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1.
Science ; 367(6474): 148-149, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919211
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 162-168, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915353

RESUMO

Hypertension and diabetes co-exist frequently. Therefore, salt intake behavior, a risk factor of hypertension, in diabetic patients plays an important role in determining their cardiovascular outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and behaviors of health risks associated with a salt intake in adults with type 2 diabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among the type 2 diabetic in-patients of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from October to December 2016. Data were collected from 131 respondents through interview using WHO STEPS module of salt with adaptation to local context like on amount of added salt while taking meal. Information on blood pressure, body mass index and relevant co-morbidities were also collected. About half of the respondents were women (56.5%). Mean age of the respondents was 54.3±14.4 years. More than six in 10 of them (62.6%) took added salt while taking meal; and 40.5% took processed foods with high salt. The mean amount of added salt intake among the users was 4.4±1.6gm per day having no significant difference between men and women. Though 47.3% of the respondents believed that lowering salt in meal is very important and 77.9% of them believed that excess salt or salty sauce can cause health problems. Salt intake behavior is poor in patients with type 2 diabetes even having regular contacts with doctors and other health professionals. Appropriate measures can be taken to increase awareness, change their attitude and behavior regarding salt consumption.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
4.
Food Chem ; 302: 125330, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404872

RESUMO

This study assessed compliance between declared and analysed values on prepacked foods, considering the tolerance limits for salt, fat and saturated fatty acids. Foods were distributed by food categories (e.g. snacks, ready-to-eat meals, potato and potato-products, bakery and pastry products) and a total of 209 products were analysed. Only half of the samples with a declared value ≥1.25 g/100 g were within tolerance limits for salt content. The lowest number of samples outside tolerance limits was observed for fat content; for saturated fatty acids, 27% of the samples were outside of tolerance limits. Only amongst "cereal products" were 100% of products compliant for fat and salt declarations. It is of utmost importance that manufacturers update continuously values declared for prepacked foods, because this information is crucial for consumers and food policy-makers as well as being a legal requirement.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Nutrientes/análise , Política Nutricional , Grão Comestível , União Europeia , Fast Foods/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Lanches , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109930, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the sake of children's health, iodized salt supply has been stopped in many areas with excessive iodine in the drinking water, but children's iodine nutrition status and thyroid function after terminating the iodized salt supply is unknown. Objective We assessed the iodine nutrition, thyroid function and influencing factors for thyroid abnormalities in children from areas with different concentrations of water iodine; the supply of iodized salt has been stopped in high water iodine areas. This study aimed to evaluate whether the strategy of stopping the supplies of iodized salt alone is enough to avoid thyroid dysfunction in all areas with excess water iodine while still meeting the iodine nutrition needs of children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in children from four areas with different drinking water iodine concentrations in Tianjin, China. The drinking water samplings and spot urine samples were collected to estimate the external and internal iodine exposure levels. The thyroid volume was measured, and blood samples were collected to assess thyroid function. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors for thyroid abnormalities. A dietary survey was conducted to determine the sources of iodine nutrition among the areas with different iodine concentrations in the drinking water. RESULTS: In the area with a drinking water iodine concentration ≥300 µg/L, the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in children was 476.30 (332.20-639.30) µg/L, which was higher than that in other groups (all P < 0.05), and the prevalence of thyroid nodules and the thyroid goiter rate were higher than those in the <100 µg/L, 100-150 µg/L and 150-300 µg/L areas (all P < 0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk of thyroid abnormalities was significantly increased in the UIC 200-299 µg/L group (OR: 4.534; 95% CI: 1.565, 13.135; bootstrapped 95% CI: 1.689, 21.206, P = 0.004) and in the UIC ≥ 300 µg/L group (OR: 6.962; 95% CI: 2.490, 19.460; bootstrapped 95% CI: 2.838, 32.570, P = 0.001) compared to the 100-199 µg/L group. The iodine contribution rates from water in areas with water iodine concentrations ≥300 µg/L are up to 63.04%. CONCLUSIONS: After termination of the iodized salt supply, the level of iodine nutrition of children in the area with drinking water iodine concentrations ≥300 µg/L is still excessive. The water source needs to be replaced in this area. In the area with a water iodine concentration of 150-300 µg/L, it is proposed that stopping the supply of iodized salt is sufficient to achieve the proper iodine nutrition status in children.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Água Potável/química , Bócio/epidemiologia , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Bócio/urina , Humanos , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/urina , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 73, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before iodination of Swedish table salt in 1936, iodine deficiency resulting in goitre and hypothyroidism was common. Sweden has become iodine sufficient, as shown in a national survey in 2007, proving its iodination fortification programme effective for the general population. The objective of this study was to collect drinking water from water treatment plants nationally and test if water iodine concentration (WIC) correlated to urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of school-aged children in a national survey 2007 to former goitre frequency in 1929 and to thyroid volume data in 2007. METHODS: In 2012, 166 treatment plants, located in 57% (166 of 290) of all Swedish municipalities, were asked to collect drinking water samples of approximately 10 ml. In 2007, tap water samples of the same volume were collected from 30 randomly selected schools for the national survey. Analysis of WIC was done in both treatment plants in 2012 (n = 166) and tap water in 2007 (n = 30). The correlation of WIC to the children's UIC and thyroid volume after iodination was tested based on data from the national survey in 2007. The association of WIC to former goitre frequency was tested based on pre-iodination data, derived from a map of goitre frequency drawn in 1929. RESULTS: The median WIC from water treatment plants was 4.0 µg/L (range 0-27 µg/L). WIC was similar in coastal and inland areas, for both ground and surface water. WIC correlated with historical goitre areas and was lower in the goitre areas than in non-goitre areas (p < 0.001). WIC in the same municipalities as the schools correlated with the UIC of children (p < 0.01), but not with their thyroid volume. CONCLUSIONS: WIC still contributes to iodine nutrition in Sweden, but iodination overrides the goitre effect.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Bócio/epidemiologia , Iodo/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Bócio/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia , Glândula Tireoide/anatomia & histologia
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(6): 932-937, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the consumption status of iodized and iodine-free salt and the attitude and reasons for Tianjin residents to choose salt after the reformation of the salt industry systems, and to provide a scientific basis for iodine supplementation and protect the public iodine adequate. METHODS: Stratified sampling method was used to investigate supermarkets of different sizes in 16 districts of Tianjin from December 2017 to May 2018. And 4-8 different sizes supermarkets were selected in the east, south, west, north, and middle directions of each district, and 25 consumers were selected in each district to conduct a questionnaire survey by Population Proportionate Sampling(PPS). Questionnaire survey was used by investigators to ask and record the respondents age, gender, salt type, time to eat a bag of salt, number of people dining, frequency of seafood consumption, special populations in the family(children, pregnant women or lactating women), reasons for choosing iodized salt or iodine-free salt. And the supermarket sales staff were questioned on the type and proportion of salt sold, the monthly sales of iodized salt and non-iodized salt, and the trend of sales volume. RESULTS: The sales volume of iodized salt was significantly greater than that of noniodized salt in the 94 different supermarkets(P<0. 05). Supermarkets with a rise in sales volume of non-iodized salt and iodized salt accounted for 40. 0% and 32. 9%, respectively. Significance difference was found in the prevalence of thyroid disease among people with different salt selection types(χ~2= 15. 052, P<0. 05). The prevalence of thyroid disease is higher in the non-iodized salt group. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of thyroid disease between different genders and age groups(χ~2= 0. 937, P > 0. 05; χ~2=2. 442, P > 0. 05). From the reasons why consumers choose different types of salt, the choice of iodized salt in the population, habits(45. 0%) accounted for a larger proportion, the prevention of thyroid disease accounted for 49. 6%. Among the people who chose to have no iodized salt, it is considered that Tianjin is a seaside city that does not need iodine supplementation, accounting for 55. 9%, and those who prevent thyroid disease account for 35. 6%. Prevention of thyroid disease account for 46. 9% and those who do not need iodine supplementation account for 40. 0% in a mixed population. CONCLUSION: There are blindness and misunderstanding when consumers select the type of salt.


Assuntos
Lactação , Criança , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo , Masculino , Gravidez , Gestantes , Prevalência , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1173-1175, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683409

RESUMO

Iodine nutrition surveillance of vulnerable population was conducted in 18 cities of Henan Province in 2015. The medians and quartiles of urinary iodine concentration in women of reproductive-age (n=3 318), pregnant women (n=36 366), lactating women (n=4 153), infants <2 years of age (n=1 017), and children aged 8-10 years (n=4 806) were 202.1(124.0, 310.0), 192.4(133.6, 262.4), 168.3(119.1, 248.3), 214.2(156.1, 272.3) and 90.0 (121.8, 285.6) µg/L, respectively. Iodine status of the vulnerable populations was generally regarded as adequate in Henan Province. But the median of urinary iodine concentration of reproductive-age women were slightly above the adequate level. The proportions above iodine adequate level were 26.7% in reproductive-age women, 29.4% in pregnant women and 22.5% in children aged 8-10 years.


Assuntos
Iodo/sangue , Iodo/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/uso terapêutico , Lactação , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/uso terapêutico
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190009.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the salt intake in the Brazilian population according to their urinary sodium excretion. METHODS: The National Health Survey (2013) aimed to gather data on the health of adults (≥ 18 years) through a random selection of households. In each household, one adult was selected to have their biological data collected (anthropometry, blood pressure, and blood and urine tests). The urine sample was sent to a central laboratory to determine sodium (ion-selective electrode) and creatinine (Jaffé method) concentrations. Sodium excretion was estimated with the Tanaka equation. RESULTS: Urinary sodium and creatinine concentrations were measured in 8,083individuals (58% women). The mean salt intake was estimated at 9.34 g/day (95% confidence interval - 95%CI 9.27 - 9.41) and was higher in males (9.63 g/day; 95%CI 9.52 - 9.74) than in females (9.08 g/day; 95%CI 8.99 - 9.17). Wefound no significant differences regarding age group, ethnicity, or schooling. Salt intake was higher in the Southeast and South regions and lower in the Northeast and North. Only 2.4% (95%CI 2.0 - 2.8) of the sample consumed less than 5 g/day, and 58.2% (95%CI 56.7 - 59.6) of participants had an estimated intake of 8 to 12 g/day. CONCLUSION: The mean salt intake in the Brazilian population is approximately twice the recommended by the World Health Organization (5g/day).Given the association of high salt intake with hypertension and decreased renal function, these data indicate the need to adopt comprehensive public policies to reduce the consumption in the Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valores de Referência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/urina , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17539, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593131

RESUMO

Research on the relationship between iodine intake and thyroid cancer (TC) risk is limited, and the findings are inconclusive. The objective of this study was to provide emerging evidence for the association between iodine intake and TC risk in a Chinese population.An ecological study of epidemiology is used to compare the iodine intake among populations with different TC incidence in Zhoushan, China. Incidence rates of TC were investigated and compared among four counties of the Zhoushan Islands from 2014 to 2018. Iodized salt consumption rate and the level of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were analyzed for pupils and pregnant women from four counties.During 2014 to 2018, a total of 2495 new cases of TC were diagnosed in Zhoushan Islands. The mean crude incidence rate of TC was 51.29 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the standardized (world population) incidence rate (SIR) was 31.34 per 100,000 population. Incidence rates (SIR and crude incidence rates) were significantly higher in women than in men (χ test, P < .05). Both male and female, the incidence of TC in Daishan County is higher than the other three counties of Zhoushan. Iodized salt consumption rate and median UIC in pupils and pregnant women in Daishan County was significantly lower than the other three counties (χ test and Kruskal-Wallis test, all P < .05). The population with high TC incidence has a lower iodized salt consumption and a lower level of UIC compare with the relative low TC incidence populations.The low consumption of iodized salt with mild iodine deficiency may contribute to explain the exceptionally high incidence of TC in Daishan County. Further subtle designed studies are needed to provide additional insights into the epidemiology and etiology of TC and help identify the safe limit of iodine intake for prevention.


Assuntos
Iodo/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Ecologia , Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gestantes , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Oligoelementos/efeitos adversos , Oligoelementos/urina
11.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(662): 1625-1628, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508914

RESUMO

The salt sensitivity of the blood pressure (SSBP) is defined as a rise or fall in blood pressure induced by a change in sodium intake. There is an interindividual variation and no strong diagnostic criteria exist to date. The SSBP may lead to underestimation of the beneficial effect of sodium restriction in some patients in meta-analyzes. High sodium intake in salt sensitive patients results in an increase in the prevalence of hypertension and target organ damage. The etiology seems to be a failure of one or more natriuretic mechanisms. Some environmental, genetic and epidemiological factors increase its susceptibility. Per se, SSBP cannot be treated, but its identification may help in preventing hypertension and adapt the treatment in some populations.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546576

RESUMO

Reductions in salt intake have the potential to markedly improve population health at low cost. Real life interventions that explore the feasibility and health effects of a gradual salt reduction lasting at least four weeks are required. The randomized controlled SalT Reduction InterVEntion (STRIVE) trial was developed to investigate the metabolic, behavioral and health effects of four months of consuming gradually salt reduced bread alone or in combination with dietary counselling. This paper describes the rationale and methods of STRIVE. Aiming at 120 healthy families, participants were recruited in February 2018 from the Danish Capital Region and randomly allocated into: (A) Salt reduced bread; (B) Salt reduced bread and dietary counseling; (C) Standard bread. Participants were examined before the intervention and at four months follow-up. Primary outcome is change in salt intake measured by 24 h urine. Secondary outcomes are change in urine measures of potassium and sodium/ potassium ratio, blood pressure, plasma lipids, the renin-angiotensin system, the sympathetic nervous response, dietary intake as well as salt taste sensitivity and preferences. The results will qualify mechanisms affected during a gradual reduction in salt intake in compliance with the current public health recommendations.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pão/análise , Dieta , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Feminino , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem
13.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 854-863, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476910

RESUMO

The Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat is an established model of SS hypertension and renal damage. In addition to salt, other dietary components were shown to be important determinants of hypertension in SS rats. With previous work eliminating the involvement of genetic differences, grain-fed SS rats from Charles River Laboratories (SS/CRL; 5L2F/5L79) were less susceptible to salt-induced hypertension and renal damage compared with purified diet-fed SS rats bred at the Medical College of Wisconsin (SS/MCW; 0.4% NaCl, AIN-76A). With the known role of immunity in hypertension, the present study characterized the immune cells infiltrating SS/MCW and SS/CRL kidneys via flow cytometry and RNA sequencing in T-cells isolated from the blood and kidneys of rats maintained on their respective parental diet or on 3 weeks of high salt (4.0% NaCl, AIN-76A). SS/CRL rats were protected from salt-induced hypertension (116.5±1.2 versus 141.9±14.4 mm Hg), albuminuria (21.7±3.5 versus 162.9±22.2 mg/d), and renal immune cell infiltration compared with SS/MCW. RNA-seq revealed >50% of all annotated genes in the entire transcriptome to be significantly differentially expressed in T-cells isolated from blood versus kidney, regardless of colony or chow. Pathway analysis of significantly differentially expressed genes between low and high salt conditions demonstrated changes related to inflammation in SS/MCW renal T-cells compared with metabolism-related pathways in SS/CRL renal T-cells. These functional and transcriptomic T-cell differences between SS/MCW and SS/CRL show that dietary components in addition to salt may influence immunity and the infiltration of immune cells into the kidney, ultimately impacting susceptibility to salt-induced hypertension and renal damage.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Rim/patologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl
14.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 888-895, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401880

RESUMO

To study the contribution of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to the development of hypertension, experiments were designed to continuously and simultaneously measure renal (RSNA) and lumbar SNA (LSNA) during the development of hypertension induced by 8% salt loading in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. Male DS and salt-resistant rats were instrumented with bipolar electrodes to record RSNA and LSNA and a telemeter to record arterial pressure (AP). AP increased during the first 3 days after the onset of salt loading by ≈10 mm Hg in both DS and Dahl salt-resistant rats. AP continued to increase progressively from day 4 to day 14 of salt loading by 33±1 mm Hg in DS rats, while it remained the same in Dahl salt-resistant rats. RSNA and LSNA increased in the initial few days by 6% to 8%, and decreased gradually thereafter, suggesting that increases in neither RSNA nor LSNA are directly linked with the progressive increase in AP induced by salt loading in DS rats. After the cessation of salt loading, AP pressure returned to the presalt loading level in both DS and Dahl salt-resistant rats. RSNA increased significantly by 32±3% after the cessation of salt loading, while LSNA remained the same in DS rats, suggesting that salt-sensitive mechanisms respond to a loss of sodium, not a gain, and selectively activate RSNA in DS rats. In summary, RSNA and LSNA are not likely to be a primary trigger to initiate the progressive increase in AP induced by 8% salt loading in DS rats.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/inervação , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Animais , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl
15.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 1021-1032, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401881

RESUMO

Excessive salt consumption leads to cardiovascular diseases. Despite various measures designed to reduce salt intake, daily salt intake remains at a high level. Appropriate salt intake is balanced by salt taste preference triggered by epithelium sodium channel and salt taste aversion evoked by bitter taste sensor, transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5). However, the behavioral mechanism of excessive salt intake remains largely elusive. In this study, wild type and TRPM5-/- mice were applied to study the influence of high-salt administration on epithelium sodium channel/TRPM5 and the associated behavior to salt consumption. We found that long-term high-salt intake impaired the aversive behavior to high-salt stimulation but did not alter the preference to low salt in mice. The mechanistic evidence demonstrated that high-salt intake blunted the TRPM5-mediated aversive behavior to noxious salt stimulation through inhibiting PKC (protein kinase C) activity and PKC-dependent threonine phosphorylation in the tongue epithelium but did not affect the epithelium sodium channel-dependent salt taste preference. Inhibition of TRPM5 also resulted in an impaired aversive response to high salt, with reduced taste perception in bitter cortical field of mice. TRPM5-/- mice showed a lowered aversion to high-salt diet and developed salt-induced hypertension. The impaired perception to bitter taste evoked by high-salt intake also existed in hypertensive patients with high-salt consumption. We demonstrate that long-term high-salt consumption impairs aversive response to concentrated salt by downregulating bitter taste sensor TRPM5. It suggests that enhancing TRPM5 function might antagonize excessive salt intake and high salt-induced hypertension.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Paladar/genética , Percepção Gustatória/genética , Língua/metabolismo
16.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370182

RESUMO

When it comes to nutrition, nearly everyone has an opinion. In the past, nutrition was considered to be an individual's responsibility, however, more recently governments have been expected (by some) to share that responsibility by helping to ensure that marketing is responsible, and that food chains offer healthy meal choices in addition to their standard fare, for example. In some countries, governments have gone as far as to remove tax from unprocessed foods or to introduce taxes, such as that imposed on sugary soft drinks in the UK, Mexico, France and Norway. Following on from the sugar tax, chocolate might be next! Is this the answer to our burgeoning calorie intake and increasing poor nutritional status, or is there another approach? In this narrative we will focus on some of the approaches taken by communities and governments to address excess calorie intake and improve nutritional status, as well as some of the conflicts of interest and challenges faced with implementation. It is clear that in order to achieve meaningful change in the quality of nutritional intake and to reduce the long-term prevalence of obesity, a comprehensive approach is required wherein governments and communities work in genuine partnership. To take no or little action will doom much of today's youth to a poor quality of life in later years, and a shorter life expectancy than their grandparents.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/economia , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/economia , Impostos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
17.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2610-2618, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429488

RESUMO

Targeting both sodium and fat reduction in processed foods while maintaining consumer acceptance is a challenge in the food industry due to the innate liking by humans toward both ingredients. Canned soup is one of the leading processed food categories containing high quantities of sodium. Efforts to reduce both sodium and fat content in canned soup products have been problematic due to resulting decreased consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes in the drivers of liking when sodium, fat, and herb levels are varied in a model retorted soup system. A creamy tomato soup system was developed containing four fat levels (free, low, reduced, regular), three sodium levels (low, reduced, regular), and two herb levels (with, without). Ninety-six consumers rated the soups for overall liking on a 9-point hedonic scale. A descriptive analysis panel composed of 10 trained panelists profiled the sensory attributes among the soups. Higher sodium level was found to be a driver of liking when fat content was reduced. Soups were significantly different in saltiness (taste) and tomato (aroma-by-mouth), based on varying fat and sodium levels. Herb content increased overall liking of lower sodium and fat soups and impacted attribute characterization of soups. Future steps would include approaches to increase overall liking of lower fat and sodium soups. Formulation modifications that would decrease intensities of attributes that characterize lower fat and sodium soups, such as sour (taste and aftertaste), grainy (texture), and darkness (appearance), will aid in higher consumer acceptance of these soups. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: With hypertensive individuals requiring reductions of both dietary sodium and fat, food products lower in fat and sodium while maintaining sensory acceptability are needed. Identifying drivers of liking when sodium and fat levels are reduced in processed food systems can assist in product reformulation to increase overall liking. Additionally, understanding the impact of herbs in consumer acceptance of lower sodium and fat food products will also contribute to further advances in product development.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Lycopersicon esculentum , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Especiarias/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Humanos
18.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(4): 835-847, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess whether a 7-day high-salt (HS) diet affects endothelium-dependent and/or endothelium-independent microvascular function in the absence of changes in arterial blood pressure (BP), and to determine whether such microvascular changes are associated with changes in body composition and fluid status in healthy young humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three young healthy individuals (28 women and 25 men) were assigned to a 7-day low-salt diet (<3.5 g salt/day) followed by a 7-day HS diet (∼14 g salt/day). Skin microvascular blood flow in response to iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, and BP, heart rate (HR), plasma renin activity (PRA), serum aldosterone, serum and 24 h-urine sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine levels, together with body composition and fluid status measurement with a 4-terminal portable impedance analyzer were measured before and after diet protocols. RESULTS: BP, HR, body composition and fluid status were unchanged, and PRA and serum aldosterone level were significantly suppressed after HS diet. ACh-induced dilation (AChID) was significantly impaired, while SNP-induced dilation was not affected by HS diet. Impaired AChID and increased salt intake, as well as impaired AChID and suppressed renin-angiotensin system were significantly positively correlated. Changes in body composition and fluid status parameters were not associated with impaired AChID. CONCLUSION: 7-day HS diet impairs microvascular reactivity by affecting its endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young healthy individuals. Changes are independent of BP, body composition changes or fluid retention, but are the consequences of the unique effect of HS on endothelial function.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquidos Corporais/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , Microvasos/citologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 148-153, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465181

RESUMO

Introduction: It is recommended to limit the consumption of sodium to 2 g / day and consume 25 g / 2000 kcal of fiber. Baked and cookies are the key food-vehicle to achieve these recommendations. x Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of the optimal healthy bread with nutritional information in a breakfast, teatime or snack (DMC) in real consumption situation. Methodology: In the offices of the Faculty of Medicine, a tray was delivered with: infusions, sweeteners, milk powder, jams, healthy bread, commercial orange juice and nutritional information to be consumed by participants as DMC. 100 students, teachers and non-teachers performed the acceptance test of different components of the tray using a scale of 1 (dislike very much) to 10 (like very much), they answered demographic data, what was your DM C, amount of bread consumed and the price they would pay for it. Results: 43.4% consumed the tray for teatime. Most consumed infusion: coffee. 100% consumed the bread and 91% accompanied it with jam. The average value of acceptability was 8.57 ± 1.44 without significant differences by age, sex or Body Mass Index. 76% consumed at least 3/4. The average price they were willing to pay was $ 54.65 / kilo ±12.32 (reference French bread $ 50 / kilo). The average scores of acceptability were: 8.82±1.27 for presentation of the tray, 8.53±1.43 of the DMC consumed and 8.17±2 of the commercial orange juice. Conclusions: The acceptability of the bread in real situation of consumption was very good, being an effective strategy to reduce the ingestion of NaCl and increase the fiber.


Assuntos
/métodos , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pão , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 45-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468385

RESUMO

Previous studies indicate that perinatal compromise of taurine causes cardiovascular disorders in adults via the influence of taurine on renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This study tested whether perinatal inhibition of the RAS would itself alter the adult cardiovascular system in a similar way. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (Control) or water containing captopril (400 mg/l) from conception until weaning. Then, the male offspring drank water or water containing captopril until 5 weeks of age followed by normal rat chow and water alone until 7 weeks of age. Thereafter, they drank water alone (Control, Captopril) or 1% NaCl solution (Control+1%, Captopril+1%). At 9 weeks of age, all animals were implanted with femoral arterial and venous catheters. Forty-eight hours later, blood chemistry, glucose tolerance, and hemodynamic parameters were determined in freely moving conscious rats. Then, the same experiments were repeated 2 days after captopril treatment. Body weights, kidney and heart to body weight ratios, fasting and non-fasting blood sugar, glucose tolerance, and heart rates were not significantly different among groups. Further, plasma sodium, mean arterial pressure, and sympathetic activity significantly increased whereas baroreflex sensitivity decreased in Captopril+1% compared to other groups. These changes were normalized by acute captopril treatment and the arterial pressure differences also by acute ganglionic and central adrenergic blockade. The present study suggests that inhibition of the RAS in the early life induces RAS overactivity, leading to salt-sensitive hypertension via sympathetic nervous system overactivity and depressed baroreflex sensitivity in adult male rats.


Assuntos
Captopril/farmacologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiotensina II , Animais , Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
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