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1.
Zootaxa ; 4586(1): zootaxa.4586.1.1, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716140

RESUMO

In this study, we take the Onthophagus chevrolati species group, likely a monophyletic species group as an example to analyze the processes that led to the biogeographic integration of the Holarctic fauna in the mountains of the Mexican Transition Zone to test our biogeographic hypotheses. We propose a change from the status of subspecies to species for O. oaxacanus Zunino Halffter, 1988 new status; O. howdeni Zunino Halffter, 1988 new status; O. jaliscensis Zunino Halffter, 1988 new status; O. longecarinatus Zunino Halffter, 1988 new status; O. omiltemius Bates, 1889 revised status; and O. retusus Harold, 1869 revised status. Consequently, the O. chevrolati group of species is currently made up of 47 species belonging to four species lines: O. vespertilio, O. hippopotamus, O. cyanellus and O. chevrolati. The diversification of the Onthophagus chevrolati species group in this region resulted from three hypothetical stages of evolution. In the first, the penetration and expansion of the ancestor of the O. chevrolati species group occurred before the Miocene and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt arose. During the second stage, the O. hippopotamus species line expanded and evolved, integrating with the paleogeographic changes and the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, as a consequence of volcanism during the Miocene-Pliocene. In the third and most recent stage, the O. chevrolati species line used the existing mountain systems and interglacial climate fluctuations of the Pleistocene to expand and diversify. Thus, the mountains of the Mexican Transition Zone are not simply periglacial refugia. The entomofauna of Holarctic origin present in the region evolved while the Earth's geological processes were underway.


Assuntos
Besouros , Ecologia , Animais , Clima , México , Filogenia
2.
Zootaxa ; 4628(1): zootaxa.4628.1.1, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712542

RESUMO

We present a list of 425 valid Odonata species from Ecuador, providing a brief overview of each genus, a photograph of a representative species of each genus, and all records known to us for each species. Thirty-eight of the 425 species were previously unrecorded from Ecuador. Data were derived from published records, public and private collections, and field records accumulated since the 1960's by the authors and others who have contributed specimen information to this study. A historical study and a comprehensive list of synonyms are presented, and questionable species records are discussed. The physiography of the country, including the general climate of each subregion and current pressures on the environment, is briefly discussed. At present, 44 species of Odonata are considered endemic to Ecuador, and eight species are considered endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened on the IUCN Red List.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Clima , Equador
3.
Zootaxa ; 4683(1): zootaxa.4683.1.6, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715938

RESUMO

The rhaphidophorid subfamily Rhaphidophorinae, distributed from South Asian to Australia, comprises 7 extant genus and 160 species. In China, the subfamily are poorly understood. Based on the occurrence data and climate data, ecological niche model can be used as a tool for species discovery. Herein we predict the potential distribution of Chinese Rhaphidophorinae using MAXENT under R environment. The mean temperature of coldest quarter plays an important role in the distribution of true cave cricket in China. Our potential map suggested the main concentrated area of the subfamily's range is in Yunnan, while expanding to the east, there is an obviously geographical barrier in Guangxi. Considering the diversity of rhaphidophorids in China is not well known, we hope that the combining ecological niche model can serve as a guide to future survey expeditions in China.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Animais , Austrália , China , Clima , Ecossistema , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
Zootaxa ; 4648(1): zootaxa.4648.1.12, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716968

RESUMO

Hyalonthophagus Palestrini Giacone, 1988, from Afrotropical savanna, is raised to generic status having been originally described as a subgenus within the genus Onthophagus Latreille, 1802. Hyalonthophagus pulcher Deschodt Davis, new species is described from the Northern Cape, South Africa. Maps are provided to show (1) the locally-restricted distribution pattern of the new species isolated from adjoining savanna in warm, dry Karoo climate to the south of the Orange River, and, (2) the disjunct distribution pattern in relation to those of three other southern African species centred in savanna to the northeast beyond areas with unsuitable climatic or ecological conditions. An assessment of the conservation status for Hyalonthophagus pulcher Deschodt Davis, new species is also provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Clima , Ecologia , Rios , África do Sul
5.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 941-949, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589675

RESUMO

The winter climate in northwestern Europe is commonly influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Its intensity, expressed as an index (NAO), has been suggested for use in assessing nutrient leaching from arable land to water and the effects of mitigation measures. We found significant ( < 0.05) positive linear relationships between NAO and an air freezing-thawing index in central and southern Sweden for 2004 to 2016. This period covered winters with both extreme low and high NAO. There were significant negative linear relationships between NAO and a snow depth index. Management and nutrient leaching were studied simultaneously in two agricultural catchments (20.7 ha, code 11M; 788 ha, code M36) in southwestern Sweden. Catchments 11M (silty-clay soil) and M36 (sandy hills with a central, heavy clay plain) are both artificially drained. Total N and total P leaching increased significantly with winter (November-April) NAO in both catchments. In contrast, leaching of dissolved reactive P (DRP) was not related to NAO. The highest DRP concentrations were observed in connection with specific agricultural practices, whereas moderately elevated DRP concentrations were linked to snowmelt events. Concentrations of P in other forms (other P) were even more elevated (1.02 mg L) in 11M in winter 2014-2015, probably due to a large (32% of area) internal buffer (ley-fallow) in a central ravine being plowed down in autumn 2014. No general trend in P or N fertilization was found in catchment M36. Thus NAO may be appropriate for use in trend analyses of nutrient load in the study region.


Assuntos
Clima , Nutrientes , Estações do Ano , Solo , Suécia
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1007-1011, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607046

RESUMO

Objective: We planned to evaluate the effectiveness of moving epidemic method (MEM) in calculating influenza epidemic threshold of 7 climatic zones in China mainland. Methods: The positive rate of influenza virus was obtained from the National Influenza Surveillance Network System from 2010/2011 to 2017/2018. We divided the 31 provinces into 7 climatic zones according to previous literatures and applied MEM to calculate the influenza epidemic threshold of 2018/2019 influenza season for these climatic zones. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of MEM. Results: Pre-epidemic threshold (the positive rate of influenza virus) varied from 9.66% (temperate zone) to 16.36% (subtropical zone) for 2018/2019 influenza season. The gap between pre-epidemic and post-epidemic thresholds was less than 5% except for plateau zone. The sensitivity was 86.16% (95CI:66.81%-98.23%), the specificity was 94.92% (95CI: 91.13%-98.41%), the positive predictive value was 89.87% (95%CI: 84.39%-94.38%), the negative predictive value was 92.96% (95%CI: 84.46%-99.17%). Conclusion: Overall, moving epidemic Method performs well in calculating influenza epidemic threshold in China, much better than the previous study.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae , China/epidemiologia , Clima , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Oecologia ; 191(4): 1003-1014, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624958

RESUMO

Rapid climate warming is driving organisms to advance timing of reproduction with earlier springs, but the rate of advancement shows large variation, even among populations of the same species. In this study, we investigated how the rate of advancement in timing of reproduction with a warming climate varies for barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) populations breeding at different latitudes in the Arctic. We hypothesized that populations breeding further North are generally more time constrained and, therefore, produce clutches earlier relative to the onset of spring than southern populations. Therefore, with increasing temperatures and a progressive relief of time constraint, we expected latitudinal differences to decrease. For the years 2000-2016, we determined the onset of spring from snow cover data derived from satellite images, and compiled data on egg laying date and reproductive performance in one low-Arctic and two high-Arctic sites. As expected, high-Arctic geese laid their eggs earlier relative to snowmelt than low-Arctic geese. Contrary to expectations, advancement in laying dates was similar in high- and low-Arctic colonies, at a rate of 27% of the advance in date of snowmelt. Although advancement of egg laying did not fully compensate for the advancement of snowmelt, geese laying eggs at intermediate dates in the low Arctic were the most successful breeders. In the high Arctic, however, early nesting geese were the most successful breeders, suggesting that high-Arctic geese have not advanced their laying dates sufficiently to earlier springs. This indicates that high-Arctic geese especially are vulnerable to negative effects of climate warming.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Gansos , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Clima , Reprodução , Estações do Ano
8.
Ambio ; 48(11): 1290-1303, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625049

RESUMO

We use data from a survey of 2439 farmers in 5 countries around the Baltic Sea (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Poland and Sweden) to investigate their preferences for adopting agricultural practices aimed at reducing nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. The measures considered are set-aside, catch crops and reduced fertilization. Contracts vary with respect to the area enrolled, contract length, possibility of premature termination, availability of professional advice and compensation. We quantitatively describe farmers' preferences in terms of their willingness-to-accept compensation for specific attributes of these contracts, if implemented. The results vary substantially between farm types (farmers' characteristics) and between the 5 countries, and support differentiation of contract obligations and payments to improve the uptake of Agri-Environmental Schemes. The results can be readily used to improve the design of country-specific nutrient reduction policies, in accordance with the next Common Agricultural Policy.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Nutrientes , Agricultura , Países Bálticos , Clima , Dinamarca , Estônia , Finlândia , Humanos , Polônia , Suécia
9.
Ecol Lett ; 22(12): 2077-2086, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612601

RESUMO

A pervasive challenge in microbial ecology is understanding the genetic level where ecological units can be differentiated. Ecological differentiation often occurs at fine genomic levels, yet it is unclear how to utilise ecological information to define ecotypes given the breadth of environmental variation among microbial taxa. Here, we present an analytical framework that infers clusters along genome-based microbial phylogenies according to shared environmental responses. The advantage of our approach is the ability to identify genomic clusters that best fit complex environmental information whilst characterising cluster niches through model predictions. We apply our method to determine climate-associated ecotypes in populations of nitrogen-fixing symbionts using whole genomes, explicitly sampled to detect climate differentiation across a heterogeneous landscape. Although soil and plant host characteristics strongly influence distribution patterns of inferred ecotypes, our flexible statistical method enabled us to identify climate-associated genomic clusters using environmental data, providing solid support for ecological specialisation in soil symbionts.


Assuntos
Clima , Genoma Bacteriano , Ecótipo , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133569, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634995

RESUMO

The historic influence of interannual weather and climate variability on total mercury concentrations (THg) in the eggs of two species of Arctic seabird in the Canadian High Arctic was investigated. Time series of THg in the eggs of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) from Prince Leopold Island span 40 years (1975-2014), making these among the longest time series available for contaminants in Arctic wildlife and uniquely suitable for evaluation of long-term climate and weather influence. We compiled a suite of weather and climate time series reflecting atmospheric (air temperature, wind speed, sea level pressure) and oceanic (sea surface temperature, sea ice cover) conditions, atmosphere-ocean transfer (snow and rain), as well as broad-scale teleconnection indices such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We staggered these to the optimal time lag, then in a tiered approach of successive General Linear Models (GLMs), strategically added them to GLMs to identify possible key predictors and assess any main effects on THg concentrations. We investigated time lags of 0 to 10 years between weather/climate shifts and egg collections. For both fulmars and murres, after time lags of two to seven years, the most parsimonious models included NAO and temperature, and for murres, snowfall, while the fulmar model also included sea ice. Truncated versions of the datasets (2005-2014), reflective of typical time series length for THg in Arctic wildlife, were separately assessed and generally identified similar weather predictors and effects as the full time series, but not for NAO, indicating that longer time series are more effective at elucidating relationships with broad scale climate indices. Overall, the results suggest a significant and larger than expected effect of weather and climate on THg concentrations in Arctic seabirds.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes/metabolismo , Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Árticas
11.
Science ; 366(6463)2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624184

RESUMO

Our study quantified the global tree restoration potential and its associated carbon storage potential under existing climate conditions. We received multiple technical comments, both supporting and disputing our findings. We recognize that several issues raised in these comments are worthy of discussion. We therefore provide a detailed common answer where we show that our original estimations are accurate.


Assuntos
Clima , Árvores , Carbono , Mudança Climática
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3066-3074, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529882

RESUMO

The differentiation characteristics of landscape pattern affect the urban thermal environment. In this study, temperature characteristics of nine types of landscape in a national forest city, Longquan City, were analyzed by temperature inversion method and spatial analysis. The landscape pattern analysis method was used to explore the correlation of landscape metrics and the thermal environment from 1 km to 3.5 km. The results showed that the high and sub-high temperature zones of Longquan City were distributed in northeast-southwest, mainly composed of urban and rural residential areas. The low and sub-low temperature zone were mainly distributed in the northwest and southeast areas, mainly composed of public welfare forests. By calculating the mean land surface temperature of each landscape type in the area below 700 m above sea level, the temperature of coniferous forest, broadleaf forest, conifer-broadleaf forest, bamboo forest and water was relatively low, whereas that of shrub land, other forest land, cultivated land and construction land was relatively high. Through the analysis of landscape pattern and thermal environment, it was found that the class pattern index was more practical than the landscape pattern index. The correlation between thermal environment effect and construction land distribution reached 0.835, coniferous forest land, broadleaf forest land, coniferous-broadleaf forest land and water were the second, up to -0.5 to -0.4. The cooling effects of different forest types vaied across different spatial scales. Broadleaved forests and coniferous-broadleaved forests were more conducive to cooling at large scales. The larger the area and volume stock of forest land, the more likely it had the lowest land surface temperature.


Assuntos
Clima , Florestas , Temperatura Ambiente , China , Cidades
14.
Ambio ; 48(11): 1304-1313, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552643

RESUMO

We examine the abatement costs for water and climate pollutants and their respective policies while accounting for cobenefits. We construct private and social marginal cost curves for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient runoff in Finnish agriculture. We find that the social marginal costs of reducing emissions that reflect the cobenefits are lower than the private costs. Accounting for greenhouse gas cobenefits from nutrient load reduction or water cobenefits from climate emissions reduction creates a gap between privately and socially optimal reduction levels. This gap varies depending on the valuation of cobenefits. The cost-efficient reduction of the focus pollutant is increased when cobenefits from the other pollutant are accounted for. For policies, this implies a higher cap or tax on the focus pollutant. We decompose the optimal tax rate to a basic tax on the focus pollutant and on an additional tax component depending on the level of cobenefits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Água , Agricultura , Clima , Mudança Climática
15.
Water Res ; 166: 115028, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494489

RESUMO

There is an increasing need for coastal and marine ecosystems conservation. However, information to guide management decisions for coastal and marine ecosystems is still lacking. Considering the present advantages and limitations of existing ecosystem services valuation (ESV) accounting methods, this paper proposes a detailed donor-side accounting approach, based on emergy method, which could be used as the basis for better policies-making on coastal and marine conservation. In particular, this includes a classification of different ecosystems, a system for ecosystem services (ES) classification, ES formation mechanism, as well as accounting techniques. The ES classification system includes direct, indirect and existence services. Accounting techniques presented here can overcome common limitations in existing accounting methods: (1) double counting; (2) evaluation from the receiver perspective; (3) the inappropriate use and replacement of unit emergy value (UEV). The present method is applied to the evaluation of coastal and marine ecosystems in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. Results show that (1) the total coastal ESV decreased from 2000 to 2009 in the PRD area, among which water purification contributes most to the decrease, followed by soil building, climate regulation and microclimate regulation; (2) the coastal ecosystems have the largest potential to regulate climate whether at micro or macro scale; (3) the marine ESV decreased with the ratio of 42.37%, and biomass increase and carbon sequestration account for the decrease; (4) intertidal marshes has the largest ESV per unit area, followed by mangrove, coral reefs and rocky marine shores, while the marine ecosystem has the smallest ESV per unit area. As proved by the case study, this work can provide a basis for an accounting method for coastal and marine ESV assessment, which could serve to improve both the management decision making processes and policy indications through accurately valuing coastal and marine ES, leading to additional investment in conservation of these ecosystems.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Clima , Recifes de Corais
16.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109403, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499466

RESUMO

The world is experiencing serious soil losses. Soil erosion has become an important environmental problem in certain regions and is strongly affected by climate and land use changes. By selecting and reviewing 13 extensively used soil water erosion models (SWEMs) from the published literature, we summarize the current model-based knowledge on how climate factors (e.g., rainfall, freeze-thaw cycles, rainstorms, temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations) and land use change impact soil erosion worldwide. This study also provides a critical review of the application of these 13 SWEMs. By comparing model structures, features, prediction accuracies, and erosion processes, we recommend the most suitable SWEMs for different regions of the globe (Asia, Europe, Africa and the America) based on the evaluations of 13 SWEMs. Future soil erosion could be simulated using the RUSLE, LISEM, WEPP v2010.1, SWAT, EPIC, KINEROS and AGNPS models in Asia; the RUSLE, WEPP v2010.1, SWAT, EPIC, WATEM-SEDEM, MEFIDIS, AGNPS and AnnAGNPS models in Europe; the RUSLE, LISEM, SWAT, and AGNPS models in Africa; and the WEPP v2010.1, SWAT, EPIC, KINEROS, AGNPS and AnnAGNPS models in America. Finally, the limitations and challenges of the 13 SWEMs are highlighted.


Assuntos
Solo , Água , África , Ásia , Clima , Europa (Continente)
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1254-1267, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470488

RESUMO

Drought-induced forest dieback is causing reductions in productivity, increasing tree mortality and impairing terrestrial carbon uptake worldwide. However, the role played by long-term nutrient imbalances during drought-induced dieback is still unknown. To improve our knowledge on the relationships between dieback and nutrient imbalances, we analysed wood anatomical traits (tree-ring width and wood density), soil properties and long-term chemical information in tree-ring wood (1900-2010) by non-destructive Micro X-ray fluorescence (µXRF) and destructive (ICP-OES) techniques. We studied two major European conifers with ongoing drought-induced dieback in mesic (Abies alba, silver fir) and xeric (Pinus sylvestris, Scots pine) sites. In each site we compared coexisting declining (D) and non-declining (ND) trees. We used dendrochronology and generalized additive and linear mixed models to analyse trends in tree-ring nutrients and their relationships with wood traits. The D trees presented lower growth and higher minimum wood density than ND trees, corresponding to a smaller lumen area of earlywood tracheids and thus a lower theoretical hydraulic conductivity. These differences in growth and wood-anatomy were more marked in silver fir than in Scots pine. Moreover, most of the chemical elements showed higher concentrations in D than in ND trees during the last two-five decades (e.g., Mn, K and Mg), while Ca and Na increased in the sapwood of ND trees. The Mn concentrations, and related ratios (Ca:Mn, Mn:Al and P:Mn) showed the highest differences between D and ND trees for both tree species. These findings suggest that a reduced hydraulic conductivity, consistent with hydraulic impairment, is affecting the use of P in D trees, making them more prone to drought-induced damage. The retrospective quantifications of Mn ratios may be used as early-warning signals of impending dieback.


Assuntos
Secas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Abies , Clima , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Pinus sylvestris , Árvores
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 616, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493130

RESUMO

This study is the first meta-regression analysis of the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at the global level. Most of the regulating ecosystem services have not been properly estimated in terms of economic value and are also ignored in the everyday decision-making process. This study has reviewed 100 publications and included 275 economic value estimates. This study includes explanatory variables in the meta-analysis to account for these influences on the estimated economic value of regulating ecosystem services. This study has estimated the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at US$29.085 trillion for 2015. This study also has found that the values of climate and water regulations are the highest contributors to the total value of regulating ecosystem services. This study indicates that the results of meta-analysis might be helpful to decision-making with respect to three aspects: first, planning and management of urban green cover for sustainable cities; second, integration of the economic value of all the regulating ecosystem services; third, budget allocation for conservation and improvement of regulating ecosystem services for the present and future generations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Clima , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Recursos Hídricos
19.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 158(3-4): 107-111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416316

RESUMO

Tibolon is the only therapeutic approach to climacteric symptoms, prevention of osteoporosis and urogenital atrophy with the same efficacy as hormone replacement therapy. Tibolon has more positive effects on sexuality and mood changes in menopausal women. It decreases the mammographic density. Its safety for breast cancer is the same as for only estrogen therapy and better than for estrogen-gestagen therapy. Tibolon is the first choice for postmenopausal women with mood and sexuality disorders, women with mastodynia and high mammographic density.


Assuntos
Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico , Norpregnenos , Osteoporose , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Clima , Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico/efeitos adversos , Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Norpregnenos/efeitos adversos , Norpregnenos/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Progestinas
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 160, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation has long been the concern of biologists. Identifying these adaptive genetic variabilities is crucial not only to improve our knowledge of the genetic mechanism of local adaptation but also to explore the adaptation potential of species. RESULTS: Using 10 natural populations and 12 start codon targeted (SCoT) markers, a total of 430 unambiguous loci were yielded. The Bayesian analysis of population structure clearly demonstrated that the 10 populations of P. bungeana could be subdivided into three groups. Redundancy analysis showed that this genetic divergence was caused by divergence selection from environmental variables related to the ecological habitats of "avoidance of flooding" and "avoidance of high temperature and humidity." LFMM results indicated that Bio1, Bio5, Bio8, Bio12, Bio14, and Bio16, which are related to the ecological habitat of P. bungeana, were correlated with the highest numbers of environment-associated loci (EAL). CONCLUSIONS: The results of EAL characterization in P. bungeana clearly supported the hypothesis that environmental variations related to the ecological habitat of species are the key drivers of species adaptive divergence. Moreover, a method to calculate the species landscape adaptation index and quantify the adaptation potential of species was proposed and verified using ecological niche modeling. This model could estimate climatically suitable areas of species spatial distribution. Taking the results together, this study improves the current understanding on the genetic basis of local adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Pinus/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Clima , Deriva Genética , Loci Gênicos , Genética Populacional , Geografia
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