procedure with an average information algorithm for multivariate analysis. The genetic correlation between BF and BW was 0.70 ± 0.13. Both BF and BW had a negative genetic correlation with AFF but not with tWSI. Genetic correlation estimates between tPL and other traits were unclear due to high standard error. The genetic correlation between AFF and tWSI was 0.78 ± 0.36. There were 19.35% of sires, 26.34% of dams, and 25.81% of sows that had preferable estimated breeding values for BF, BW, AFF, and WSI. These values indicated the feasibility of using selection index to improve BF and BW at the pre-selective stage and reduce AFF and tWSI of replacement gilt simultaneously. The estimation of genetic correlation between PL and other traits warrants further study in larger populations.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Clima Tropical , Animais , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Gravidez , Sus scrofa , Suínos/genética , Desmame
2.
J Environ Manage ; 304: 114332, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933270

RESUMO

Understanding how functional traits and functional entities (FEs, i.e., unique combinations of functional traits) are distributed within plant communities can contribute to the understanding of vegetation properties and changes in species composition. We utilized investigation data on woody plants (including trees, shrubs and lianas) from 17 1-ha plots across six old-growth tropical forest types on Hainan island, China. Plant species were categorized as common (>1 individuals/ha) and rare species (≤1 individuals/ha) according to their abundance to determine how they contributed to different ecosystem functions. First, we assessed the differences in traits between common and rare species, and second, we examined functional redundancy, functional over-redundancy, and functional vulnerability for common and rare species of the forests. We found that both common species and rare species in each of the forest types were placed into just a few FEs, leading to functional over-redundancy and resulting in functional vulnerability. Rare species tended to have different trait values than those of common species, and were differently distributed among FEs, indicating different contributions to ecosystem functioning. Our results highlighted the disproportionate contribution of rare species in all of the studied forests. Rare species are more likely than common species to possess unique FEs, and thus, they have a disproportionately large contribution to community trait space. The loss of such species may impact the functioning, redundancy, and resilience of tropical forests.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Clima Tropical , Florestas , Humanos , Plantas , Árvores
3.
New Phytol ; 233(1): 236-250, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655491

RESUMO

Warming climate increases the risk for harmful leaf temperatures in terrestrial plants, causing heat stress and loss of productivity. The heat sensitivity may be particularly high in equatorial tropical tree species adapted to a thermally stable climate. Thermal thresholds of the photosynthetic system of sun-exposed leaves were investigated in three tropical montane tree species native to Rwanda with different growth and water use strategies (Harungana montana, Syzygium guineense and Entandrophragma exselsum). Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf gas exchange, morphology, chemistry and temperature were made at three common gardens along an elevation/temperature gradient. Heat tolerance acclimated to maximum leaf temperature (Tleaf ) across the species. At the warmest sites, the thermal threshold for normal function of photosystem II was exceeded in the species with the highest Tleaf despite their higher heat tolerance. This was not the case in the species with the highest transpiration rates and lowest Tleaf . The results point to two differently effective strategies for managing thermal stress: tolerance through physiological adjustment of leaf osmolality and thylakoid membrane lipid composition, or avoidance through morphological adaptation and transpiratory cooling. More severe photosynthetic heat stress in low-transpiring montane climax species may result in a competitive disadvantage compared to high-transpiring pioneer species with more efficient leaf cooling.


Assuntos
Termotolerância , Árvores , Aclimatação , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Temperatura , Clima Tropical
5.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(1): 227-244, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651375

RESUMO

Lianas are a key growth form in tropical forests. Their lack of self-supporting tissues and their vertical position on top of the canopy make them strong competitors of resources. A few pioneer studies have shown that liana optical traits differ on average from those of colocated trees. Those trait discrepancies were hypothesized to be responsible for the competitive advantage of lianas over trees. Yet, in the absence of reliable modelling tools, it is impossible to unravel their impact on the forest energy balance, light competition, and on the liana success in Neotropical forests. To bridge this gap, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature to gather all published liana leaf optical spectra, as well as all canopy spectra measured over different levels of liana infestation. We then used a Bayesian data assimilation framework applied to two radiative transfer models (RTMs) covering the leaf and canopy scales to derive tropical tree and liana trait distributions, which finally informed a full dynamic vegetation model. According to the RTMs inversion, lianas grew thinner, more horizontal leaves with lower pigment concentrations. Those traits made the lianas very efficient at light interception and significantly modified the forest energy balance and its carbon cycle. While forest albedo increased by 14% in the shortwave, light availability was reduced in the understorey (-30% of the PAR radiation) and soil temperature decreased by 0.5°C. Those liana-specific traits were also responsible for a significant reduction of tree (-19%) and ecosystem (-7%) gross primary productivity (GPP) while lianas benefited from them (their GPP increased by +27%). This study provides a novel mechanistic explanation to the increase in liana abundance, new evidence of the impact of lianas on forest functioning, and paves the way for the evaluation of the large-scale impacts of lianas on forest biogeochemical cycles.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Clima Tropical , Teorema de Bayes , Ciclo do Carbono , Florestas
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0254307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937065

RESUMO

Many authors have suggested that the vulnerability of montane biodiversity to climate change worldwide is significantly higher than in most other ecosystems. Despite the extensive variety of studies predicting severe impacts of climate change globally, few studies have empirically validated the predicted changes in distribution and population density. Here, we used 17 years (2000-2016) of standardised bird monitoring across latitudinal/elevational gradients in the rainforest of the Australian Wet Tropics World Heritage Area to assess changes in local abundance and elevational distribution. We used relative abundance in 1977 surveys across 114 sites ranging from 0-1500m above sea level and utilised a trend analysis approach (TRIM) to investigate elevational shifts in abundance of 42 species. The local abundance of most mid and high elevation species has declined at the lower edges of their distribution by >40% while lowland species increased by up to 190% into higher elevation areas. Upland-specialised species and regional endemics have undergone dramatic population declines of almost 50%. The "Outstanding Universal Value" of the Australian Wet Tropics World Heritage Area, one of the most irreplaceable biodiversity hotspots on Earth, is rapidly degrading. These observed impacts are likely to be similar in many tropical montane ecosystems globally.


Assuntos
Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Austrália , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Modelos Biológicos , Densidade Demográfica , Floresta Úmida , Clima Tropical
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 13, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902077

RESUMO

Forage intake is the most important factor for beef cattle raised on pasture, as it is the basis of the diet. Thus, knowing the variables that affect this parameter can help supplementation programs. Thus, a meta-analytic study was conducted to develop and evaluate models for the prediction of pasture dry matter intake (DMIpasture) by beef cattle in tropical conditions. Eight hundred four individual observations of DMIpasture were used, taken from 23 studies through analysis of mixed models, including the study as a random effect. To evaluate the accuracy and precision of the new models proposed as well as for the models of Azevedo et al. (2016) and Minson and McDonald (1987), an independent databank with 87 means from treatments of 21 experiments (n = 888 animals) was used. Three prediction models were adjusted: model I (animal information), model II (animal information + supplement), and model III (animal information + supplement + pasture). The proposed models presented similarity for the average square root of the prediction error. The inclusion of the predictive variables for supplementation (supplement dry matter intake - DMIsupplement - % of the body weight and crude protein intake through supplement) with the variables for the animal (BW0.75 and average daily gain) and of the pasture (% of crude protein) in model III improved accuracy and precision and provided higher determination and correlation coefficients, and agreement than the other proposed models. Similarly, it was found to be more accurate and precise than the equations of Azevêdo et al. (2016) and Minson and McDonald (1987), which presented lower precision. The DMIpasture for beef cattle in tropical conditions is more accurate and precise when the information for the animal, supplement, and pasture is included.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Clima Tropical , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0255197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914697

RESUMO

Height measurements are essential to manage and monitor forest biomass and carbon stocks. However, accurate estimation of this variable in tropical ecosystems is still difficult due to species heterogeneity and environmental variability. In this article, we compare and discuss six nonlinear allometric models parameterized at different scales (local, regional and pantropical). We also evaluate the height measurements obtained in the field by the hypsometer when compared with the true tree height. We used a dataset composed of 180 harvested trees in two distinct areas located in the Amapá State. The functional form of the Weibull model was the best local model, showing similar performance to the pantropical model. The inaccuracy detected in the hypsometer estimates reinforces the importance of incorporating new technologies in measuring individual tree heights. Establishing accurate allometric models requires knowledge of ecophysiological and environmental processes that govern vegetation dynamics and tree height growth. It is essential to investigate the influence of different species and ecological gradients on the diameter/height ratio.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Florestas , Modelos Biológicos , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical , Brasil
9.
Zootaxa ; 5060(3): 301-332, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810663

RESUMO

We evaluate the role of biogeographical affinity in shaping relationships between ecological diversity as a proxy of functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity and their association with environmental variation, across tropical and temperate latitudes of the Americas. If environmental niches are evolutionarily conserved, high mammal taxa of tropical and temperate affinity will show consistent differences in these relationships. Accordingly, mammal groups of tropical affinity (old-autochthonous: marsupials and xenarthrans; and mid-Cenozoic immigrants: hystricognaths and primates) show stronger positive correlations between ecological and phylogenetic diversity within the tropics than those from extra-tropical latitudes where newcomers from North America (artiodactyls) show the strongest positive correlations. The other group of newcomers (carnivorans), however, show a peak in the association that include both tropical and extra-tropical latitudes of South America. Climate predominates over topographic relief in structuring the spatial variation of ecological and phylogenetic mammal diversity. The environmental structuring of ecological and phylogenetic mammal diversity across the Americas is more complex than expected from a latitudinal diversity gradient. Dry seasonal tropical habitats generated considerable heterogeneity in relationships between ecological and phylogenetic diversity and their association with environmental correlates. We conclude that biogeographical affinity and regional associations between the different components of diversity and the environment should be considered for a comprehensive explanation of covariation between ecological and phylogenetic diversity on a continental scale.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mamíferos , América , Animais , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Clima Tropical
11.
Oecologia ; 197(3): 795-806, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613464

RESUMO

Humans are transforming the ecology of the Earth through rapid changes in land use and climate. These changes can affect tropical forest structure, dynamics and diversity. While numerous studies have focused on diversity metrics, other aspects of forest function, such as long-term biomass dynamics, are often less considered. We evaluated plant community structure change (i.e., abundance, diversity, composition, and aboveground biomass) in a 2.25 ha forest dynamics plot located within a ~ 365 ha reserve in southern Costa Rica. We censused, mapped and identified to species all plants ≥ 5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) in three surveys spanning 2010-2020. While there were no changes in late-successional species diversity, there were marked changes in overall species composition and biomass. Abundance of large (≥ 40 cm DBH) old-growth dense-wooded trees (e.g., Lauraceae, Rosaceae) decreased dramatically (27%), leading to major biomass decline over time, possibly driven by recent and recurrent drought events. Gaps created by large trees were colonized by early-successional species, but these recruits did not make up for the biomass lost. Finally, stem abundance increased by 20%, driven by increasing dominance of Hampea appendiculata. While results suggest this reserve may effectively conserve overall plant diversity, this may mask other key shifts such as large aboveground biomass loss. If this pattern is pervasive across tropical forest reserves, it could hamper efforts to preserve forest structure and ecosystem services (e.g., carbon storage). Monitoring programs could better assess carbon trends in reserves over time simply by tracking large tree dynamics.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Biomassa , Florestas , Humanos , Clima Tropical
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 514, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643791

RESUMO

Dietary strategies aiming at minimizing enteric methane (CH4) emission in ruminants are of practical interest from nutritional, economical, and environmental point of view. The present study evaluated the effects of supplementing Leucaena leucocephala leaves either alone or in conjunction with malic acid on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and enteric CH4 emission in crossbred cattle fed wheat straw and concentrate-based diet under tropical conditions. Eighteen crossbred (Karan-Fries) calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups: G-I (control)-fed wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw and concentrate mixture in the ratio 50:50; G-II-fed wheat straw, concentrate mixture, and Leucaena leucocephala leaves in the ratio 45:45:10; and (3) G-III-fed similar diet like G-II with an additional supplementation of 1% malic acid on dry matter intake basis. Experimental feeding spanning 90 days included a 7-day metabolism trial and CH4 quantification study by sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique. Results revealed no significant effect of dietary treatments on dry matter intake (DMI) and digestibility of nutrients, except neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility which was 5.5% higher (P < 0.05) in G-III as compared to control. Further, nitrogen (N) metabolism, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and growth performance remained similar among the treatments. No significant effect was also observed for enteric CH4 emission (expressed as g/day and g/kg DMI) in calves supplemented with Leucaena leucocephala leaves and malic acid. Therefore, the present findings depict modest improvement in fiber digestibility with no encouraging effect in mitigating enteric CH4 in growing cattle calves by supplementing Leucaena leucocephala leaves alone or with malic acid within the selected levels.


Assuntos
Digestão , Metano , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Malatos , Metano/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Folhas de Planta , Rúmen/metabolismo , Clima Tropical
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257616, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644307

RESUMO

Species of the genus Russula are key components of ectomycorrhizal ecosystems worldwide. Nevertheless, their diversity in the tropics is still poorly known. This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of the diversity of Russula species classified in subsection Roseinae based on specimens recently collected in tropical montane rainforests in western Panama. A five gene multilocus phylogeny based on the nuclear markers ITS nrDNA, MCM7, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF-1α was constructed to identify the systematic position of 22 collections from Panama. Four new species, Russula cornicolor, Russula cynorhodon, Russula oreomunneae and Russula zephyrovelutipes are formally described and illustrated. None of the four species are sister species and they are more closely related to North American or Asian species. Two of the newly described species were associated with the ectomycorrhizal tree species Oreomunnea mexicana, while the other two species were associated with Quercus species. All four species are so far only known from mountains in western Panama.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/classificação , Micorrizas/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , Biodiversidade , DNA Fúngico/genética , Florestas , Micorrizas/genética , Panamá , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Clima Tropical
14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 240: 105992, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656895

RESUMO

Imidacloprid is one of the most used neonicotinoid insecticides all over the world and is considered as a contaminant of concern due to its high toxicity potential to aquatic organisms. However, the majority of the studies that have evaluated the effects of imidacloprid on aquatic organisms were conducted under temperate conditions. In the present study, a mesocosm experiment was conducted under sub-tropical conditions to assess the effects of imidacloprid on the structure (macroinvertebrates, zooplankton and phytoplankton) and functional endpoints of an aquatic ecosystem and to compare the results with similar temperate and (sub-)tropical mesocosm studies. Imidacloprid (0, 0.03, 0.3 and 3 µg/L) was applied to 13 mesocosms weekly over a period of 4 weeks, followed by a one month recovery period. At the community level a lowest NOECcommunity of 0.03 µg/L was calculated for the zooplankton, phytoplankton and macroinvertebrate communities. The highest sensitivity to imidacloprid (NOEC < 0.03 µg/L) were observed for Gerris sp., Diaptomus sp. and Brachionus quadridentatus. Imidacloprid induced population declines of the larger zooplankton species (Diaptomus sp. and Ostracoda) resulted in increased rotifer abundances and shifted the phytoplankton community to a graze resistant gelatinous cyanobacteria dominated ecosystem. These cyanobacteria blooms occurred at all different concentrations and could pose an important public health and environmental concern. Although there are some differences in species and community sensitivity between the present and the other (sub-)topical mesocosm studies, it can be observed that all show a similar general community response to imidacloprid. Under (sub-)tropical conditions, the toxic effects of imidacloprid occur at lower concentrations than found for temperate ecosystems.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos , Clima Tropical , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zooplâncton
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258791, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665822

RESUMO

Tropical forests are one of the main carbon sinks on Earth, but the magnitude of CO2 absorbed by tropical vegetation remains uncertain. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) are commonly used to estimate the CO2 absorbed by forests, but their performance is highly sensitive to the parameterization of processes that control leaf-level CO2 exchange. Direct measurements of leaf respiratory and photosynthetic traits that determine vegetation CO2 fluxes are critical, but traditional approaches are time-consuming. Reflectance spectroscopy can be a viable alternative for the estimation of these traits and, because data collection is markedly quicker than traditional gas exchange, the approach can enable the rapid assembly of large datasets. However, the application of spectroscopy to estimate photosynthetic traits across a wide range of tropical species, leaf ages and light environments has not been extensively studied. Here, we used leaf reflectance spectroscopy together with partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling to estimate leaf respiration (Rdark25), the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vcmax25), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax25), and the triose phosphate utilization rate (Tp25), all normalized to 25°C. We collected data from three tropical forest sites and included leaves from fifty-three species sampled at different leaf phenological stages and different leaf light environments. Our resulting spectra-trait models validated on randomly sampled data showed good predictive performance for Vcmax25, Jmax25, Tp25 and Rdark25 (RMSE of 13, 20, 1.5 and 0.3 µmol m-2 s-1, and R2 of 0.74, 0.73, 0.64 and 0.58, respectively). The models showed similar performance when applied to leaves of species not included in the training dataset, illustrating that the approach is robust for capturing the main axes of trait variation in tropical species. We discuss the utility of the spectra-trait and traditional gas exchange approaches for enhancing tropical plant trait studies and improving the parameterization of TBMs.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Respiração Celular , Transporte de Elétrons , Florestas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Panamá , Proteínas de Plantas , Clima Tropical
16.
Fungal Biol ; 125(11): 845-859, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649671

RESUMO

White-rot fungi (Pleurotus eryngii) are decomposers of lignocellulosic substrates. The relationship between the structure of humified organic matter and P. eryngii growth, is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the growth and development of white-rot fungi (P. eryngii) in two structurally different sources of humified organic matter. Fungus growth and development (mycelium diameter, fresh and dry mycelium mass, mycelium density, and biological yield) were evaluated in experiments with the application of humic substances (HS) extracted from vermicompost (VC) and peat. Both HS were characterized by CP/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy associated with chemometrics analysis. The HS present different structural characteristics, with those extracted from VC having a predominance of functionalized C-aliphatics (carbohydrates), low hydrophobicity, and a 90% proportion of cellulose/hemicellulose carbon in the composition. HS extracted from peat have a predominance of C-aromatics (lignin fragments), higher hydrophobicity, and a proportion of lignin carbon of up to 80%. The results showed that P. eryngii growth is dependent on the C-cellulosic and C-lignin balance. HS extracted from lignin-rich peat regulates the fungus growth at initial times and sometimes inhibits the biological performance. The highly cellulosic HS from VC regulate the fungus growth at later times and its biological performance.


Assuntos
Pleurotus , Celulose , Lignina , Clima Tropical
18.
Oecologia ; 197(3): 699-713, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713303

RESUMO

Studies comparing the relative strengths of multiple key drivers of forest dynamics are rare, but can inform both our fundamental understanding of plant communities as well as community-ecology theory. We studied the dynamics of a woody plant community in a southern Indian seasonally-dry tropical forest (SDTF) in relation to environmental factors (precipitation, temperature, fire, soil nutrients, and topography) and conspecific and heterospecific plant neighborhoods to identify which of these best predicted recruitment, survival and growth of dominant species over a 24-year study period. We also assessed the relative prevalence of density-independent and density-dependent responses in the community. Climate and fire were more important than plant neighborhoods and topographic and edaphic variables in explaining variation in plant performance. Recruitment, survival and growth were lower during periods of low precipitation and immediately following fires. Recruitment increased, and growth and survival largely decreased, with increasing temperatures. Smaller-sized individuals were disproportionately strongly affected by the vagaries of climate and fire. Conspecific negative density-dependence, a population-fluctuation stabilizing process, was relatively unimportant. Density-dependent effects decayed rapidly with distance from the focal plant (growth, survival) or quadrat (recruitment); positive density-dependence was frequently found in recruitment, possibly resulting from limited dispersal and/or facilitation. Woody plant dynamics in this SDTF appear to be responding largely to fluctuations in environmental conditions, particularly precipitation, temperature, and fire. In contrast to wetter forests, population-fluctuation stabilizing processes in this ecosystem appear to be relatively weak. Changes in climatic or fire regimes are likely to result in large compositional shifts in this SDTF.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Incêndios , Florestas , Humanos , Solo , Árvores , Clima Tropical
19.
Elife ; 102021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586066

RESUMO

In post-industrial settings, apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is associated with increased cardiovascular and neurological disease risk. However, the majority of human evolutionary history occurred in environments with higher pathogenic diversity and low cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that in high-pathogen and energy-limited contexts, the APOE4 allele confers benefits by reducing innate inflammation when uninfected, while maintaining higher lipid levels that buffer costs of immune activation during infection. Among Tsimane forager-farmers of Bolivia (N = 1266, 50% female), APOE4 is associated with 30% lower C-reactive protein, and higher total cholesterol and oxidized LDL. Blood lipids were either not associated, or negatively associated with inflammatory biomarkers, except for associations of oxidized LDL and inflammation which were limited to obese adults. Further, APOE4 carriers maintain higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol at low body mass indices (BMIs). These results suggest that the relationship between APOE4 and lipids may be beneficial for pathogen-driven immune responses and unlikely to increase cardiovascular risk in an active subsistence population.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Imunidade Inata , Índios Sul-Americanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Clima Tropical , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bolívia , Dieta , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5717, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588433

RESUMO

The global increase in species richness toward the tropics across continents and taxonomic groups, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, stimulated the formulation of many hypotheses to explain the underlying mechanisms of this pattern. We evaluate several of these hypotheses to explain spatial diversity patterns in a butterfly family, the Nymphalidae, by assessing the contributions of speciation, extinction, and dispersal, and also the extent to which these processes differ among regions at the same latitude. We generate a time-calibrated phylogeny containing 2,866 nymphalid species (~45% of extant diversity). Neither speciation nor extinction rate variations consistently explain the latitudinal diversity gradient among regions because temporal diversification dynamics differ greatly across longitude. The Neotropical diversity results from low extinction rates, not high speciation rates, and biotic interchanges with other regions are rare. Southeast Asia is also characterized by a low speciation rate but, unlike the Neotropics, is the main source of dispersal events through time. Our results suggest that global climate change throughout the Cenozoic, combined with tropical niche conservatism, played a major role in generating the modern latitudinal diversity gradient of nymphalid butterflies.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Biodiversidade , Borboletas/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Animais , Extinção Biológica , Genes de Insetos , Especiação Genética , Geografia , Filogenia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
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