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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(5): 954-966, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031073

RESUMO

The sewage treatment system in this study was operated with only the first stage of a French system of vertical wetlands, composed of two units in parallel and running with an extended feeding cycle (7 days). This research sought to evaluate and relate continuous variables measured in situ (dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and redox potential) throughout the feeding cycle, with measurements at distinct heights along the filter vertical profile. Additionally, the influence of the surface organic sludge deposit was investigated. A close link between the hydraulic behaviour and the effluent quality was verified, with both being related to the batch volume and the instantaneous hydraulic loading rate. The drop in DO as the feed days progressed could be related to the loss of hydraulic conductivity. A thicker sludge layer decreased the aeration capacity of the filter. The effluent was observed to be aerated when percolating through the medium. DO and pH data suggested that nitrification varied along the filter depth, the batch duration and the feed cycle. The monitored parameters may be indicative of the behaviour of other parameters.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Áreas Alagadas , Clima , Nitrificação , Oxigênio
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e213, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921332

RESUMO

Although the African continent is, for the moment, less impacted than the rest of the world, it still faces the risk of a spread of COVID-19. In this study, we have conducted a systematic review of the information available in the literature in order to provide an overview of the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19 pandemic in West Africa and of the impact of risk factors such as comorbidities, climatic conditions and demography on the pandemic. Burkina Faso is used as a case study to better describe the situation in West Africa. The epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in West Africa is marked by a continuous increase in the numbers of confirmed cases. This geographic area had on 29 July 2020, 131 049 confirmed cases by polymerase chain reaction, 88 305 recoveries and 2102 deaths. Several factors may influence the SARS-CoV-2 circulation in Africa: (i) comorbidities: diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure could lead to an increase in the number of severe cases of SARS-CoV-2; (ii) climatic factors: the high temperatures could be a factor contributing to slow the spread of the virus and (iii) demography: the West Africa population is very young and this could be a factor limiting the occurrence of severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in West Africa is relatively slow compared to European countries, vigilance must remain. Difficulties in access to diagnostic tests, lack of hospital equipment, but also the large number of people working in the informal sector (such as trading, businesses, transport and restoration) makes it difficult to apply preventive measures, namely physical distancing and containment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Administração de Caso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clima , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1238-1252, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931042

RESUMO

PREMISE: The impact of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and climate warming on plant productivity in dryland ecosystems is influenced strongly by soil moisture availability. We predicted that the influence of warming on the stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated [CO2 ] in prairie plants would operate primarily through direct and indirect effects on soil water. METHODS: We measured light-saturated photosynthesis (Anet ), stomatal conductance (gs ), maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax ), maximum electron transport capacity (Jmax ) and related variables in four C3 plant species in the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in southeastern Wyoming. Measurements were conducted over two growing seasons that differed in the amount of precipitation and soil moisture content. RESULTS: Anet in the C3 subshrub Artemisia frigida and the C3 forb Sphaeralcea coccinea was stimulated by elevated [CO2 ] under ambient and warmed temperature treatments. Warming by itself reduced Anet in all species during the dry year, but stimulated photosynthesis in S. coccinea in the wet year. In contrast, Anet in the C3 grass Pascopyrum smithii was not stimulated by elevated [CO2 ] or warming under wet or dry conditions. Photosynthetic downregulation under elevated [CO2 ] in this species countered the potential stimulatory effect under improved water relations. Warming also reduced the magnitude of CO2 -induced down-regulation in this grass, possibly by sustaining high levels of carbon utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Direct and indirect effects of elevated [CO2 ] and warming on soil water was an overriding factor influencing patterns of Anet in this semi-arid temperate grassland, emphasizing the important role of water relations in driving grassland responses to global change.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Clima , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Solo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4721, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948775

RESUMO

The importance of soil age as an ecosystem driver across biomes remains largely unresolved. By combining a cross-biome global field survey, including data for 32 soil, plant, and microbial properties in 16 soil chronosequences, with a global meta-analysis, we show that soil age is a significant ecosystem driver, but only accounts for a relatively small proportion of the cross-biome variation in multiple ecosystem properties. Parent material, climate, vegetation and topography predict, collectively, 24 times more variation in ecosystem properties than soil age alone. Soil age is an important local-scale ecosystem driver; however, environmental context, rather than soil age, determines the rates and trajectories of ecosystem development in structure and function across biomes. Our work provides insights into the natural history of terrestrial ecosystems. We propose that, regardless of soil age, changes in the environmental context, such as those associated with global climatic and land-use changes, will have important long-term impacts on the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems across biomes.


Assuntos
Biota , Ecossistema , Solo/química , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Clima , Fungos/classificação , Microbiota , Plantas/classificação , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977546

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the most severe global health and socioeconomic crisis of our time, and represents the greatest challenge faced by the world since the end of the Second World War. The academic literature indicates that climatic features, specifically temperature and absolute humidity, are very important factors affecting infectious pulmonary disease epidemics - such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS); however, the influence of climatic parameters on COVID-19 remains extremely controversial. The goal of this study is to individuate relationships between several climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation, solar radiation, evaporation, and wind direction and intensity), local morphological parameters, and new daily positive swabs for COVID-19, which represents the only parameter that can be statistically used to quantify the pandemic. The daily deaths parameter was not considered, because it is not reliable, due to frequent administrative errors. Daily data on meteorological conditions and new cases of COVID-19 were collected for the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) from 1 March, 2020 to 20 April, 2020. This region exhibited the largest rate of official deaths in the world, with a value of approximately 1700 per million on 30 June 2020. Moreover, the apparent lethality was approximately 17% in this area, mainly due to the considerable housing density and the extensive presence of industrial and craft areas. Both the Mann-Kendall test and multivariate statistical analysis showed that none of the considered climatic variables exhibited statistically significant relationships with the epidemiological evolution of COVID-19, at least during spring months in temperate subcontinental climate areas, with the exception of solar radiation, which was directly related and showed an otherwise low explained variability of approximately 20%. Furthermore, the average temperatures of two highly representative meteorological stations of Molise and Lucania (Southern Italy), the most weakly affected by the pandemic, were approximately 1.5 °C lower than those in Bergamo and Brescia (Lombardy), again confirming that a significant relationship between the increase in temperature and decrease in virulence from COVID-19 is not evident, at least in Italy.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Urbanização , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Temperatura
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 649, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 80,000 dengue cases including 215 deaths were reported nationally in less than 7 months between 2016 and 2017, a fourfold increase in the number of reported cases compared to the average number over 2010-2016. The region of Negombo, located in the Western province, experienced the greatest number of dengue cases in the country and is the focus area of our study, where we aim to capture the spatial-temporal dynamics of dengue transmission. METHODS: We present a statistical modeling framework to evaluate the spatial-temporal dynamics of the 2016-2017 dengue outbreak in the Negombo region of Sri Lanka as a function of human mobility, land-use, and climate patterns. The analysis was conducted at a 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution and a weekly temporal resolution. RESULTS: Our results indicate human mobility to be a stronger indicator for local outbreak clusters than land-use or climate variables. The minimum daily temperature was identified as the most influential climate variable on dengue cases in the region; while among the set of land-use patterns considered, urban areas were found to be most prone to dengue outbreak, followed by areas with stagnant water and then coastal areas. The results are shown to be robust across spatial resolutions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the potential value of using travel data to target vector control within a region. In addition to illustrating the relative relationship between various potential risk factors for dengue outbreaks, the results of our study can be used to inform where and when new cases of dengue are likely to occur within a region, and thus help more effectively and innovatively, plan for disease surveillance and vector control.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Clima , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Viagem
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 642, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935275

RESUMO

Monitoring vegetation change and their potential drivers are important to environmental management. Previous studies on vegetation change detection and driver discrimination were two independent fields. Specifically, change detection methods focus on nonlinear and linear change behaviors, i.e., abrupt change (AC) and gradual change (GC). But driver discrimination studies mainly used linear coupling models which rarely concerned the nonlinear behaviors of vegetation. The two diagnoses need be treated as sequential flow because they have inner causality mechanisms. Furthermore, ACs concealed in time series may induce over/under-estimate contributions from human. We chose the Yangtze River Basin of China (YRB) as a study area, first separated ACs from GCs using breaks for additive and seasonal trend method, then discriminated drivers of GCs using optimized Restrend method. Results showed that (1) 2.83% of YRB were ACs with hotspots in 1998 (30.2%), 2003 (10.4%), and 2002 (7.6%); 66.7% of YRB experienced GC with 94.8% of which were positive; and (2) climate induced more area but less dramatic GCs than human activities. Further analysis showed that temperature was the main climate driver to GCs, while human-induced GCs were related to local eco-policies. The widely occurring ACs in 1998 were related to the flooding catastrophe, while the dramatic ACs in sub-basin 12 in 2003 may result from urbanization. This paper provides clear insights on the vegetation changes and their drivers at a relatively long perspective (i.e., 34 years). Sequential combination of specifying different vegetation behaviors with driver analysis could improve driver characterizations, which is key to environmental assessment and management in YRB.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Rios , China , Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
8.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 68(5): 302-305, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948360

RESUMO

Following the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the alerts issued by the World Health Organization, for several months attention has been focused on Africa as a potentially severely endangered continent. A sizable number of African countries, mainly low and middle income, suffer from limited available resources, especially in critical care, and COVID-19 is liable to overwhelm their already fragile health systems. To effectively manage what is shaping up as a multidimensional crisis, the challenge unquestionably goes beyond the necessary upgrading of public health infrastructures. It is also a matter of anticipating and taking timely action with regard to factors that may mitigate the propagation of SARS-CoV2 and thereby cushion the shock of the pandemic on the African continent. While some of these factors are largely unmanageable (climate, geography…), several others (socio-cultural, religious, audio-visual, and potentially political…) could be more or less effectively dealt with by African governments and populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/economia , Controle de Infecções/história , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Áreas de Pobreza , Papel Profissional , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/história , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Responsabilidade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239385, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966315

RESUMO

Following its initial appearance in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quickly spread around the globe. Here, we evaluated the role of climate (temperature and precipitation), region-specific COVID-19 susceptibility (BCG vaccination factors, malaria incidence, and percentage of the population aged over 65 years), and human mobility (relative amounts of international visitors) in shaping the geographical patterns of COVID-19 case numbers across 1,020 countries/regions, and examined the sequential shift that occurred from December 2019 to June 30, 2020 in multiple drivers of the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases. Our regression model adequately explains the cumulative COVID-19 case numbers (per 1 million population). As the COVID-19 spread progressed, the explanatory power (R2) of the model increased, reaching > 70% in April 2020. Climate, host mobility, and host susceptibility to COVID-19 largely explained the variance among COVID-19 case numbers across locations; the relative importance of host mobility and that of host susceptibility to COVID-19 were both greater than that of climate. Notably, the relative importance of these factors changed over time; the number of days from outbreak onset drove COVID-19 spread in the early stage, then human mobility accelerated the pandemic, and lastly climate (temperature) propelled the phase following disease expansion. Our findings demonstrate that the COVID-19 pandemic is deterministically driven by climate suitability, cross-border human mobility, and region-specific COVID-19 susceptibility. The identification of these multiple drivers of the COVID-19 outbreak trajectory, based on mapping the spread of COVID-19, will contribute to a better understanding of the COVID-19 disease transmission risk and inform long-term preventative measures against this disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Análise de Regressão , Clima , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
10.
Sci Adv ; 6(36)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917614

RESUMO

Global strategies to halt the dual crises of biodiversity loss and climate change are often formulated separately, even though they are interdependent and risk failure if pursued in isolation. The Global Safety Net maps how expanded nature conservation addresses both overarching threats. We identify 50% of the terrestrial realm that, if conserved, would reverse further biodiversity loss, prevent CO2 emissions from land conversion, and enhance natural carbon removal. This framework shows that, beyond the 15.1% land area currently protected, 35.3% of land area is needed to conserve additional sites of particular importance for biodiversity and stabilize the climate. Fifty ecoregions and 20 countries contribute disproportionately to proposed targets. Indigenous lands overlap extensively with the Global Safety Net. Conserving the Global Safety Net could support public health by reducing the potential for zoonotic diseases like COVID-19 from emerging in the future.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Clima , Planeta Terra , Ecossistema , Humanos , Saúde Pública
11.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127312, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947663

RESUMO

As recognized risk factor to pose a health threat to humans and wildlife globally, atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were collected from a North African coastal city (Bizerte, Tunisia) for one year, and were characterized for their chemical compositions, including mercury (HgPM), as well as organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)), organic carbon (OC) and organic nitrogen (ON), determined in a previous study. Then, we applied an in vitro reporter gene assay (DR-CALUX) to detect and quantify the dioxin-like activity of PM-associated organic contaminants. Results showed that average HgPM concentration over the entire sampling period was found to be 13.4 ± 12 pg m-3. Seasonal variation in the HgPM concentration was observed with lower values in spring and summer and higher values in winter and autumn due to the variation of meteorological conditions together with the emission sources. Principal component analysis suggested that fossil fuel combustion and a nearby cement factory were the dominant anthropogenic HgPM sources. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities were observed in all organic extracts of atmospheric PM from Bizerte city (388.3-1543.6 fg m-3), and shows significant positive correlations with all PM-associated organic contaminants. A significant proportion of dioxin-like activity of PM was related to PAHs. The dioxin-like activity followed the same trend as PM-associated organic contaminants, with higher dioxin-like activity in the cold season than in the warm season, indicating the advantage and utility of the use of bioassays in risk assessment of complex environmental samples.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Agricultura , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Clima , Dioxinas/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Estações do Ano , Tunísia
12.
J Environ Manage ; 263: 110292, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883484

RESUMO

This article analyzes different forest management strategies to meet the increasing demand of biomass for bioenergy and assesses the resulting global warming implications. Applied to maritime pine forest plantations in Portugal, the assessed strategies are: full harvest of residues (FULL); sustainable and proactive management (SMART); expansion of forest plantations on abandoned farmland (EXP); and biomass import (IMP). A dynamic CO2 inventory was obtained for each scenario using a parametric stand-level C-flux model adapted to Portuguese conditions, which was then extended to the landscape-level and coupled to a dynamic climate model. The time-adjusted absolute global warming potential (AGWP) was then calculated at both stand and landscape levels, considering the timing of all CO2 emissions and uptakes (both fossil and biogenic). To test the robustness of the findings, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Results show that, in a supply-constrained context like Portugal, SMART and EXP management strategies can provide important global warming mitigation benefits (GWPbio < 0), although their supply-response is slow (long-term strategies). On the other hand, FULL and IMP management strategies show moderate to null AGWP reduction potential (0 < GWPbio < 1), while involving other possible risks (e.g., exacerbated soil erosion, nutrient depletion or uncertain impacts abroad), but their supply-response is fast (short-term strategies). National forest regulations and energy policies should be revised to address the drawbacks related to all management strategies and to unleash the multiple environmental benefits they can provide in the short- and long-term.


Assuntos
Florestas , Aquecimento Global , Biomassa , Clima , Portugal
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201799, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962549

RESUMO

Seasonal animal migration is a widespread phenomenon. At the species level, it has been shown that many migratory animal species track similar climatic conditions throughout the year. However, it remains unclear whether such a niche tracking pattern is a direct consequence of individual behaviour or emerges at the population or species level through behavioural variability. Here, we estimated seasonal niche overlap and seasonal niche tracking at the individual and population level of central European white storks (Ciconia ciconia). We quantified niche tracking for both weather and climate conditions to control for the different spatio-temporal scales over which ecological processes may operate. Our results indicate that niche tracking is a bottom-up process. Individuals mainly track weather conditions while climatic niche tracking mainly emerges at the population level. This result may be partially explained by a high degree of intra- and inter-individual variation in niche overlap between seasons. Understanding how migratory individuals, populations and species respond to seasonal environments is key for anticipating the impacts of global environmental changes.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Aves , Clima , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20190046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876142

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu seasonal production (seasonality) and its variation (climate risk) yearlong throughout Brazil. Data from weather stations in Brazil (1963-2009), were associated with an empirical herbage accumulation rate (HAR; kg DM ha-1 day-1) model which considers growing degree-days adjusted by a drought attenuation index. Simulations were performed under 20, 40, 60 and 100 mm of soil water holding capacities (SWHCs). HAR's means and standard deviations were calculated for the seasons of the year. Thereafter, cluster analysis and calculations were performed to gather similar weather stations and characterize seasonality and climate risk indexes. Cluster analysis resulted in four Groups per SWHC. The north of Brazil (Group 1) presented the lowest seasonality and climate risk indexes and low need for precautions. In the middle west (Group 2), the seasonality index ranged from medium-high to high. Winter and Summer presented the lowest and highest production, respectively. In the south of Brazil, some regions in the southeast and northeast (Group 3), Winter presented the lowest production and highest climate risk index, probably due to low temperatures. The northeast (Group 4) presented a seasonality index that ranged from medium-high to very high and low productions.


Assuntos
Clima , Brachiaria , Brasil , Secas , Estações do Ano
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140303, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806352

RESUMO

The baseline conditions for a particular river or stream type are essential to classify aquatic ecosystems based on physical and biological characteristics. In this study, we proposed a river typology for different ecoregions, climate and topography of northwestern Argentina using parameters, and combined key variables to establish reference conditions. A set of geographical, hydro-morphological, hydrological, geological (pedology and sedimentology) and physicochemical variables were measured from different rivers and analyzed with clustering and ordination techniques to develop a typology. We analyzed the correspondence of the physical river conditions and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages using non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis, dissimilarity among assemblages, ANOSIM approach and envfit analysis in order to make an ecological validation of the classification. Our results allowed us to classify the neotropical rivers studied, according to typological systems adapted from the European Water Framework Directive. The combination of ecoregions and topography along with other variables associated (system B), was better corresponded with biological arrangements. Hence, ecoregions and topography combined turned out to be more precise as a criterion to define river types and their local abiotic and biotic reference conditions. Macroinvertebrate distribution corresponded with the classifications proposed and was related with abiotic features of the rivers. The physical variables as altitude, grain size, water temperature and turbidity were key parameters to develop a schematic model to define river types that could be implemented and tested in other countries of the region. Five river types have been identified, characterized, and included in three large groups: Mountains, Foothills, and Lowlands (Plains). Our results showed that topography and climate are two aspects that strongly influence South American freshwater biota. We propose the schematic model developed in our study as a baseline to define freshwater biomes based on altitude (topography), ecoregions (climate) and biological functional traits at a broad spatial scale (continental or global).


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Argentina , Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140295, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806390

RESUMO

This study presents an analysis of the thermo-hygrometric conditions in the city of Konya (Turkey). A one-year transversal field survey was carried out in the Selçuk University campus and 2295 valid questionnaires were collected. In each questionnaire, randomly selected interviewees provided personal information and judged their perception and thermal preference according to the ASHRAE 7-point and McIntyre scales, respectively. For each interviewee, a value of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) was calculated based on the values of operational variables obtained from the questionnaires and the environmental variables measured during the survey. This allowed to calculate the seasonal preferred and neutral PETs and the annual PET comfort range. Also, the scale of the PET thermal perception was determined for the Konya population and, more generally, for the inhabitants of the BSk Köppen-Geiger climate zone. Statistical analyzes carried out in terms of Variance Inflationary Factor, multicollinearity assessment and Best Subsets Analysis led to the identification of the Turkish Outdoor Comfort Index, an empirical index able to predict the average value of the thermal perception of a large group of individuals living in the aforementioned climate zone. Moreover, the equations of the Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) were obtained for each season.


Assuntos
Clima , Sensação Térmica , Cidades , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785524

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease that affects a range of animals, including humans caused by Fasciola hepatica. The present study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of bovine fasciolosis and to assess the correlation between the high Positivity Index (PI) and climate data and land altitude, from 2004 to 2008 and 2010 in Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. Condemned livers of slaughtered animals were obtained from 198 out of 293 municipalities and from 518.635 animals, exclusively from SC. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between the prevalence of F. hepatica and land altitude ( ρ ^ s = -0.43). The highest PI (above 10.1%) was observed in cities at 500 to 600 m (P < 0.01; ρ ^ s = -0.47) of altitude. There was no correlation between fascioliasis and rainfall in SC. It was determined that weather conditions in the past decade did not impose any limitation to the occurrence of the parasite, making it a disease of permanent clinical importance. These findings are essential to regions with similar geographical and climate conditions (i.e. altitude), when considering long-term control measurements, where animals and humans can be infected.


Assuntos
Altitude , Doenças dos Bovinos , Clima , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8226-8231, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the climate has played a role in the COVID-19 outbreak, we compared virus lethality in countries closer to the Equator with others. Lethality in European territories and in territories of some nations with a non-temperate climate was also compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lethality was calculated as the rate of deaths in a determinate moment from the outbreak of the pandemic out of the total of identified positives for COVID-19 in a given area/nation, based on the COVID-John Hopkins University website. Lethality of countries located within the 5th parallels North/South on 6 April and 6 May 2020, was compared with that of all the other countries. Lethality in the European areas of The Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom was also compared to the territories of the same nations in areas with a non-temperate climate. RESULTS: A lower lethality rate of COVID-19 was found in Equatorial countries both on April 6 (OR=0.72 CI 95% 0.66-0.80) and on May 6 (OR=0.48, CI 95% 0.47-0.51), with a strengthening over time of the protective effect. A trend of higher risk in European vs. non-temperate areas was found on April 6, but a clear difference was evident one month later: France (OR=0.13, CI 95% 0.10-0.18), The Netherlands (OR=0.5, CI 95% 0.3-0.9) and the UK (OR=0.2, CI 95% 0.01-0.51). This result does not seem to be totally related to the differences in age distribution of different sites. CONCLUSIONS: The study does not seem to exclude that the lethality of COVID-19 may be climate sensitive. Future studies will have to confirm these clues, due to potential confounding factors, such as pollution, population age, and exposure to malaria.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Betacoronavirus , Brunei/epidemiologia , Burundi/epidemiologia , Congo/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Guiné Equatorial/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , França/epidemiologia , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ilhas do Oceano Índico/epidemiologia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Micronésia/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Samoa/epidemiologia , São Tomé e Príncipe/epidemiologia , Seicheles/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Somália/epidemiologia , Timor-Leste/epidemiologia , Clima Tropical , Uganda/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8232-8238, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global public health crisis with social, psychological and long-lasting economical damages. Weather-related dynamics have an impact on the pattern of human health and disease. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of heat and humidity on daily basis incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 pandemic in ten of the world's hottest countries compared to ten of the coldest ones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worldwide, we selected 20 countries; 10 hottest countries with the highest temperatures and 10 coldest countries with the lowest temperature. The selection of the countries was based on the daily basis mean temperature from the date of appearance of the initial cases of COVID-19, Dec 29, 2019 to May 12, 2020. In the world's 10 hottest countries, the mean temperature was (26.31±1.51) and humidity (44.67±4.97). However, in the world's 10 coldest countries the mean temperature was (6.19±1.61) and humidity (57.26±2.35). The data on the global outbreak of COVID-19, daily new cases and deaths were recorded from World Health Organization, and daily information on temperature and humidity was obtained from metrological web "Time and Date". RESULTS: In countries with high temperatures and low humidity, the mean daily cases incidence were (407.12±24.33); cumulative cases (9094.34±708.29); and cumulative deaths (452.84±43.30) were significantly low compared to countries with low temperatures and high humidity: daily cases (1876.72±207.37); cumulative cases (44232.38±5875.11); and cumulative deaths (2008.29±310.13). Moreover, COVID-19 cases and deaths per million population were significantly low in countries with high temperatures (cases 711.23, and deaths 16.27) compared to countries with low temperatures (cases 1685.99; and deaths 86.40). Furthermore, in hottest countries, a 1% increase in humidity reduced number of cases and deaths by (ß = -5.40, p<0.001) and (ß = -0.187, p=0.004) respectively. A similar trend was seen with a 1°C increase in temperature, reducing the number of deaths by (ß = -1.35. p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed a significant decrease in incidence of daily cases and deaths in countries with high temperatures and low humidity (warmest countries), compared to those countries with low temperatures and high humidity (coldest countries). The findings could be of interest to the policymakers and the health officials on the epidemiological trends of COVID-19 pandemic and weather changes.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estônia/epidemiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Kuweit/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Omã/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , República de Belarus/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756428

RESUMO

The management of the COVID-19 pandemic presents several unprecedented challenges in different fields, from medicine to biology, from public health to social science, that may benefit from computing methods able to integrate the increasing available COVID-19 and related data (e.g., pollution, demographics, climate, etc.). With the aim to face the COVID-19 data collection, harmonization and integration problems, we present the design and development of COVID-WAREHOUSE, a data warehouse that models, integrates and stores the COVID-19 data made available daily by the Italian Protezione Civile Department and several pollution and climate data made available by the Italian Regions. After an automatic ETL (Extraction, Transformation and Loading) step, COVID-19 cases, pollution measures and climate data, are integrated and organized using the Dimensional Fact Model, using two main dimensions: time and geographical location. COVID-WAREHOUSE supports OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) analysis, provides a heatmap visualizer, and allows easy extraction of selected data for further analysis. The proposed tool can be used in the context of Public Health to underline how the pandemic is spreading, with respect to time and geographical location, and to correlate the pandemic to pollution and climate data in a specific region. Moreover, public decision-makers could use the tool to discover combinations of pollution and climate conditions correlated to an increase of the pandemic, and thus, they could act in a consequent manner. Case studies based on data cubes built on data from Lombardia and Puglia regions are discussed. Our preliminary findings indicate that COVID-19 pandemic is significantly spread in regions characterized by high concentration of particulate in the air and the absence of rain and wind, as even stated in other works available in literature.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Data Warehousing , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública , Vento
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