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1.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108834

RESUMO

Clitoria ternatea (commonly known as blue pea) flower petal extract (CTE) is used as a natural colorant in a variety of foods and beverages. The objective of study was to determine the inhibitory effect of CTE on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The phytochemical profiles of CTE were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Anti-adipogenesis effect of CTE was measured by using Oil Red O staining, intracellular triglyceride assay, quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cell cycle studies were performed by flow cytometry. Lipolysis experiments were performed using a colorimetric assay kit. In early stages, CTE demonstrated anti-adipogenic effects through inhibition of proliferation and cell cycle retardation by suppressing expression of phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results also showed that CTE inhibited the late stage of differentiation through diminishing expression of adipogenic transcription factors including PPARγ and C/EBPα. The inhibitory action was subsequently attenuated in downregulation of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, causing the reduction of TG accumulation. In addition, CTE also enhanced catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. These results suggest that CTE effectively attenuates adipogenesis by controlling cell cycle progression and downregulating adipogenic gene expression.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Clitoria/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Flores/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipólise , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
2.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 22(3): 117-126, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several plants have been commonly used in Thailand for health improvement, but the phytochemical content and its bio-activities are not yet elucidated completely. The aim of this research was to study the influence of extraction method on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of representative plants such as Punica granatum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, leistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr., litoria ternatea Linn., Mulberry and Oryza sativa L. indica. METHODOLOGY: The samples were subjected to different extraction procedures. The TPC and phenolic compounds were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay and HPLC, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was measured by 2, 2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and ferrous ion (Fe2+) chelating assay. RESULTS: The maximum TPC was observed in pomegranate peel (TTP) extract (0.1 M HCl: Ethanol extraction) and low TPC was recorded in aqueous extract of butterfly pea flower (BP) samples. The high content of protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid were observed in pomegranate seed and seed coat (TTS). Gallic and syringic acids were found to be rich in pomegranate peel (TTP) and flower of butterfly pea (BP), respectively. Roselle flower samples (KJ) showed high content of chlorogenic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids. CONCLUSION: The maximum antioxidant activity was observed in extracts obtained by 0.1 M HCl: Ethanol extraction methods, especially pomegranate peel exhibited high free radical scavenging activity compared to that of the other samples. The results strongly revealed that the extraction method greatly influences the phytochemical content and bioactivity and strongly recommends that any plant samples, intended to study, must undergo several extraction processes to reveal the actual phytochemical content.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Fenol/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Clitoria/química , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Ácido Gálico/análise , Hibiscus/química , Lythraceae/química , Morus/química , Oryza/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química , Syzygium/química , Tailândia
3.
Cryo Letters ; 40(1): 28-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clitoria ternatea is a brain revitalizing legume, with immense pharmacological value including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. The lack of a commercial cultivation has led to its' over collection from the wild to meet the demand of herbal pharmaceutical sector and the species is now rare in the wild. Hence, the plant needs to be conserved. Cryopreservation of the species would supplement the conventional conservation strategies in the field or seed bank. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evolve an efficient and simple protocol for the cryopreservation of Clitoria ternatea using an encapsulation-dehydration technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vitro culture system via axillary shoot proliferation was developed using nodal segments in MS medium and optimization of the levels of cytokinins and auxins. Calcium alginate encapsulated axillary buds were subjected to 0-5 h of dehydration, to determine the optimum drying time and moisture content for effective cryopreservation. RESULTS: The beads dehydrated for 4 h to 20.1 % moisture content had 60 % survival after freezing in LN, of which 65 % regrew. Based on RAPD analysis, the plants regrowing after cryostorage were genetically stable. CONCLUSION: A simple and efficient cryopreservation protocol has been established for C. ternatea using an encapsulation-dehydration technique, and this could be effectively utilized for germplasm conservation of this species.


Assuntos
Clitoria , Criopreservação , Brotos de Planta , Dessecação , Congelamento , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
4.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 51: 12-19, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514481

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of ultrasound on bioactive compounds and biological activities of blue butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea L.). For this purpose, optimized conditions (temperature 50 °C, time 150 min, solid to liquid ratio 1 g:15 ml, 70% amplitude and 240 W, 20 kHz frequency, 3 s on and 3 s off) of ultrasound (US) and conventional extraction (AGE: Agitation, water bath for 150 min, 50 °C at 150 rmp) were used. The results showed significant (p < 0.05) effect of US and AGE on total phenolics (TPCs), flavonoids (TFCs) and antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, reducing activity, Cu2+ and H2O2) of butterfly pea flower extract (BPFE). The results showed an increased trend in yield, TPCs, TFCs and antioxidant activities of US treated BPFE with comparison to AGE. However, insignificant (p > 0.05) effect of US and AGE over TFlaCs and PACs were observed. Moreover, the results of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed little changes in spectrum and US does not affect the functional group of bioactive compounds structure. Additionally, extracts (500-2000 µg/ml) protect pBR322 plasmid DNA damage induced by (1 mM H2O2 and 1 mM FeSO4), plasma oxidation (induced by 250 µM CuCl2) and inhibit erythrocyte hemolysis (induced by 200 mM AAPH, 34.6 to 66.73%). Sonication can be applied successfully for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials with high biological activities.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Clitoria/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 211: 108-113, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530062

RESUMO

The binding of an extract from the flowers of Clitoria ternatea L. to the digestive enzyme α-amylase was investigated. This extract is a mixture of flavonoids, including anthocyanins, and has been previously shown to inhibit the activity this enzyme. This has implications for modulating starch digestion. In order to investigate the kinetics, we made use of time-resolved fluorescence to simultaneously monitor two different emission bands emanating from the extract. This measurement was enabled by the use of a "photon streaming" approach and changes in fluorescence lifetime and intensity were used to follow the interaction. A longer wavelength band (655 nm) was ascribed to anthocyanins in the mixture and these were observed to bind at a rate an order of magnitude slower than other flavonoids present in the extract, monitored at a shorter wavelength (485 nm). Changes in the fluorescence emission of the extract upon binding were further assessed by the use of decay associated spectra.


Assuntos
Clitoria/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/química , Cinética , Fótons , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Amido/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/química
6.
Folia Neuropathol ; 56(3): 206-214, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Perinatal maternal separation stress (PMSS) induces brain lipid peroxidation and reduction in endogenous antioxidants. The present study was designed to assess the brain oxidative stress (MDA) and protein thiol levels through various stages of aging in PMSS rat pups supplemented with choline with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or Clitoria ternatea (Linn) aqueous root extract (CTR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study groups, control, PMSS, PMSS + choline with DHA, PMSS + CTR (n = 6/group) were included in the study. Pups of PMSS groups were separated from their mothers for a period of 6 h/day for 30 days. PMSS + supplemented groups were treated as appropriate during the same period. Rats were sacrificed on day 30, 60, 90, 210 and 360. Brains were processed for MDA and protein thiol levels. RESULTS: Brain MDA levels were significantly increased in PMSS rats at day 30, 60 (p < 0.001), 90 (p < 0.01) and attenuated in PMSS pups supplemented with choline with DHA and CTR at day 30, 60 (p < 0.01), 90 (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) and 360 (p < 0.001) when compared to the same in age-matched controls and PMSS rats, respectively. Alternatively, brain protein thiol levels in PMSS rats were reduced in all age groups when compared to the same in age-matched controls. A significant increase in brain thiol levels was observed in supplemented groups at day 60 (p < 0.01) and 210 (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) when compared to the same in age-matched PMSS rats. CONCLUSIONS: PMSS causes enhanced brain lipid peroxidation (MDA levels) and reduces endogenous antioxidants. Supplementation of choline and DHA or CTR during PMSS in rats persistently attenuates brain oxidative stress through aging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Colina/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Privação Materna , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clitoria , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 164: 50-60, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096603

RESUMO

Air pollutants especially polyaromatic hydrocarbons pose countless threats to the environment. This issue demands for an effective phytoremediation technology. In this study we report the beneficial interactions of Clitoria ternatea and its plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria Bacillus cereus ERBP by inoculating it for the remediation of 5 ppm airborne ethylbenzene (EB). The percentage efficiency for ethylbenzene removal among B. cereus ERBP inoculated and non-inoculated sterile and natural C. ternatea has also been determined. The inoculation of B. cereus ERBP has significantly increased EB removal efficiency of both sterile and natural C. ternatea. The inoculated natural C. ternatea seedlings showed 100% removal efficiency within 84 h for the aforementioned pollutant compared with the sterile inoculated C. ternatea seedlings (108 h). The degradation of EB by C. ternatea seedlings with and without B. cereus ERBP was assessed by measuring the intermediates of EB including 1-phenylethanol, acetophenon, benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. In addition, cytochrome P450s monooxygenase (CYP83D1) and dehydrogenases (LOC100783159) involved in the oxidation of hydrocarbons are well reported for their bio catalytic activities under xenobiotic stress conditions. Hence, the co-effect of the native endophyte B. cereus ERBP inoculation and EB exposure on the expression level of CYP83D1 and dehydrogenase were also determined. The targeted genes CYP83D1and dehydrogenases have shown an increased expression level under the 5 ppm of EB exposure enabling C. ternatea to withstand and remediate the pollutant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Bacillus cereus/fisiologia , Derivados de Benzeno/metabolismo , Clitoria/metabolismo , Clitoria/microbiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clitoria/genética , Endófitos , Genes de Plantas
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 224: 381-390, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920356

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clitoria ternatea L. (CT), commonly known as Butterfly pea, is used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine to promote brain function and treat mental disorders. Root of CT has been proven to enhance memory, but its role in an animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), which has been considered as a major cause of brain disorders, has yet to be explored. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the motor and cognitive effects of acute oral administration of CT root methanolic extract and hippocampal long-term plasticity in the CA1 region of the CCH rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats (200-300 g) were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries (PBOCCA) or sham operation. Then, these rats were given oral administration of CT root extract at doses of 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg on day 28 post-surgery and tested using behavioural tests (open-field test, passive avoidance task, and Morris water maze) and electrophysiological recordings (under urethane anaesthesia). RESULTS: Treatment with CT root extract at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg resulted in a significant enhancement in memory performance in CCH rats induced by PBOCCA. Furthermore, CCH resulted in inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) formation in the hippocampus, and CT root extract rescued the LTP impairment. The CT root extract was confirmed to improve the glutamate-induced calcium increase via calcium imaging using primary cultured rat neurons. No significance difference was found in the CaMKII expression. These results demonstrated that CT root extract ameliorates synaptic function, which may contribute to its improving effect on cognitive behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated an improving effect of CT root extract on memory in the CCH rat model suggesting that CT root extract could be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent the progression of cognitive deterioration in vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Clitoria , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Raízes de Plantas , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 224: 15-26, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787795

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clitoria ternatea flower is traditionally used in the treatment of respiratory disorders including bronchitis and is one of the ingredients in different Ayurvedic preparations that are used in respiratory disorders. However, till date there is no scientific report on the anti-asthmatic activity of this flower. AIM OF THE STUDY: Ethanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea flowers (ECT) was evaluated for its anti-allergy and anti-tussive potential in experimental animals. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory potential of ECT was carried out to draw a plausible mechanism of action of the drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In-vitro anti-asthmatic activity of ECT was evaluated in goat tracheal chain and isolated guinea pig ileum preparations. Acute and chronic anti-asthmatic activity of ECT (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o.) was estimated in histamine aerosol exposed guinea pigs and in OVA sensitized and challenged mice respectively. Anti-tussive activity of ECT (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o.) was evaluated against sulfur dioxide- and citric acid-induced cough in experimental animals. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of ECT (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o.) was evaluated against carrageenan- and acetic acid-induced inflammation in rats. RESULTS: ECT attenuated histamine-induced contraction in both goat tracheal chain and isolated guinea pig ileum preparations. ECT (400 mg/kg) attenuated histamine-induced dyspnoea and OVA-induced changes in differential cell count in broncheoalveolar fluid, levels of interleukins (IL-1beta and IL-6) and immunoglobulin (OVA-sensitive IgG1) in animals. ECT (400 mg/kg) further ameliorated sulfur dioxide- and citric acid-induced cough in experimental animals. Additionally, ECT (400 mg/kg) attenuated inflammation in carrageenan and acetic acid challenged rodents. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized ECT could be considered as a potential therapeutic alternative in the management of allergy-induced asthma.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico , Clitoria , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antialérgicos/análise , Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antitussígenos/análise , Antitussígenos/farmacologia , Asma/sangue , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Flores , Cabras , Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Cobaias , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueia/fisiologia
10.
Ther Deliv ; 9(5): 359-374, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681233

RESUMO

AIM: An anthocyanin complex (AC), combined Zea mays and Clitoria ternatea extracts, was evaluated for topical oral wound healing in rats and a clinical trial in orthodontic patients. METHODS/RESULTS: AC enhanced anthocyanin permeation in vitro. In rats, 10% w/w of AC in a mucoadhesive gel (AG) reduced erythema and sizes of oral wounds after topical applications at higher extent than its placebo gel. Acute orthodontic wounds in 68 volunteers were randomly assigned to topically receive either AG or placebo gel and double-blind assessed. Wound size reduction and wound closure enhancement were obvious in AG-treated group on day 3 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: At 10% w/w, AC promoted wound closure and possessed a potential in healing stimulation of acute oral wounds.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Mucosa Bucal/lesões , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estomatite sob Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração através da Mucosa , Adulto , Animais , Antocianinas/uso terapêutico , Clitoria/química , Método Duplo-Cego , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Braquetes Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estomatite sob Prótese/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zea mays/química
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1719: 379-393, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476526

RESUMO

Plant cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) constitute a majority of plant-derived peptides with high molecular diversity. This protocol describes a rapid and efficient peptidomic approach to identify a whole spectrum of CRPs in a plant extract and decipher their molecular diversity and bioprocessing mechanism. Cyclotides from C. ternatea are used as the model CRPs to demonstrate our methodology. Cyclotides exist naturally in both cyclic and linear forms, although the linear forms (acyclotide) are generally present at much lower concentrations. Both cyclotides and acyclotides require linearization of their backbone prior to fragmentation and sequencing. A novel and practical three-step chemoenzymatic treatment was developed to linearize and distinguish both forms: (1) N-terminal acetylation that pre-labels the acyclotides; (2) conversion of Cys into pseudo-Lys through aziridine-mediated S-alkylation to reduce disulfide bonds and to increase the net charge of peptides; and (3) opening of cyclic backbones by the novel asparaginyl endopeptidase butelase 2 that cleaves at the native bioprocessing site. The treated peptides are subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using electron transfer dissociation fragmentation and sequences are identified by matching the MS/MS spectra directly with the transcriptomic database.


Assuntos
Clitoria/metabolismo , Cisteína/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma
12.
Phytother Res ; 32(6): 1064-1072, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464849

RESUMO

The traditional practice of eating the flowers of Clitoria ternatea L. or drinking their infusion as herbal tea in some of the Asian countries is believed to promote a younger skin complexion and defend against skin aging. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of C. ternatea flower water extract (CTW) against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and ultraviolet (UV)-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human keratinocytes. The protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay, and mtDNA damage induced by UV was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Preincubation of HaCaT with 100, 250, and 500 µg/ml CTW reduced cytotoxicity effects of H2 O2 compared with control (H2 O2 alone). CTW also significantly reduced mtDNA damage in UV-exposed HaCaT (p < .05). CTW was chemically-characterized using high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds detected were assigned as anthocyanins derived from delphinidin, including polyacylated ternatins, and flavonol glycosides derived from quercetin and kaempferol. These results demonstrated the protective effects of C. ternatea flower extracts that contain polyacylated anthocyanins and flavonol glycosides as major constituents, against H2 O2 and UV-induced oxidative stress on skin cells, and may provide some explanation for the putative traditional and cosmetic uses of C. ternatea flower against skin aging.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Clitoria/química , DNA Mitocondrial/efeitos adversos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 6, 2018 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clitoria ternatea L., a natural food-colorant containing anthocyanin, demonstrated antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Clitoria ternatea flower extract (CTE) on postprandial plasma glycemia response and antioxidant status in healthy men. METHODS: In a randomized, crossover study, 15 healthy men (ages 22.53 ± 0.30 years; with body mass index of 21.57 ± 0.54 kg/m2) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 1 g CTE in 400 mL of water; (3) 2 g CTE in 400 mL of water; (4) 50 g sucrose and 1 g CTE in 400 mL of water; and (5) 50 g sucrose and 2 g CTE in 400 mL of water. Incremental postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, uric acid, antioxidant capacities and lipid peroxidation were measured during 3 h of administration. RESULTS: After 30 min ingestion, the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels were suppressed when consuming sucrose plus 1 g and 2 g CTE. In addition, consumption of CTE alone did not alter plasma glucose and insulin concentration in the fasting state. The significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and protein thiol) and the decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level were observed in the subjects who received 1 g and 2 g CTE. Furthermore, consumption of CTE protected sucrose-induced reduction in ORAC and TEAC and increase in plasma MDA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that an acute ingestion of CTE increases plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in the fasting state. It also improves postprandial glucose, insulin and antioxidant status when consumed with sucrose. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thai Clinical Trials Registry: TCTR20170609003 . Registered 09 September 2017. 'retrospectively registered'.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Clitoria/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Bebidas , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 210: 209-222, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826781

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is a traditionally used herb in arthritis, and its anti-arthritic activity has been attributed to polyphenols (e.g. quercetins) from its flower petal. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was designed to investigate whether C. ternatea or quercetin-3ß-D-glucoside (QG) support the antibody mediated TNFα-receptor 1 (TNFR1) neutralization to ameliorate arthritis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in male Swiss mice (20-22g, 3-4 weeks of age) was followed by estimation of synovial polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) accumulation (in terms of myeloperoxidase activity), synovial and systemic release of cytokines, chemokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), biochemical estimation of synovial free radical generation and antioxidant status, as well as immunoblot assessment of synovial TNFR1, toll-like receptor 2(TLR2), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression; and zymographic analysis of synovial matrix-metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) activity. RESULTS: CIA was induced from day 2 post-secondary immunizations as evidenced from arthritic scores and joint swelling in parallel to increased inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in synovial joints. Long term supplementation with extract from Clitoria ternatea flower petals CTE (50mg/kg) and QG (2.5mg/kg) upto 24 days post booster immunization augmented anti-arthritic potential of TNFR1 neutralization with anti-TNFR1 antibody (10µg per mice) in terms of reduced MPO activity, decrease in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/ reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production in parallel to significant (p<0.05) reduction in TNFR1, TLR2, iNOS, COX-2 and MMP-2 expression. CONCLUSION: CTE and QG possess potential anti-arthritic activity which targets synovial MMP-2 in arthritic joints and TNFR1 targeting followed by CTE or QG treatment might become a combinatorial approach in future therapeutic research in treatment of arthritis.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Clitoria/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antirreumáticos/isolamento & purificação , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Flores , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Líquido Sinovial/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo
15.
Revista Fitos Eletrônica ; 12(1): 83-89, 2018.
Artigo em Português | MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-882185

RESUMO

Clitoria fairchildiana (synonym Clitoria racemosa) is a tree belonging to the Leguminosae family growing in several Brazilian regions and it has in its composition rotenoids with unusual structures. The aim of this work is to determinate the antimicrobial activity rotenoids from C. fairchildiana. Clitoriacetal, 6-desoxyclitoriacetal, stemonal and stemonone were isolated from the roots and 11-desoxyclitoriacetal from seeds by different chromatographic techniques and identified by spectrometric data analyzes. The antimicrobial activity was obtained using different culture media and the results confirm the importance of the junction of the ring B/C and the pattern of hydroxylation of these compounds in antifungal activities. This is the first time antimicrobial activities of these rotenoids were determined.(AU)


Clitoria fairchildiana (sinônimo Clitoria racemosa) é uma árvore da família Leguminosa encontrada em várias regiões brasileiras e possui na sua composição rotenoides de estruturas não usuais. O objetivo do presente trabalho é determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de cinco rotenoides isolados das raízes e sementes da C. fairchildiana. Clitoriacetal, 6-desoxiclitoriacetal, stemonal e stemonona foram isolados das raízes e o 11- desoxiclitoriacetal isolado das sementes por meio de diferentes técnicas cromatográficas e identificados através da análise de dados espectrométricos. A atividade antimicrobiana foi obtida utilizando diferentes meios de cultura e os resultados confirmam a importância da junção do anel B/C e o padrão de hidroxilação dos rotenoides na atividade antifúngica. Este é o primeiro relato de atividades antimicrobianas de rotenoides de Clitoria.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Antifúngicos/química , Clitoria/microbiologia , Fitoterapia , Rotenona/isolamento & purificação , Clitoria/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Rotenona/análogos & derivados , Sementes/química
16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(27): 7822-7825, 2017 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28524544

RESUMO

Butelase-mediated ligation (BML) can be used to modify live bacterial cell surfaces with diverse cargo molecules. Surface-displayed butelase recognition motif NHV was first introduced at the C-terminal end of the anchoring protein OmpA on E. coli cells. This then served as a handle of BML for the functionalization of E. coli cell surfaces with fluorescein and biotin tags, a tumor-associated monoglycosylated peptide, and mCherry protein. The cell-surface ligation reaction was achieved at low concentrations of butelase and the labeling substrates. Furthermore, the fluorescein-labeled bacterial cells were used to show the interactions with cultured HeLa cells and with macrophages in live transgenic zebrafish, capturing the latter's powerful phagocytic effect in action. Together these results highlight the usefulness of butelase 1 in live bacterial cell surface engineering for novel applications.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glicopeptídeos/metabolismo , Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Clitoria/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/química , Glicopeptídeos/química , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Lisossomos/química , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Nat Prod Res ; 31(19): 2273-2280, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301948

RESUMO

A spectroscopic study was conducted to evaluate the colour degradation mechanism of anthocyanin-rich extract from butterfly pea petal. The extract was diluted in four different solvent systems, which were buffer solution pH 7 (AQ7) and the mixture of organic solvent with buffer solution pH 7 (4:1 v/v). The organic cosolvent involved were methanol (ME7), ethanol (ET7) and acetone (AC7). The samples were stored in containers with 0% and 50% headspace, and their colour intensity, total anthocyanin and hypsochromic shift were evaluated periodically. The rank of colour and anthocyanin degradation from the biggest was AQ7 > ME7 > ET7 > AC7. The longest hypsochromic shift was AQ7 > ME7 > ET7, while in AC7 the shift was absent. There was evidence that the volume of package headspace provoked colour stability. The colour degradation in AC7 was proposed to occur through hydrophobic interaction unfolding, and in AQ7 was through the deacylation, while in ME7 and ET7 was due to both mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Clitoria/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Acilação , Cor , Flores/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes , Análise Espectral
18.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 28(2): 107-114, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) of juvenile onset affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS). However, central effects are less documented and studied than peripheral deficits. Currently, the only feasible treatment available for type 1 DM (T1DM) is insulin which has its own limitations. Hence, an alternative therapy, especially a newer herbal formulation is very much the need of the time. The present study aimed to determine the effects of the alcoholic extracts of roots of the Salacia reticulata W. (SR) and Clitoria ternatea L. (CT) on cognitive and behavioral changes in juvenile diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 25-day-old Wistar rats by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg bw, IP). Animals were divided into seven groups (n=6). Rats were treated with root extracts of SR and CT (100 mg/kg BW each) for 30 days, from day 1 and day 20 of diabetes confirmation. Then, rats were tested in elevated plus maze (EPM) and Morris water maze (MWM). RESULTS: A statistically significant (p<0.05) difference was observed between the SRCT group and diabetic groups of rats. Apart from decreasing FBS, the combined therapy also proved beneficial as nootropic agent in rats with early-onset diabetes. However, significant improvement is observed only in the learning and memory among preventive group, but not in the curative group. CONCLUSIONS: SRCT, a herbal formula, when used in combination, has a more potent effect in preventing the deleterious effects of juvenile diabetes on cognitive and behavioral changes.


Assuntos
Clitoria , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/psicologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Salacia , Animais , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 197: 173-183, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27469198

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Indian traditional medicinal system in Ayurveda suggests several preparations, known as medhya rasayanas, of diverse plant origin to enhance the health in general, reduce stress and improve brain function in particular during ageing. These effects in the context of contemporary knowledge and the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Autophagy and DNA damage induced repair are inter-related quintessential pathways and are significantly altered during stress and ageing. Hence, medhya rasayana prepared from Clitoria ternatea (locally known as shankhpushpi) was used to test these effects in Wistar rat model of various age groups upon stereotaxic mediated kainic acid induced brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rodent experiments were carried out in one, twelve and eighteen months old male Wistar rats. The rats were orally fed with medhya rasayana prepared from Clitoria ternatea (3g per kg body weight/day) for 60 days. Stereotaxic mediated kainate stress to the hippocampus was performed on day 61. The rats were sacrificed on 66th day and the brain tissues were analyzed histologically and measured for autophagy, base excision repair and antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, cognitive functions were analyzed by employing novel object recognition task and Morris water maze tests. The gene expression profile of hippocampus was assessed by microarray hybridization and two genes are validated. RESULTS: Our study showed significant decrease of autophagy by medhya rasayana in both 12 and 18 months old rats. The hippocampal CA3 cellularity were increased in stereotaxic mediated stressed rats by medhya rasayana. There were no significant differences in constitutive base excision repair and antioxidant enzyme activities. Medhya rasayana treatment also significantly increased episodic memory in rats. Microarray experiments for pathway specific gene expression analysis showed altered expression of genes of long-term potentiation, axon guidance, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, regulation of autophagy, lysosome, homologous recombination and nucleotide excision repair pathways in adult rats by medhya rasayana. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we show that reduction in autophagy is crucial for medhya rasayana induced protection of rat hippocampal cells and that artificially enhanced autophagy protects the brain cell damage by maintaining the selective DNA damage repair pathway and removal of reactive oxygen species to inhibit apoptosis. These findings suggest autophagy directed pathways by medhya rasayana prepared from C. ternatea protects the brain cells from stress induced injury.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Clitoria/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Medicina Ayurvédica , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Preparações de Plantas/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Nat Prod Commun ; 11(5): 631-2, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27319136

RESUMO

This work describes the isolation and quantification of rotenoids from crude organic extracts of different parts of Clitoria fairchildiana R. A. Howard (Leguminosae) by HPLC-DAD. The lipid composition and the Artemia salina cytotoxic activities of the isolates were also conducted. Clitoriacetal (1), 6-deoxyclitoriacetal (2), stemonal and stemonone were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by usual spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. Clitoriacetal and 6-deoxyclitoriacetal were not found in all parts of the plant, such as leaves and petals, but in the roots they occur in higher concentration. The activity against brine shrimp revealed that the root extract (LD50 = 158 ppm) was the more active.


Assuntos
Clitoria/química , Rotenona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Artemia , Clitoria/toxicidade , Lipídeos/análise , Rotenona/análise
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