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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(17): 1621-1631, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) benefit from genotype-guided selection of oral P2Y12 inhibitors. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, assessor-blinded trial in which patients undergoing primary PCI with stent implantation were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a P2Y12 inhibitor on the basis of early CYP2C19 genetic testing (genotype-guided group) or standard treatment with either ticagrelor or prasugrel (standard-treatment group) for 12 months. In the genotype-guided group, carriers of CYP2C19*2 or CYP2C19*3 loss-of-function alleles received ticagrelor or prasugrel, and noncarriers received clopidogrel. The two primary outcomes were net adverse clinical events - defined as death from any cause, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, stroke, or major bleeding defined according to Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) criteria - at 12 months (primary combined outcome; tested for noninferiority, with a noninferiority margin of 2 percentage points for the absolute difference) and PLATO major or minor bleeding at 12 months (primary bleeding outcome). RESULTS: For the primary analysis, 2488 patients were included: 1242 in the genotype-guided group and 1246 in the standard-treatment group. The primary combined outcome occurred in 63 patients (5.1%) in the genotype-guided group and in 73 patients (5.9%) in the standard-treatment group (absolute difference, -0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.0 to 0.7; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The primary bleeding outcome occurred in 122 patients (9.8%) in the genotype-guided group and in 156 patients (12.5%) in the standard-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.98; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing primary PCI, a CYP2C19 genotype-guided strategy for selection of oral P2Y12 inhibitor therapy was noninferior to standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel at 12 months with respect to thrombotic events and resulted in a lower incidence of bleeding. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular Genetics ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01761786; Netherlands Trial Register number, NL2872.).


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Trombose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Genótipo , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Medicina de Precisão , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/genética , Método Simples-Cego , Stents , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
2.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(7): 423-428, ago.-sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183828

RESUMO

Introducción: Adherence to guidelines on the periendoscopic management of antiplatelet therapy (APT) has not been analyzed in detail. Our aim was to assess adherence to guidelines in patients referred to our Endoscopy Unit on a case-by-case basis, describing in detail the detected deviations and identifying areas of improvement. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study of outpatients consecutively scheduled for an unsedated upper or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy between January and June 2015. Patients on anticoagulant therapy were excluded. Results: 675 patients were evaluated, including 91 (13.5%) patients on APT [upper GI endoscopy 25 (27.5%), lower GI endoscopy 66 (72.5%)]. Contrary to the clinical guidelines, aspirin was discontinued in 25 of the 77 patients previously prescribed the drug (32.5%) but this modification was patient's own decision in 11 cases. Most of the apparent deviations in the management of clopidogrel and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were not true non-adherence cases. The Primary Care physician modified an APT prescribed by another physician in 8 of 9 cases (88.9%), always in cases with aspirin. No relationship was found between the endoscopic procedure's predicted risk of bleeding or the patient's thrombotic risk and modification of therapy. Discussion: In many patients, the peri-procedural management of APT goes against current guidelines, but some of these inconsistencies cannot be considered true deviations from practice. Identified areas for improvement are increasing patient awareness about APT, disseminating the guidelines in Primary Care, and underscoring the significance of thrombotic risk related to APT withdrawal


Introducción: El cumplimiento de las guías clínicas sobre el manejo periendoscópico del tratamiento antiagregante plaquetario (TAP) no se ha analizado con detalle. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar caso por caso el cumplimiento de las guías en los pacientes que acuden a nuestra Unidad de Endoscopia, describiendo con detalle las desviaciones detectadas e identificando áreas de mejora. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio transversal sobre pacientes consecutivos programados para gastroscopia o colonoscopia realizadas sin sedación entre enero y junio de 2015. Se excluyeron los pacientes en tratamiento anticoagulante. Resultados: Se evaluaron 675 pacientes de los que se incluyeron 91 (13,5%) por estar en tratamiento con antiagregante plaquetario (gastroscopias 25 [27,5%], colonoscopias 66 [72,5%]). La aspirina se interrumpió contrariamente a las guías clínicas en 25 de los 77 pacientes que la llevaban (32,5%), pero esta modificación fue una decisión del propio paciente en 11 casos. Muchas de las aparentes desviaciones en el manejo del clopidogrel y del tratamiento antiagregante plaquetario doble (TAPD) no eran verdaderos casos de no cumplimiento. El médico de Atención Primaria modificó el TAP prescrito por otro especialista en 8 de 9 casos (88,9%), siempre en casos de aspirina. No se encontró relación entre el riesgo de sangrado del procedimiento endoscópico o el riesgo de trombosis del paciente y la modificación del tratamiento. Discusión: En una proporción significativa de pacientes el manejo periprocedimiento del TAP va en contra de las guías clínicas, pero algunas de estas desviaciones no pueden considerarse verdaderos incumplimientos. Áreas de mejora son aumentar la información al paciente sobre el TAP, extender la diseminación de las guías a atención primaria y resaltar la importancia del riesgo trombótico relacionado con la suspensión del TAP


Assuntos
Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Endoscopia/métodos , Gastroscopia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6585040, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179331

RESUMO

Adherence to antiplatelet therapy is critical to successful treatment of cardiovascular conditions. However, little has been known about this issue in the context of constrained resources such as in Vietnam. The objective of this study was to examine the adherence to antiplatelet therapy among patients receiving acute myocardial infarction interventions and its associated factors. In a cross-sectional survey design, 175 adult patients revisiting Vietnam National Heart Institute diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction were approached for data collection from October 2014 to June 2015. Adherence to antiplatelet therapy was assessed by asking patients whether they took taking antiplatelet regularly as per medication (do not miss any dose at the specified time) for any type of antiplatelet (aspirin, clopidogrel, ticlopidine...) during the last month before the participants came back to take re-examinations. The results indicated that the adherence to antiplatelet therapy among patients was quite high at 1 month; it begins to decline by 6 months, 12 months, and more than 12 months (less than 1 month was 90.29%; from 1 to 6 months 88.0%, from 6 to 12 months 75.43%, and after 12 months only 46.29% of patients). Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to detect factors associated with the adherence to antiplatelet therapy. It showed that patients with average income per month of $300 or more (OR=2.92, 95% CI=1.24-6.89), distance to the hospital of less than 50km (OR=2.48, 95% CI: 1.12-5.52), taking medicine under doctor's instructions (OR=3.65; 95% CI=1.13-11.70), and timely re-examination (OR=3.99, 95% CI=1.08-14.73) were more likely to follow the therapy. In general, the study suggested that to increase the likelihood of adherence to antiplatelet therapy it is important to establish a continuous care system after discharging from hospital.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Coração , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Alta do Paciente , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ticlopidina/uso terapêutico , Vietnã
4.
JAMA ; 321(24): 2414-2427, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237644

RESUMO

Importance: Very short mandatory dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a drug-eluting stent may be an attractive option. Objective: To test the hypothesis of noninferiority of 1 month of DAPT compared with standard 12 months of DAPT for a composite end point of cardiovascular and bleeding events. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolling 3045 patients who underwent PCI at 90 hospitals in Japan from December 2015 through December 2017. Final 1-year clinical follow-up was completed in January 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized either to 1 month of DAPT followed by clopidogrel monotherapy (n=1523) or to 12 months of DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel (n=1522). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, definite stent thrombosis, or major or minor bleeding at 12 months, with a relative noninferiority margin of 50%. The major secondary cardiovascular end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, MI, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or definite stent thrombosis and the major secondary bleeding end point was major or minor bleeding. Results: Among 3045 patients randomized, 36 withdrew consent; of 3009 remaining, 2974 (99%) completed the trial. One-month DAPT was both noninferior and superior to 12-month DAPT for the primary end point, occurring in 2.36% with 1-month DAPT and 3.70% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -1.34% [95% CI, -2.57% to -0.11%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.64 [95% CI, 0.42-0.98]), meeting criteria for noninferiority (P < .001) and for superiority (P = .04). The major secondary cardiovascular end point occurred in 1.96% with 1-month DAPT and 2.51% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -0.55% [95% CI, -1.62% to 0.52%]; HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.49-1.29]), meeting criteria for noninferiority (P = .005) but not for superiority (P = .34). The major secondary bleeding end point occurred in 0.41% with 1-month DAPT and 1.54% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -1.13% [95% CI, -1.84% to -0.42%]; HR, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.11-0.64]; P = .004 for superiority). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing PCI, 1 month of DAPT followed by clopidogrel monotherapy, compared with 12 months of DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel, resulted in a significantly lower rate of a composite of cardiovascular and bleeding events, meeting criteria for both noninferiority and superiority. These findings suggest that a shorter duration of DAPT may provide benefit, although given study limitations, additional research is needed in other populations. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02619760.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico
5.
JAMA ; 321(24): 2428-2437, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237645

RESUMO

Importance: Data on P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after short-duration dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention are limited. Objective: To determine whether P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3 months of DAPT is noninferior to 12 months of DAPT in patients undergoing PCI. Design, Setting, and Participants: The SMART-CHOICE trial was an open-label, noninferiority, randomized study that was conducted in 33 hospitals in Korea and included 2993 patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. Enrollment began March 18, 2014, and follow-up was completed July 19, 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor for 3 months and thereafter P2Y12 inhibitor alone (n = 1495) or DAPT for 12 months (n = 1498). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) at 12 months after the index procedure. Secondary end points included the components of the primary end point and bleeding defined as Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2 to 5. The noninferiority margin was 1.8%. Results: Among 2993 patients who were randomized (mean age, 64 years; 795 women [26.6%]), 2912 (97.3%) completed the trial. Adherence to the study protocol was 79.3% of the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group and 95.2% of the DAPT group. At 12 months, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events occurred in 42 patients in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group and in 36 patients in the DAPT group (2.9% vs 2.5%; difference, 0.4% [1-sided 95% CI, -∞% to 1.3%]; P = .007 for noninferiority). There were no significant differences in all-cause death (21 [1.4%] vs 18 [1.2%]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 0.63-2.21; P = .61), myocardial infarction (11 [0.8%] vs 17 [1.2%]; HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.31-1.40; P = .28), or stroke (11 [0.8%] vs 5 [0.3%]; HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 0.78-6.43; P = .14) between the 2 groups. The rate of bleeding was significantly lower in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group than in the DAPT group (2.0% vs 3.4%; HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.92; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3 months of DAPT compared with prolonged DAPT resulted in noninferior rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Because of limitations in the study population and adherence, further research is needed in other populations. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02079194.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos
6.
BMJ ; 365: l2222, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of standard term (12 months) or long term (>12 months) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) versus short term (<6 months) DAPT after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES). DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Relevant studies published between June 1983 and April 2018 from Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library for clinical trials, PubMed, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Clinicaltrialsregister.eu. REVIEW METHODS: Randomised controlled trials comparing two of the three durations of DAPT (short term, standard term, and long term) after PCI with DES were included. The primary study outcomes were cardiac or non-cardiac death, all cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and all bleeding events. RESULTS: 17 studies (n=46 864) were included. Compared with short term DAPT, network meta-analysis showed that long term DAPT resulted in higher rates of major bleeding (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 2.49) and non-cardiac death (1.63, 1.03 to 2.59); standard term DAPT was associated with higher rates of any bleeding (1.39, 1.01 to 1.92). No noticeable difference was observed in other primary endpoints. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the risks of non-cardiac death and bleeding were further increased for ≥18 months of DAPT compared with short term or standard term DAPT. In the subgroup analysis, long term DAPT led to higher all cause mortality than short term DAPT in patients implanted with newer-generation DES (1.99, 1.04 to 3.81); short term DAPT presented similar efficacy and safety to standard term DAPT with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) presentation and newer-generation DES placement. The heterogeneity of pooled trials was low, providing more confidence in the interpretation of results. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with all clinical presentations, compared with short term DAPT (clopidogrel), long term DAPT led to higher rates of major bleeding and non-cardiac death, and standard term DAPT was associated with an increased risk of any bleeding. For patients with ACS, short term DAPT presented similar efficacy and safety with standard term DAPT. For patients implanted with newer-generation DES, long term DAPT resulted in more all cause mortality than short term DAPT. Although the optimal duration of DAPT should take personal ischaemic and bleeding risks into account, this study suggested short term DAPT could be considered for most patients after PCI with DES, combining evidence from both direct and indirect comparisons. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018099519.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Stents Farmacológicos/normas , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/mortalidade
7.
BMJ ; 365: l2211, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ticagrelor plus aspirin is safe and superior to clopidogrel plus aspirin for reducing high platelet reactivity at 90 days and stroke recurrence in patients with minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack, particularly in carriers of the CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele and patients with large artery atherosclerosis. DESIGN: Open label, blinded endpoint, randomised controlled phase II trial. SETTING: Prospective studies conducted at 26 centres in China, August 2015 to March 2017. PARTICIPANTS: 675 patients with acute minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack. INTERVENTION: Ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose, 90 mg twice daily thereafter) or clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose, 75 mg daily thereafter) on a background of aspirin (100 mg daily for the first 21 days) within 24 hours of symptom onset. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the proportion of patients with high platelet reactivity at 90 days. High platelet reactivity was defined as P2Y12 reaction units of more than 208. Secondary outcomes included high platelet reactivity at 90 days (7 days either way) in patients carrying genetic variants that would affect clopidogrel metabolism, and any stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) recurrence at 90 days (7 days either way), six months, and one year. RESULTS: At 90 days, high platelet reactivity occurred in 35 (12.5%) of 280 patients in the ticagrelor/aspirin group and 86 (29.7%) of 290 patients in the clopidogrel/aspirin group (risk ratio 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.56; P<0.001), and in 10.8% versus 35.4% (0.31; 0.18 to 0.49; P<0.001) of patients carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles. Stroke occurred in 21 (6.3%) of 336 patients in the ticagrelor/aspirin group and 30 (8.8%) of 339 patients in the clopidogrel/aspirin group (hazard ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 1.22; P=0.20). Patients with large artery atherosclerosis in the ticagrelor/aspirin group had a lower stroke recurrence at 90 days than those in the clopidogrel/aspirin group (6.0% v 13.1%; hazard ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.98; P=0.04). No difference was seen in the rates of major or minor haemorrhagic events between the ticagrelor/aspirin and clopidogrel/aspirin groups (4.8% v 3.5%; P=0.42). CONCLUSION: Patients with minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack who are treated with ticagrelor plus aspirin have a lower proportion of high platelet reactivity than those who are treated with clopidogrel plus aspirin, particularly for those who are carriers of the CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele. The results of this study should be evaluated further in large scale, phase III trials and in different populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02506140.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ativação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15879, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cases of isolated septum pellucidum infarction have not yet been reported. To date, there are only 2 stroke reports involving septum pellucidum infarction. The etiology of septum pellucidum infarction was subcallosal artery (ScA) injury. The abnormalities were strictly confined to the septum pellucidum and the right cingulated gyrus, making this the first case to report such confined abnormalities. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we present a case of ischemic stroke confined to the septum pellucidum and cingulated gyrus in a 48-year-old male patient who presented with transient ischemic attack-like paroxysmal lower left limb weakness. DIAGNOSIS: Even no obvious abnormalities were revealed by an emergency computed tomography, the infarction in the combined territories of the septum pellucidum and the cingulate gyrus was detected on magnetic resonance imaging. INTERVENTIONS: Aspirin with clopidogrel was administered for 3 weeks as a secondary preventive drug. Clopidogrel was selected as a long-term antiplatelet drug based on a thromboelastogram. OUTCOMES: The patient showed no positive signs related to the nervous system in the hospital, and there was no recurrence during the 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Infarction in the septum pellucidum and cingulate gyrus is rare and has atypical clinical manifestations. Physical examination may not yield obvious positive signs. False-negative computed tomography findings of the head may result in misdiagnosis. Thus, it is necessary to perform whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging in time. Moreover, ScA protection should be paid attention to during surgery for anterior communicating artery aneurysm.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/patologia , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Septo Pelúcido/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Minerva Med ; 110(5): 410-418, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) (stroke, peripheral arterial disease [PAD] or coronary artery disease [CAD]) are at high risk of serious events and mortality. Current clinical guidelines recommend new antiplatelet drugs (NADs) for high cardiovascular risk patients with ACS; however, these drugs are underused in different scenarios. METHODS: This study included 1717 ACS patients from 3 tertiary hospitals. Of them, 641 (37.33%) suffered from previous CVD: 149 patients with stroke, 154 patients with PAD and 541 patients with CAD. Bleeding, mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 1 year of follow-up after hospital discharge were analyzed. RESULTS: NADs administration during hospital stay and at discharge was less frequent in patients with previous CVDs (P<0.001, for both). Cox analysis in this cohort of patients showed that clopidogrel prescription at discharge was independently associated with MACEs (HR: 1.59 [95% CI: 1.03-2.45]; P=0.036) and with death (HR: 1.99 [95% CI: 1.00-3.98]; P=0.049) in multivariate analysis. More specifically, when ticagrelor prescription at discharge was compared with clopidogrel, a significant death reduction was found in both, the univariate and the multivariate Cox analysis (HR: 4.54 [95% CI: 2.26-9.13]; P<0.001 and HR: 2.61 [95% CI: 1.16-5.90]; P=0.021, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: New antiplatelet drugs, especially ticagrelor, showed lower rates of mortality in patients with CVD without differences for bleeding. Despite the recommendations of current clinical guidelines for high risk patients with ACS, the use of NADs is very low in "real-life" patients with previous CVD.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Assistência ao Convalescente , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espanha , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
10.
Drugs Aging ; 36(8): 759-768, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel has been widely used to prevent atherothrombotic events. Since 2011, pharmacists have offered their patients the opportunity to switch to generic clopidogrel, an economic alternative. Whether bioequivalence of generic cardiovascular drugs translates into clinical equivalence at a population level remains unclear and needs to be further documented. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the impact of generic clopidogrel commercialization on adverse events (AEs): hospitalizations or emergency room (ER) consultations. METHODS: This is an interrupted time series analysis using the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System. We included all patients ≥ 66 years old who were users of the brand-name clopidogrel or a generic version (n = 6) 24 months before and up to 12 months after generics commercialization. Rates of AEs were computed, and periods before and after generics commercialization were analyzed by segmented regression models along with exploratory analyses (generic vs. brand name). Sensitivity analyses were also performed using stratification of the time series by (1) sex, (2) the number of prevalent cardiovascular comorbidities, and (3) socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Time series were constituted of 89,525 clopidogrel users (mean age 78 years, 45% women, 71% ischemic heart disease, 34% stroke). For all users, there was a mean rate of 157 AEs per 1000 user-months, stable trend before (-0.1% [95% confidence interval -0.3 to 0.1] and after (0.0% [- 0.5 to 0.6]) generics commercialization. In exploratory analyses, once generic clopidogrel versions were commercialized, rates of AEs were 19.2% (95% CI 11.7-26.7) higher for generic versus brand-name users. This difference persisted up to 1 year. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The population treated with clopidogrel had similar rates of hospitalizations or ER consultations before and after generics commercialization. However, differences in rates of hospitalizations or ER consultations between generic and brand-name clopidogrel users may represent a drug safety signal which remains to be validated. Using a different study design, permitting adjustment for potential confounders, could be useful in this regard.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/economia , Comorbidade , Custos de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Genéricos/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque , Análise de Regressão , Equivalência Terapêutica , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3170957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016189

RESUMO

Background: Percutaneous treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions can potentially lead to higher risk of ischemic events than the nonbifurcation ones, thus calling for further optimization of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes from ticagrelor and clopidogrel in bifurcation lesions patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients with coronary bifurcation lesions. A total of 553 patients discharged on ticagrelor or clopidogrel combined with aspirin were recruited for 1-year follow-up. The incidences of primary endpoint (major adverse cardiovascular event [MACE]: a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke), secondary endpoints (the individual component of the primary endpoint or definite/probable stent thrombosis), and major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium [BARC]≥3 bleeding events) were evaluated. To minimize the selection bias, a propensity score-matched population analysis was also conducted. Results: The risks of both primary endpoint (8.15% and 12.01% for the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups, respectively; adjusted hazards ratio [HR]: 0.488, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.277-0.861, P=0.013) and MI (4.44% and 8.48% for the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups, respectively; adjusted HR: 0.341, 95% CI: 0.162-0.719, P=0.005) were significantly reduced in the ticagrelor group as compared with those of the clopidogrel counterpart, whereas the risk of major bleeding was comparable (2.96% and 2.47% for the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups, respectively; adjusted HR: 0.972, 95% CI: 0.321-2.941, P=0.960). Propensity score-matched analysis confirmed such findings. Conclusions: For patients with bifurcation lesions after PCI, ticagrelor treatment shows lower MACE and MI rates than the clopidogrel one, along with comparable major bleeding.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
13.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(2): 439-445, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971068

RESUMO

In this study, phosphorylation levels of vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) to investigate the effects of ticagrelor and clopidogrel on platelet aggregation function (PAF) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fosforilação , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(3): 316-318, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994825

RESUMO

Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a consolidated treatment in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for both symptom control and improvement of prognosis. The patency of venous grafts is still the most vulnerable point of the surgical treatment since it presents a high prevalence of occlusion both in the immediate postoperative period and in the long-term follow-up. Aspirin plays a well-established role in this setting, and for a long time, clopidogrel use has been restricted to patients allergic to aspirin. Recently, subgroup analyses of studies with different anti-platelet therapies have shown reduced mortality and cardiovascular events in patients on dual anti-platelet antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) undergoing CABG, although such studies have not been designed to evaluate this patient profile. However, there is still an insufficient number of randomized studies using DAPT in this context, resulting in a disagreement between the European and American cardiology societies guidelines regarding their indication and generating doubts in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(9): 1053-1062, 2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) has been suggested as a risk factor for patients with ischemic vascular disease. We explored a predictive model of platelet reactivity to clopidogrel and the relationship with clinical outcomes. METHODS: A total of 441 patients were included. Platelet reactivity was measured by light transmittance aggregometry after receiving dual antiplatelet therapy. HTPR was defined by the consensus cutoff of maximal platelet aggregation >46% by light transmittance aggregometry. CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphisms were identified by DNA microarray analysis. The data were compared by binary logistic regression to find the risk factors. The primary endpoint was major adverse clinical events (MACEs), and patients were followed for a median time of 29 months. Survival curves were constructed with Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared by log-rank tests between the patients with HTPR and non-HTPR. RESULTS: The rate of HTPR was 17.2%. Logistic regression identified the following predictors of HTPR: age, therapy regimen, body mass index, diabetes history, CYP2C192, or CYP2C193 variant. The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic for the HTPR predictive model was 0.793 (95% confidence interval: 0.738-0.848). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with HTPR had a higher incidence of MACE than those with non-HTPR (21.1% vs. 9.9%; χ = 7.572, P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that advanced age, higher body mass index, treatment with regular dual antiplatelet therapy, diabetes, and CYP2C192 or CYP2C193 carriers are significantly associated with HTPR to clopidogrel. The predictive model of HTPR has useful discrimination and good calibration and may predict long-term MACE.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Clopidogrel/farmacologia , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Regressão
16.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 719-730, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863011

RESUMO

Background: The efficacy and safety of ticagrelor following percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with acute coronary syndrome remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate clinical outcomes of ticagrelor as part of dual-antiplatelet treatment for these patients. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and other Internet sources were searched for eligible citations. The primary end point was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, consisting of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The secondary end point was the occurrence of definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST). The risk of bleeding was chosen to be the safety end point. Results: Eleven clinical trials - six randomized trials and five observational trials - were finally analyzed. A tendency toward reduction in the risk of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events was observed only with respect to ticagrelor (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.03; P=0.091), which might have resulted from the lower risk of cardiovascular death (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.89; P<0.001). The overall incidence of ST differed significantly between the ticagrelor group and the clopidogrel group (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59-0.93; P=0.009), but the risk of bleeding, regardless of major or minor bleeding, increased significantly. Conclusion: As part of dual-antiplatelet treatment following percutaneous coronary intervention, ticagrelor significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular death and ST in acute coronary syndrome patients, but at the cost of bleeding. More powerful relevant randomized trials are still warranted to guide clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(9): e14685, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817601

RESUMO

Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) may be markers of intracerebral bleeding risk in patients receiving antithrombotic drugs. This study aimed to analyze CMBs and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in patients taking aspirin or clopidogrel.This retrospective study included patients with ischemic cardiovascular disease administered 75 mg/day aspirin (n = 150) or clopidogrel (n = 150, matched for age and gender) for >1 year (Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, China, from July, 2010 to July, 2015). Patients underwent T2-weighted imaging, T1-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and enhanced T2*-weighted angiography (ESWAN) imaging (3.0-Tesla scanner). Baseline vascular risk factors for CMBs and macroscopic bleeding (MB) were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses.The aspirin and clopidogrel groups did not differ significantly in baseline characteristics or prevalences of CMBs or MB. The odds of MB were higher in patients with CMBs than in patients without CMBs in both the aspirin (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 4.09, 1.93-8.68; P < .001) and clopidogrel (6.42, 2.83-14.57; P < .001) groups. The odds of WMHs were also higher in patients with CMBs in both the aspirin (3.28, 1.60-6.71; P = .001) and clopidogrel (4.09, 1.91-8.75; P < .001) groups. Patients receiving treatment for >5 years showed elevated risk of CMBs in the aspirin (0.17; 0.09-0.36; P < .001) and clopidogrel (0.15, 0.07-0.33; P < .001) groups as well as higher odds of MB in the aspirin (0.34, 0.16-0.71; P = .004) and clopidogrel (0.37, 0.17-0.80; P = .010) groups.The WMHs and MB were associated with CMBs in patients taking aspirin or clopidogrel for >1 year, and long-term use increased the risks of CMB and bleeding.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Leucoencefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , China , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(3): 187-193, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861647

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the influence of different discontinuation time of aspirin and clopidogrel before off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) on postoperative bleeding and blood products transfusion requirement. Methods: Three hundred and fifty-three coronary artery disease patients who underwent OPCABG from January 2017 to January 2018 at Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University were retrospectively analysed. There were 268 males and 85 females, aged (66.0±9.1)years. All patients were divided into three groups: (1) guideline-recommended group: patients who discontinued clopidogrel for >5 days without discontinuing aspirin before surgery; (2) without discontinuing group: patients who discontinued clopidogrel for ≤5 days without discontinuing aspirin before surgery; (3) discontinuing group: patients who discontinued clopidogrel for >5 days with discontinuing aspirin before surgery. Postoperative bleeding recorded as chest tube drainage (CTD) volume and blood products transfusion requirement and perioperative complications were recorded. CTD volumes within 12 hours after surgery between groups were compared by Mann-Whitney U tests, CTD volumes after 12 hours postoperatively were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance and blood products transfusion and complications incidence were compared by χ(2) test or Fisher's precise test. Results: The 12 hours CTD volumes of guideline-recommended group, without discontinuing group, discontinuing group after surgery were 280(153) ml (M(Q(R))), 291(229) ml, 225(161) ml, respectively. There were no significant differences in postoperative 12 hours CTD volumes (P=0.865), red blood cells transfusion incidence (χ(2)=2.626, P=0.149) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion incidence (χ(2)=1.258, P=0.324) between guideline-recommended group and without discontinuing group. However, the 12 hours CTD volumes were significantly higher in guideline-recommended group patients compared with disconutinuing group patients (U=5 247, P=0.002). No significant differences were observed in red blood cells (χ(2)=0.182, P=0.757) and FFP (χ(2)=0.083, P=0.839) transfusion rate between these two groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that when patients began to take antiplatelet drugs (aspirin and clopidogrel) after 12 hours postoperatively, the change of CTD volumes beyond 12 hours after surgery didn't differ either between guideline-recommended group and without discontinuing group (F=0.019, P=0.941) or between guideline-recommended group and discontinuing group (F=2.447,P=0.113). Besides, the incidence of perioperative arrhythmia was significantly higher in guideline-recommended group patients compared with without discontinuing group patients (4.8% vs. 0, χ(2)=5.073, P=0.038). Conclusions: OPCABG patients who discontinued aspirin before surgery had lower postoperative 12 hours CTD volumes but similar blood products transfusion rate and CTD volumes beyond 12 hours postoperatively compared with patients adhering to the current guideline-recommended protocol. And for patients who discontinued clopidogrel for ≤5 days, postoperative CTD volumes and blood products transfusion requirement were similar but the incidence of perioperative arrhythmia was significantly lower compared with guideline-treated patients.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Transfusão de Sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ticlopidina
19.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(4): 576-585, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703812

RESUMO

The most common causes of ischaemic stroke are represented by carotid artery atherosclerotic disease (CAAD) and atrial fibrillation. While oral anticoagulants substantially reduce the incidence of thromboembolic stroke (< 1%/year), the rate of ischaemic stroke and other cardiovascular disease events in patients with CAAD remains high, ranging from 8.4 to 18.1 events per 100 patient-years. Similar to any other atherosclerotic disease, anti-thrombotic therapies are proposed for CAAD to reduce stroke and other cardiovascular events. The 2017 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) guidelines recommend for patients with asymptomatic CAAD ≥60% the use of aspirin 75 to 100 mg once daily or clopidogrel 75 mg once daily at the exception of patient at very high bleeding risk. For patients with symptomatic CAAD ≥50%, the use of aspirin 75 to 100 mg once daily or clopidogrel 75 mg once daily is recommended. New perspectives for anti-thrombotic therapy for the treatment of patients with CAAD come from the novel dual pathway strategy combining a low-dose anticoagulant (i.e. rivaroxaban) and aspirin that may help reduce long-term ischaemic complications in patients with CAAD. This review summarizes current evidence and recommendations for the anti-thrombotic management of patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic CAAD or those undergoing carotid revascularization.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Cardiologia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem
20.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(5): 349-353, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772975

RESUMO

Objective: To assess outcome, safety and possible mechanism of loading dose clopidogrel in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke. Methods: We reviewed patients with confirmed TIA and minor stroke admitted between July 2016 and December 2017 into the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. Loss-of-function allele carriers of CYP2C19 were included and randomly divided into loading dose group (first dose of 300 mg clopidogrel) and standard dose group (first dose of 75 mg clopidogrel), 100 mg aspirin was gave at the same time, followed by aspirin 100 mg/d plus clopidogrel 75 mg/d maintaining for 20 days. Platelet aggregation (maximum aggregation ratio, MAR) induced by Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was examined before and 3 days after administration. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score method was employed to assess the NIHSS scores before and after treatment in each group of patients; the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to assess the 3-month functional outcome. Results: There was no significant difference in baseline data between the two groups (P>0.05).The proportion of early neurological function improvement in the two groups was 75.0% and 54.8%, and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.498, P=0.034). The 3-month prognosis was 79.5% and 61.3%, and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.000, P=0.045). Adverse events: 1 case in the loading dose group, 1 case in the standard dose group, the difference was not statistically significant (2.3% vs 1.6%, χ(2)=0.061, P=0.806). After 3 days of antiplatelet therapy, the MAR of the loading dose group decreased (11%±8%), and the MAR of the standard dose group decreased (9%±4%), the difference was statistically significant (P=0.013).In the loading dose group, there were 32 (72.7%)CYP2C19*2 carriers and 42 (95.5%)CYP2C19*2+*3 carriers; early neurological function improvement in 33 cases, accounting for 93.8% and 76.2%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.122, P=0.042). There were 35 patients with good prognosis in 3 months, accounting for 96.9% and 81.0%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.310, P=0.038); MAR of CYP2C19*2 carrier was decreased (15%±5%), and MAR of CYP2C19*2+*3 carrier was decreased (12%±8%). The difference was statistically significant (P=0.039). Conclusions: Loading dose clopidogrel can improve the clinical prognosis of minor stroke/TIA without increasing the risk of bleeding. Loading dose clopidogrel may improve the prognosis of minor stroke/TIA by decreasing MAR of CYP2C19*2 carriers.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Aspirina , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ticlopidina , Resultado do Tratamento
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