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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 162-168, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915353

RESUMO

Hypertension and diabetes co-exist frequently. Therefore, salt intake behavior, a risk factor of hypertension, in diabetic patients plays an important role in determining their cardiovascular outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and behaviors of health risks associated with a salt intake in adults with type 2 diabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among the type 2 diabetic in-patients of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from October to December 2016. Data were collected from 131 respondents through interview using WHO STEPS module of salt with adaptation to local context like on amount of added salt while taking meal. Information on blood pressure, body mass index and relevant co-morbidities were also collected. About half of the respondents were women (56.5%). Mean age of the respondents was 54.3±14.4 years. More than six in 10 of them (62.6%) took added salt while taking meal; and 40.5% took processed foods with high salt. The mean amount of added salt intake among the users was 4.4±1.6gm per day having no significant difference between men and women. Though 47.3% of the respondents believed that lowering salt in meal is very important and 77.9% of them believed that excess salt or salty sauce can cause health problems. Salt intake behavior is poor in patients with type 2 diabetes even having regular contacts with doctors and other health professionals. Appropriate measures can be taken to increase awareness, change their attitude and behavior regarding salt consumption.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17539, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593131

RESUMO

Research on the relationship between iodine intake and thyroid cancer (TC) risk is limited, and the findings are inconclusive. The objective of this study was to provide emerging evidence for the association between iodine intake and TC risk in a Chinese population.An ecological study of epidemiology is used to compare the iodine intake among populations with different TC incidence in Zhoushan, China. Incidence rates of TC were investigated and compared among four counties of the Zhoushan Islands from 2014 to 2018. Iodized salt consumption rate and the level of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were analyzed for pupils and pregnant women from four counties.During 2014 to 2018, a total of 2495 new cases of TC were diagnosed in Zhoushan Islands. The mean crude incidence rate of TC was 51.29 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the standardized (world population) incidence rate (SIR) was 31.34 per 100,000 population. Incidence rates (SIR and crude incidence rates) were significantly higher in women than in men (χ test, P < .05). Both male and female, the incidence of TC in Daishan County is higher than the other three counties of Zhoushan. Iodized salt consumption rate and median UIC in pupils and pregnant women in Daishan County was significantly lower than the other three counties (χ test and Kruskal-Wallis test, all P < .05). The population with high TC incidence has a lower iodized salt consumption and a lower level of UIC compare with the relative low TC incidence populations.The low consumption of iodized salt with mild iodine deficiency may contribute to explain the exceptionally high incidence of TC in Daishan County. Further subtle designed studies are needed to provide additional insights into the epidemiology and etiology of TC and help identify the safe limit of iodine intake for prevention.


Assuntos
Iodo/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Ecologia , Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gestantes , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Oligoelementos/efeitos adversos , Oligoelementos/urina
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(662): 1625-1628, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508914

RESUMO

The salt sensitivity of the blood pressure (SSBP) is defined as a rise or fall in blood pressure induced by a change in sodium intake. There is an interindividual variation and no strong diagnostic criteria exist to date. The SSBP may lead to underestimation of the beneficial effect of sodium restriction in some patients in meta-analyzes. High sodium intake in salt sensitive patients results in an increase in the prevalence of hypertension and target organ damage. The etiology seems to be a failure of one or more natriuretic mechanisms. Some environmental, genetic and epidemiological factors increase its susceptibility. Per se, SSBP cannot be treated, but its identification may help in preventing hypertension and adapt the treatment in some populations.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico
4.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370182

RESUMO

When it comes to nutrition, nearly everyone has an opinion. In the past, nutrition was considered to be an individual's responsibility, however, more recently governments have been expected (by some) to share that responsibility by helping to ensure that marketing is responsible, and that food chains offer healthy meal choices in addition to their standard fare, for example. In some countries, governments have gone as far as to remove tax from unprocessed foods or to introduce taxes, such as that imposed on sugary soft drinks in the UK, Mexico, France and Norway. Following on from the sugar tax, chocolate might be next! Is this the answer to our burgeoning calorie intake and increasing poor nutritional status, or is there another approach? In this narrative we will focus on some of the approaches taken by communities and governments to address excess calorie intake and improve nutritional status, as well as some of the conflicts of interest and challenges faced with implementation. It is clear that in order to achieve meaningful change in the quality of nutritional intake and to reduce the long-term prevalence of obesity, a comprehensive approach is required wherein governments and communities work in genuine partnership. To take no or little action will doom much of today's youth to a poor quality of life in later years, and a shorter life expectancy than their grandparents.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/economia , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/economia , Impostos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315267

RESUMO

We have demonstrated that Na/K-ATPase acts as a receptor for reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulating renal Na+ handling and blood pressure. TALLYHO/JngJ (TH) mice are believed to mimic the state of obesity in humans with a polygenic background of type 2 diabetes. This present work is to investigate the role of Na/K-ATPase signaling in TH mice, focusing on susceptibility to hypertension due to chronic excess salt ingestion. Age-matched male TH and the control C57BL/6J (B6) mice were fed either normal diet or high salt diet (HS: 2, 4, and 8% NaCl) to construct the renal function curve. Na/K-ATPase signaling including c-Src and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, as well as protein carbonylation (a commonly used marker for enhanced ROS production), were assessed in the kidney cortex tissues by Western blot. Urinary and plasma Na+ levels were measured by flame photometry. When compared to B6 mice, TH mice developed salt-sensitive hypertension and responded to a high salt diet with a significant rise in systolic blood pressure indicative of a blunted pressure-natriuresis relationship. These findings were evidenced by a decrease in total and fractional Na+ excretion and a right-shifted renal function curve with a reduced slope. This salt-sensitive hypertension correlated with changes in the Na/K-ATPase signaling. Specifically, Na/K-ATPase signaling was not able to be stimulated by HS due to the activated baseline protein carbonylation, phosphorylation of c-Src and ERK1/2. These findings support the emerging view that Na/K-ATPase signaling contributes to metabolic disease and suggest that malfunction of the Na/K-ATPase signaling may promote the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in obesity. The increased basal level of renal Na/K-ATPase-dependent redox signaling may be responsible for the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in polygenic obese TH mice.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Carbonilação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sódio/sangue , Sódio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 406, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of hypertension among adults in Debre Markos town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study design was employed. Systematic random sampling was used to select 456 study participants. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Binary logistic regression was fitted to show the association between dependent variable and independent variables. RESULT: A total of 57 (12.5%) individuals had hypertension in Debre Markos town. Being female [AOR 3.78, 95% CI 1.56, 9.147], consuming animal source fat [AOR 6.28, 95% CI 2.63, 14.99], family history of hypertension [AOR 4.88, 95% CI 1.99, 12.015], age greater than 50 years [AOR 3.31, 95% CI 1.00, 10.99], body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 [AOR 4.70, 95% CI 1.99, 11.06], excess salt consumption [AOR 6.49, 95% CI 2.83,14.89] and alcohol consumers [AOR 3.19, 95% CI 1.13, 8.99] were found to be statistically significant factors associated with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension in Debre Markos town is still a public health problem. Being female sex, consuming animal source fat, family history of hypertension, excess salt consumption age greater than 50 years and body mass index > 25 kg/m2 were significant factors of hypertension. Therefore, health sectors should take actions to tackle these modifiable risk factors.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
7.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 564-571, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280649

RESUMO

This study investigated the association between salt intake and risk of disaster hypertension. We analyzed the data of surveys evaluating the health condition of evacuees in shelters after the Great East Japan Earthquake on April 30 and May 5, 2011. Among 272 subjects who completed the basic health condition questionnaire and underwent a medical examination, 158 (58%) had disaster hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg). Average estimated sodium intake assessed by spot urine was significantly associated with disaster hypertension (odds ratio per 1 g/d, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30). When we defined the high risk factors for salt-sensitive hypertension as older age (≥65 years), obesity (body mass index, ≥25 kg/m2), chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus, estimated sodium intake was found to be a risk factor for disaster hypertension in the total group (odds ratio per 1 g/d, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12-1.43) and even in the group without prevalent hypertension before disaster (n=146; odds ratio per 1 g/d, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.19-1.79). There was an interaction between estimated sodium intake and disaster hypertension according to the presence or absence of high risk of salt-sensitive hypertension in the group without prevalent hypertension (P=0.03). Disaster hypertension conferred a risk of microalbuminuria (odds ratio, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.71-5.26; P<0.001). We conclude that increased estimated sodium intake was associated with disaster hypertension in evacuees after disaster. This association was noted in the population with high risk of salt-sensitive hypertension and without prevalent hypertension before natural disaster. Additionally, disaster hypertension was associated with subclinical organ damage.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Desastres , Abrigo de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Potássio/metabolismo , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 424, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to quantify and compare the effect of excess dietary salt on immune cell activation and blood pressure in HIV versus HIV negative individuals. RESULTS: Salt-sensitivity is associated with increased immune cell activation in animal studies. This concept has not been tested in people living with HIV. This study will therefore add more information in elucidating the interaction between HIV infection and/or anti-retroviral therapy (ART), immune-activation/inflammation and hypertension.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357402

RESUMO

Reformulation of bread in terms of salt content remains an important measure to help achieve a reduction in salt intake in the population and for the prevention of hypertension and elevated blood pressure (BP). Our fundamental studies on the reduction of salt on dough and bread characteristics showed that wheat breads produced with 0.3 g salt/100 g ("low-salt") were found to be comparable quality to that produced with the typical level of salt (1.2%). This food-based intervention trial examined, using a 5 week cross-over design, the potential for inclusion of "low-salt" bread as part of a pragmatic reduced-salt diet on BP, markers of bone metabolism, and plasma lipids in 97 adults with slightly to moderately elevated BP. Assuming all sodium from dietary intake was excreted through the urine, the intake of salt decreased by 1.7 g/day, on average, during the reduced-salt dietary period. Systolic BP was significantly lower (by 3.3 mmHg on average; p < 0.0001) during the reduced-salt dietary period compared to the usual-salt dietary period, but there was no significant difference (p = 0.81) in diastolic BP. There were no significant differences (p > 0.12, in all cases) in any of the urinary- or serum-based biochemical indices of calcium or bone metabolism or in plasma lipids between the two periods. In conclusion, a modest reduction in dietary salt intake, in which the use of "low-salt" (i.e., 0.3 g/100g) bread played a key role along with dietary advice, and led to a significant, and clinically meaningful, decrease in systolic, but not diastolic, BP in adults with mildly to moderately elevated BP.


Assuntos
Pão , Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Irlanda , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Presse Med ; 48(11 Pt 1): 1240-1243, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151845

RESUMO

PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION LESS FREQUENT IN WOMEN BEFORE MENOPAUSE: In adults, up to the age of 50-60, hypertension is an uncommon disease, less frequent in women than in men. The literature review does not determine whether this difference is related to a protective effect of endogenous estrogens on the risk of high blood pressure, to genetic or immuno-enzymatic differences related to sex but of non-hormonal origin or to a large number of confounding variables (salt consumption, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, body mass index, psycho-socio-economic factors, sedentary lifestyle). PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION INCREASES AT MENOPAUSE: After menopause, the risk of hypertension in women increases and quickly reaches that of men, even exceeding it from the seventh decade onwards. The factors that make hypertension more frequent after the seventh decade in women are related to differences in cardiovascular risk and life expectancy between men and women, as well as a likely surviving effect in older men. The mechanisms by which estrogen-progestin deficiency increases the risk of hypertension have been extensively studied. These mechanisms are obviously numerous. However, it has not been clearly demonstrated that hormone replacement therapy during menopause reduces blood pressure levels. It should be noted that the route of administration, the choice of molecules, the respect of the intervention window and the dosage seem to modulate the potential vascular effects.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Menopausa , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Estrogênios/fisiologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Verduras
12.
Life Sci ; 231: 116544, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181229

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the effect of long-term N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment in Wistar rats subjected to renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) and a chronic high­sodium diet (HSD). MAIN METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats received an HSD (8.0% NaCl) or a normal­sodium diet (NSD; 1.3% NaCl) and NAC (600 mg/L) or normal drinking water starting at 8 weeks of age. At 11 weeks of age, the rats from both diet and NAC or water treatment groups underwent renal IR or Sham surgery and were followed for 10 weeks. The study consisted of six animal groups: NSD + Sham + water; NSD + IR + water; NSD + IR + NAC; HSD + Sham + water; HSD + IR + water; and HSD + IR + NAC. KEY FINDINGS: Tail blood pressure (tBP) increased with IR and NAC treatment in the NSD group but not in the HSD group. The serum creatinine level was higher after NAC treatment in both diet groups, and creatinine clearance was decreased in only the HSD + IR + NAC group. Albuminuria increased in the HSD + IR + water group and decreased in the HSD + IR + NAC group. Kidney mass was increased in the HSD + IR group and decreased with NAC treatment. Renal fibrosis was prevented with NAC treatment and cardiac fibrosis was decreased with NAC treatment in the HSD + IR group. SIGNIFICANCE: NAC treatment promoted structural improvements, such as decreased albuminuria and fibrosis, in the kidney and heart. However, NAC could not recover kidney function or blood pressure from the effects of IR associated with an HSD. Therefore, in general, long-term NAC treatment is not effective and is deleterious to recovery of function after kidney injury.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/metabolismo , Isquemia/patologia , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reperfusão/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
13.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 391-398, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177907

RESUMO

The mineralocorticoid aldosterone increases in plasma in healthy pregnancy along with renin and angiotensin II and plays a key role in the physiological plasma volume expansion. In mice, aldosterone contributes to an optimal fetal development by enhancing PlGF (placental growth factor) expression and trophoblast cell proliferation. In preeclampsia, there is coincident suppression of aldosterone and impaired placental development. We hypothesized that aldosterone independently contributes to placental and birth weight in humans, and high dietary sodium and low potassium intakes affect this relationship adversely. We analyzed 24-hour urine collections and plasma samples from gestational week 29 in a subsample of 569 pregnant women from the Odense Child Cohort-a Danish population-based longitudinal cohort study. Plasma and urinary aldosterone were measured by ELISA, sodium and potassium excretions by flame photometer. Predictive values of aldosterone levels and sodium and potassium intakes were assessed by multiple and Cox regression analyses. Primary outcomes were placental weight and birth weight. Secondary outcome was preeclampsia. Urinary aldosterone excretion at gestational week 29 independently contributed to placental and birth weights (adjusted ß-coefficients [95% CI], 24.50 [9.66-39.35] and 9.59 [4.57-14.61], respectively). Aldosterone levels were not associated to preeclampsia incidence. Salt intake >6 g/d was associated with development of preeclampsia (hazard ratio [95% CI], 5.68 [1.51-21.36]). At gestational week 29, urinary aldosterone excretion is an independent predictor of placental and birth weights. High salt intake is a risk factor for preeclampsia. In perspective, suppression of aldosterone in pregnancy has adverse trophic effects.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/sangue , Potássio/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
14.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060286

RESUMO

The incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases have increased in Western countries over the last years. The pathogenesis of these disorders is multifactorial, with a combination of genetic and environmental factors involved. Since the epidemiological changes cannot be related to genetic background, which did not change significantly in that time, the role of environmental factors has been reconsidered. Among these, dietary habits, and especially an excessive salt, typical of processed foods, has been implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize current evidence, deriving both from experimental models and clinical studies, on the capability of excessive salt intake to exacerbate proinflammatory responses affecting the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. Data on several diseases are presented, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and Crohn's disease, with many of them supporting a proinflammatory effect of salt. Likewise, a hypertonic microenvironment showed similar effects in experimental models both in vivo and in vitro. However, murine models of spontaneous autoimmune polyneuropathy exposed to high salt diet suggest opposite outcomes. These results dictate the need to further analyse the role of cooking salt in the treatment and prevention of autoimmune diseases, trying to shape a fine tuning between the possible advantages of a restricted salt intake and the changes in circulating metabolites, mediators, and hormones which come along salt consumption and could in turn influence autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Análise de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 115: 108937, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xin-Ji-Er-Kang (XJEK) is a Chinese herbal formula that has beenreported to exert effective protection against cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and myocarditis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of XJEK on high-salt-induced hypertensive mice and its possible mechanism. METHODS: The model of hypertension was established through a high-salt diet. Sixty male Kunming mice were randomized into six groups, namely the Control, Model, Low-dose XJEK, Middle-dose XJEK, High-dose XJEK and Fosinopril groups (n=10 per group). Different steady interventions were given to each group: 0.9% Sodium chloride was added to the diet of the Control group and 8% sodium chloride to the diet of the other five groups from the very beginning. An additional 4, 8 and 12 g/kg/day XJEK were intragastrically administered to the Low-dose, Middle-dose and High-dose XJEK groups, respectively, and 2 mg/kg/day fosinopril to the fosinopril group, from the start of week 5. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly from weeks 1 to 8 using the tail-cuff method. At the end of week 8, left ventricular (LV) systolic pressure, LV end-diastolic pressure and rate of rise of LV pressure were examined using a TransonicScisense catheter (Transonic Systems Inc,Ithaca, NY,USA). Endothelium-dependent relaxations induced by acetylcholine were observed in an isolated thoracic aorta ring. Serum and heartsweresampled for the measurement of the following indexes:Serum nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (determined by colorimetricanalysis); serum angiotensin II(Ang II), endothelin-1, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) concentration and l-arginine (determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay); heart to body weight (HW/BW) ratio; myocardial morphological change (determined by HE and VG staining); myocardial eNOS expression (determined by immunofluorescence), and myocardial endothelin receptor A (ETA) expression (determined by western blotting). RESULTS: Statistical data showed that the HW/BW ratio was significantly decreased in the drug treatment group. XJEK treatment could improve the heart systolic and diastolic function and ameliorate hemodynamic parameters and vascular remodeling indexes. Colorimetric results showed that, compared with the model group, XJEK increased serum SOD, NOlevels, and decreased those of serum MDA and Ang II. XJEK reverted changes in cardiac pathology, decreased the myocardial cross-sectional area, collagen volume fraction and perivascular collagen area and improved endothelial dysfunction (ED) by promoting eNOS activity, enhancing NO bioavailability, increasing the expression of BH4 and decreasing ETA content. In addition, treatment with XJEK decreased ADMA content in the myocardium. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, XJEK mitigates cardiac remodeling in high-salt-induced hypertensive mice. The potential mechanism involves improved oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, independently of ameliorating BP.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
16.
Hypertension ; 74(1): 194-200, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079530

RESUMO

Dietary sodium restriction has multiple beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and the roles of metabolomics have been rarely studied. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the reduction in dietary sodium intake would induce changes in metabolomic profiling among black hypertensives, and the changes would be associated with reduced blood pressure (BP) and improved skin capillary density. A total of 64 untreated black hypertensives were included from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial of sodium reduction. The participants were given either 9 slow sodium tablets (10 mmol sodium per tablet) or placebo tablets daily for 6 weeks, they then crossed over to receive the other tablets for another 6 weeks, while on reduced sodium diet aiming at achieving daily sodium intake around 2.0 g. Untargeted metabolomic profiling was performed in paired serum samples, which were collected at the end of each period, so were BP and capillary density. Mixed-effects models were used. There were 34 metabolites identified with raw P's<0.05. Among those, 2 metabolites including ß-hydroxyisovalerate and methionine sulfone were significantly increased with sodium reduction (false discovery rate =0.006 and 0.099, respectively). Increased ß-hydroxyisovalerate was associated with reduced office systolic BP and ambulatory daytime systolic BP, whereas increased methionine sulfone was associated with reduced 24-hour diastolic BP, ambulatory nighttime diastolic BP, and increased skin capillary density. Our results suggest that dietary sodium reduction increases the circulating levels of ß-hydroxyisovalerate and methionine sulfone. Further studies are warranted. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00152074.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Metabolômica/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 294, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Deficiency as well as excess dietary iodine is associated with several thyroid disorders including Grave's disease and goitre. Previously, cross sectional studies conducted among school children in Nepal showed high prevalence of iodine deficiency. In contrast, recently, few studies have revealed emerging trends of excess urinary iodine concentration in children. This paper, reports excess urinary iodine excretion and thyroid dysfunction among school age children from eastern Nepal. RESULTS: It was a community based cross sectional study in which we measured urinary iodine excretion levels among school age children at baseline and after educational program. The educational program consisted of audio-visual and pamphlets on thyroid health. We also screened them for thyroid function status by physical examination and measuring serum thyroid hormones. Our results show that 34.4% of the children had excess urinary iodine concentration above the WHO recommended levels. Overall, 3.2% of the children were identified to have thyroid dysfunction. Urinary iodine concentration was significantly different between types of salt used and between salt iodine content categories.


Assuntos
Hipertireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Iodo/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Hipertireoidismo/metabolismo , Hipertireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Hipotireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
18.
Orv Hetil ; 160(17): 646-653, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010308

RESUMO

High salt intake, which is common in the Western world, is the cause of several lifestyle diseases. Recent investigations shed light on novel extrarenal processes, which play role in the maintenance of sodium balance. In the short term, sodium storage of the skin may serve as a buffer against volume overload arising from the osmotic properties of sodium. Increased tissue sodium concentration may also potentiate immune response against infections. In the long run, however, tissue sodium concentration over a certain limit may initiate pathophysiological processes by provoking inflammatory response. Due to the immune modulating role of sodium, the effector cells of the innate as well as the adaptive immune system are activated, while certain regulator cells of the same systems are repressed, ultimately resulting in a proinflammatory state characterized by the imbalance of the immune system. Experiments applying dietary salt overload/salt depletion imply the role of sodium in the initiation/exacerbation of several diseases. Thus the relationship between sodium and the immune system may give an explanation to the pathomechanism of diseases with so far unknown origin such as hypertonia (primary, salt sensitive) or autoimmune diseases - all these putting tremendous pressure on the healthcare system due to their increasing incidence. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(17): 646-653.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Sistema Imunitário , Imunomodulação , Macrófagos/imunologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Sódio , Autoimunidade , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T
19.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0207461, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870430

RESUMO

The anti-diuretic hormone arginine vasopressin is thought to be a detrimental factor in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). We previously reported that high water intake (HWI) reduced urine osmolality and urinary arginine vasopressin, improved renal function, and reduced the kidney/body weight ratio in PCK rats, an orthologous model of human PKD. In PKD patients, however, it is reported that HWI increases total kidney volume, urine volume, and urine sodium excretion, which could be a consequence of high salt intake. In the current study, we loaded PCK rats with high salt concurrently with HWI to determine whether this human-imitated condition exacerbates disease progression. PCK rats were assigned into 4 groups: control group (CONT: distilled water), HWI group (HWI: 5% glucose in water), HWI with 0.2% NaCl group (HWI+0.2%NaCl), and HWI with 0.45% NaCl group (HWI+0.45%NaCl). Total water intake during the experimental period was increased by 1.86-, 2.02-, and 2.42-fold in HWI, HWI+0.2%NaCl, and HWI+0.45%NaCl, and sodium intake was increased by 2.55- and 5.83-fold in HWI+0.2%NaCl and HWI+0.45%NaCl, respectively, compared with CONT. Systolic blood pressure was higher in HWI+0.2%NaCl and HWI+0.45%NaCl than in both CONT and HWI. Serum urea nitrogen, kidney/body weight ratio, cAMP, cystic area, and fibrosis index were significantly lower in HWI compared with CONT, and these ameliorative effects were not abrogated in either HWI+0.2%NaCl or HWI+0.45%NaCl. The amount of sodium excreted into the urine was increased by 2.50- and 8.38-fold in HWI+0.2%NaCl and HWI+0.45%NaCl, respectively, compared with HWI. Serum sodium levels were not different between the groups. These findings indicate that the beneficial effect of HWI against the progression of cystic kidney disease was not affected even by high salt-overload in this rodent model of PKD.


Assuntos
Doenças Renais Policísticas/dietoterapia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Água/administração & dosagem , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Renais Policísticas/sangue , Doenças Renais Policísticas/urina , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sódio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
20.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(1): 6-14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Consumption of salt exceeds dietary guidelines for many countries around the world, despite efforts to increase awareness of the potential cardiovascular health risks. Emerging evidence, primarily from rodent models, indicates that high salt intake may also impair aspects of cognitive function. To our knowledge, here we provide the first review of the effects of salt on cognition. To review literature on the effects of high-salt diets on cognitive measures across human and non-human animal research to generate targeted questions for future studies. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Non-systematic literature review of studies manipulating (in rodents) or measuring (in humans) salt intake and assessing performance on cognitive measures. RESULTS: Studies in humans have focused on older populations and show mixed associations between salt intake and cognitive performance. By contrast, most rodent studies have found impairments in cognition following chronic consumption of high-salt (typically 7-8%) diets. Most report impairments in tasks assessing spatial memory with corresponding increases in hippocampal oxidative stress and inflammatory responses originating in the gut. Notably, several rodent studies reported that high-salt diets impaired cognitive function in the absence of blood pressure changes. CONCLUSIONS: Contrasting results from human and animal studies emphasise the need for further studies to clarify whether salt intake affects cognition. Testing cognition in high-salt diet models that induce hypertension will increase the translatability of future studies in rodents. A challenge for research in humans is isolating the effects of salt from those of fat and sugar that tend to co-occur in 'western' diets.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva , Dieta , Humanos
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