Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55.650
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4368, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868758

RESUMO

Increased extracellular sodium activates Th17 cells, which provide protection from bacterial and fungal infections. Whilst high salt diets have been shown to worsen autoimmune disease, the immunological consequences of clinical salt depletion are unknown. Here, we investigate immunity in patients with inherited salt-losing tubulopathies (SLT). Forty-seven genotyped SLT patients (with Bartter, Gitelman or EAST Syndromes) are recruited. Clinical features of dysregulated immunity are recorded with a standardised questionnaire and immunological investigations of IL-17 responsiveness undertaken. The effects of altering extracellular ionic concentrations on immune responses are then assessed. Patients are hypokalaemic and hypomagnesaemic, with reduced interstitial sodium stores determined by 23Na-magnetic resonance imaging. SLT patients report increased mucosal infections and allergic disease compared to age-matched controls. Aligned with their clinical phenotype, SLT patients have an increased ratio of Th2:Th17 cells. SLT Th17 and Tc17 polarisation is reduced in vitro, yet STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation and calcium flux following T cell activation are unaffected. In control cells, the addition of extracellular sodium (+40 mM), potassium (+2 mM), or magnesium (+1 mM) reduces Th2:Th17 ratio and augments Th17 polarisation. Our results thus show that the ionic environment typical in SLT impairs IL-17 immunity, but the intracellular pathways that mediate salt-driven Th17 polarisation are intact and in vitro IL-17 responses can be reinvigorated by increasing extracellular sodium concentration. Whether better correction of extracellular ions can rescue the immunophenotype in vivo in SLT patients remains unknown.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Distais/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Humanos , Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/metabolismo , Sais/metabolismo , Sais/uso terapêutico , Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114963, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806446

RESUMO

Soil and freshwater salinization are growing issues worldwide. Road salt, primarily sodium chloride (NaCl), is a significant contributor to this issue in North America. In this study, the ability of three native Canadian halophytes (Atriplex patula, Atriplex hortensis, and Atriplex canescans) to remove Na+ and Cl- from contaminated soil was investigated. Field and greenhouse studies determined plant survivability in roadside areas, as well as Na+ and Cl- extraction levels. The Atriplex spp. accumulated 18-55 mg Na+ g-1 dry weight (DW) and 41-64 mg Cl- g-1 DW when grown for a two-month period in soil spiked with NaCl to simulate a very highly contaminated roadside. Using A. patula, it would theoretically take 6 growing seasons to remove all salt from an area contaminated with 1540 µg Cl- g-1, while A. hortensis and A. canescens would take 19 and 9 years, respectively. Salt content in shoot components (seeds, stem, leaves) was determined to provide further insight on phytoextraction processes. In all three Atriplex species, the leaves had the highest Cl- concentration, followed by the seeds (bracteoles included), with the lowest concentrations found in the stem. These novel findings provide important information for road salt remediation and indicate that using Atriplex spp. may be a viable way in which to reduce the environmental impact of road salting.


Assuntos
Atriplex , Biodegradação Ambiental , Canadá , América do Norte , Cloreto de Sódio , Solo
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13875, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807805

RESUMO

Respiratory protection is key in infection prevention of airborne diseases, as highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic for instance. Conventional technologies have several drawbacks (i.e., cross-infection risk, filtration efficiency improvements limited by difficulty in breathing, and no safe reusability), which have yet to be addressed in a single device. Here, we report the development of a filter overcoming the major technical challenges of respiratory protective devices. Large-pore membranes, offering high breathability but low bacteria capture, were functionalized to have a uniform salt layer on the fibers. The salt-functionalized membranes achieved high filtration efficiency as opposed to the bare membrane, with differences of up to 48%, while maintaining high breathability (> 60% increase compared to commercial surgical masks even for the thickest salt filters tested). The salt-functionalized filters quickly killed Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria aerosols in vitro, with CFU reductions observed as early as within 5 min, and in vivo by causing structural damage due to salt recrystallization. The salt coatings retained the pathogen inactivation capability at harsh environmental conditions (37 °C and a relative humidity of 70%, 80% and 90%). Combination of these properties in one filter will lead to the production of an effective device, comprehensibly mitigating infection transmission globally.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/química , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/microbiologia , Membranas Artificiais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Aerossóis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cristalização , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20292-20297, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747529

RESUMO

Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) is a transcription factor (TF) that mediates protection from adverse effects of hypertonicity by increasing transcription of genes, including those that lead to cellular accumulation of protective organic osmolytes. NFAT5 has three intrinsically ordered (ID) activation domains (ADs). Using the NFAT5 N-terminal domain (NTD), which contains AD1, as a model, we demonstrate by biophysical methods that the NTD senses osmolytes and hypertonicity, resulting in stabilization of its ID regions. In the presence of sufficient NaCl or osmolytes, trehalose and sorbitol, the NFAT5 NTD undergoes a disorder-to-order shift, adopting higher average secondary and tertiary structure. Thus, NFAT5 is activated by the stress that it protects against. In its salt and/or osmolyte-induced more ordered conformation, the NTD interacts with several proteins, including HMGI-C, which is known to protect against apoptosis. These findings raise the possibility that the increased intracellular ionic strength and elevated osmolytes caused by hypertonicity activate and stabilize NFAT5.


Assuntos
Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/química , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica , Ligação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Cloreto de Sódio , Sorbitol , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Trealose
5.
Water Res ; 183: 116034, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736269

RESUMO

Capacitive deionization (CDI) devices use cyclical electrosorption on porous electrode surfaces to achieve water desalination. Process modeling and design of CDI systems requires accurate treatment of the coupling among input electrical forcing, input flow rates, and system responses including salt removal dynamics, water recovery, energy storage, and dissipation. Techno-economic analyses of CDI further require a method to calculate and compare between a produced commodity (e.g. desalted water) versus capital and operational costs of the system. We here demonstrate a new modeling and analysis tool for CDI developed as an installable Matlab program that allows direct numerical simulation of CDI dynamics and calculation of key performance and cost parameters. The program is provided for free and is used to run open-source Simulink models. The Simulink environment sends information to the program and allows for a drag and drop design space where users can connect CDI cells to relevant periphery blocks such as grid energy, battery, solar panel, waste disposal, and maintenance/labor cost streams. The program allows for simulation of arbitrary current forcing and arbitrary flow rate forcing of one or more CDI cells. We employ validated well-mixed reactor formulations together with a non-linear circuit model formulation that can accommodate a variety of electric double layer sub-models (e.g. for charge efficiency). The program includes a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify CDI plant parameters, specify operating conditions, run individual tests or parameter batch-mode simulations, and plot relevant results. The techno-economic models convert among dimensional streams of species (e.g. feed, desalted water, and brine), energy, and cost and enable a variety of economic estimates including levelized water costs.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Cloreto de Sódio , Água
6.
Extremophiles ; 24(5): 787-796, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743715

RESUMO

Salted and ripened fish foods are susceptible to cause histamine poisoning. The present study focuses on microbial histamine degradation from high salted fermented fishery products to deepen our understanding about this new and growing field of research. As a result of this first study related to salted-ripened anchovies (Engraulis anchoita), fifty seven moderate and extreme halophilic microbial isolates from salt and salted-ripened anchovy processes were characterized in terms of their phenotype and histamine-degrading capacity. Only 7%-4 isolates-were able to degrade histamine. None of the histamine-degrading isolates presented proteolytic and/or lipolytic activity. One of them designated A18 was chemotactic toward histamine, an interesting property not previously reported for that chemoattractant. However, the S18 and A18 isolates, genotypically identified as Halobacterium sp. and Halomonas sp. respectively, produced indole and/or H2S, both undesirable characteristics associated to off-flavors occurrence. On the other hand, A28 and S20, identified as Halovibrio sp. and Halobacterium sp. respectively, presented desirable properties, such as cytochrome oxidase and catalase activity, and non-production of H2S and indole. These strains also showed characteristics previously reported as dominant in the ripened stage. The results are promising, and A28 and S20 may have the desirable features to improve the anchovy salting-ripening process.


Assuntos
Halobacteriales , Halomonas , Histamina , Animais , Aquicultura , Peixes , Histamina/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Cloreto de Sódio
7.
Gene ; 761: 145043, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777530

RESUMO

Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) constitute a significant class of the aquaporins. The TIPs control water trade among cytosolic and vacuolar compartments and can also transport glycerol, ammonia, urea, hydrogen peroxide, metals/metalloids, and so forth. Additionally, TIPs are engaged with different abiotic stress responses and developmental processes like leaf expansion, root elongation and seed germination. In this study, ten TIP genes in the rice genome were identified from Oryza sativa ssp indica. Among these, representative groups of TIP genes were cloned and sequenced whilst some TIP sequences showed stop codons in the coding region. The secondary structure analysis represented six conserved transmembrane helices along with the inter-helical regions having conserved motifs. The representative three-dimensional tetrameric design of protein sequence of TIP1;1 displayed key features like NPA motifs, aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filters, and Froger's residues. The vacuolar localization, transmembrane topological properties, and conserved motif analysis of the cloned genes altogether supported their identity as TIPs. An unrooted phylogenetic tree delineated the relatedness of TIPs from Oryza with different species and bunched them into five clades. The promoter analysis uncovered key regulons associated with administering abiotic stress responses. Gene expression studies showed thatTIPsare differentially regulated under salt and drought stress at various time points in shoots and roots of rice. Also, the pattern of expression was found to be significantly variable in five different rice tissues. The heat-map based tissue and stress- specific expression analysis supported the experimental findings. In conclusion, the identification and transcript-level expression studies of TIPs significantly contribute towards the comprehension of their utilitarian significance in the abiotic stress response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Vacúolos/genética , Água/metabolismo
8.
J Orofac Orthop ; 81(5): 360-370, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632652

RESUMO

PURPOSE: During orthodontic tooth movement, pressure and tension zones develop in the periodontal ligament, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) become exposed to mechanical strain. Enhanced salt (NaCl) concentrations are known to modulate responses of PDLF and immune cells to different stimuli like mechanical strain. Here, we investigated the impact of tensile strain on the gene expression profile of PDLF under normal (NS) and high salt (HS) conditions. METHODS: After preincubation under NS or HS (+40 mM NaCl in medium) conditions for 24 h, PDLF were stretched 16% for 48 h using custom-made spherical cap silicone stamps using an established and published setup. After determination of cell number and cytotoxicity, we analyzed expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix reorganization, angiogenesis, bone remodeling, and inflammation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS: Tensile strain did not affect the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis or extracellular matrix reorganization by PDLF, which however modulate inflammatory responses and bone remodeling in reaction to 16% static tensile strain. Salt (NaCl) treatment triggered enhanced extracellular matrix formation, expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and bone metabolism in PDLF during tensile strain. CONCLUSIONS: Salt (NaCl) consumption may influence orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal bone loss via modulation of extracellular matrix and bone metabolism. Excessive salt intake during orthodontic therapy may cause adverse effects regarding periodontal inflammation and bone resorption.


Assuntos
Ligamento Periodontal , Cloreto de Sódio , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos , Estresse Mecânico , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Transcriptoma
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649660

RESUMO

Freshwater wetlands of the temperate north are exposed to a range of pollutants that may alter their function, including nitrogen (N)-rich agricultural and urban runoff, seawater intrusion, and road salt contamination, though it is largely unknown how these drivers of change interact with the vegetation to affect wetland carbon (C) fluxes and microbial communities. We implemented a full factorial mesocosm (378.5 L tanks) experiment investigating C-related responses to three common wetland plants of eastern North America (Phragmites australis, Spartina pectinata, Typha latifolia), and four water quality treatments (fresh water control, N, road salt, sea salt). During the 2017 growing season, we quantified carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes, above- and below-ground biomass, root porosity, light penetration, pore water chemistry (NH4+, NO3-, SO4-2, Cl-, DOC), soil C mineralization, as well as sediment microbial communities via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Relative to freshwater controls, N enrichment stimulated plant biomass, which in turn increased CO2 uptake and reduced light penetration, especially in Spartina stands. Root porosity was not affected by water quality, but was positively correlated with CH4 emissions, suggesting that plants can be important conduits for CH4 from anoxic sediment to the atmosphere. Sediment microbial composition was largely unaffected by N addition, whereas salt amendments induced structural shifts, reduced sediment community diversity, and reduced C mineralization rates, presumably due to osmotic stress. Methane emissions were suppressed by sea salt, but not road salt, providing evidence for the additional chemical control (SO4-2 availability) on this microbial-mediated process. Thus, N may have stimulated plant activity while salting treatments preferentially enriched specific microbial populations. Together our findings underpin the utility of combining plant and microbial responses, and highlight the need for more integrative studies to predict the consequences of a changing environment on freshwater wetlands.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Solo/química , Ciclo do Carbono , Connecticut , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Qualidade da Água , Áreas Alagadas
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730292

RESUMO

Grapevines, although adapted to occasional drought or salt stress, are relatively sensitive to growth- and yield-limiting salinity stress. To understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and identify genes commonly regulated by both stresses in grapevine, we investigated transcript profiles in leaves of the salt-tolerant grapevine rootstock 1616C under salt- and ER-stress. Among 1643 differentially expressed transcripts at 6 h post-treatment in leaves, 29 were unique to ER stress, 378 were unique to salt stress, and 16 were common to both stresses. At 24 h post-treatment, 243 transcripts were unique to ER stress, 1150 were unique to salt stress, and 168 were common to both stresses. GO term analysis identified genes in categories including 'oxidative stress', 'protein folding', 'transmembrane transport', 'protein phosphorylation', 'lipid transport', 'proteolysis', 'photosynthesis', and 'regulation of transcription'. The expression of genes encoding transporters, transcription factors, and proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis increased in response to both ER and salt stresses. KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes for both ER and salt stress were divided into four main categories including; carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, signal transduction and lipid metabolism. Differential expression of several genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, which validated our microarray results. We identified transcripts for genes that might be involved in salt tolerance and also many genes differentially expressed under both ER and salt stresses. Our results could provide new insights into the mechanisms of salt tolerance and ER stress in plants and should be useful for genetic improvement of salt tolerance in grapevine.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Vitis/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Osmose , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tunicamicina/farmacologia
11.
Food Chem ; 332: 127414, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615379

RESUMO

The reasons for the change in the water retention capability of salted pork caused by potassium chloride (KCl) instead of sodium chloride (NaCl) were investigated. Accompanied by the gradually increased substitution rate of KCl, the oxidative degradation of protein, water content, water activity (aw), gap, as well as water loss in salted pork were increased, and the results showed significant differences (p < 0.05). LF-NMR results indicated that NaCl was replaced by KCl, which can observably increased the mobility of water in the salted pork (p < 0.05). All indexes showed excellent correlation. NaCl was replaced by KCl, which affected the water retention capability of salted pork, because K+ promoted changes in the meat's physicochemical properties. The KCl replacement group presented higher water content, while displayed lower water retention capability.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Cloreto de Potássio/química , Água/química , Animais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Oxirredução , Proteínas/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Suínos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649724

RESUMO

Halophiles are relatively unexplored as potential sources of novel species. However, little is known about the culturable bacterial diversity thrive in hypersaline lakes. In this work, a total of 343 bacteria from sediment samples of Aiding Lake, China, were isolated using nine different media supplemented with 5% or 15% (w/v) NaCl. The number of species and genera of bacteria recovered from the different media varied, indicating the need to optimize the isolation conditions. The results showed an unexpected level of bacterial diversity, with four phyla (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Rhodothermaeota), fourteen orders (Actinopolysporales, Alteromonadales, Bacillales, Balneolales, Chromatiales, Glycomycetales, Jiangellales, Micrococcales, Micromonosporales, Oceanospirillales, Pseudonocardiales, Rhizobiales, Streptomycetales, and Streptosporangiales), including 17 families, 43 genera (including two novel genera), and 71 species (including four novel species). The predominant phyla included Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and the predominant genera included Actinopolyspora, Gracilibacillus, Halomonas, Nocardiopsis, and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this is the first time that members of phylum Rhodothermaeota were identified in sediment samples from a salt lake.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , China , Lagos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
13.
Food Chem ; 333: 127525, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683262

RESUMO

The consumption of halophytes as healthy gourmet food has increased considerably in the past few years. However, knowledge on the nutritional profile of domesticated halophytes is scarce and little is known on which cultivation conditions can produce plants with the best nutritional and functional properties. In this context, Salicornia ramosissima J. Woods was cultivated in six different salt concentrations, ranging from 35 to 465 mM of NaCl. Both the nutritional profile, the antioxidant capacity, and microbial quality of the produced plants were evaluated including minerals and vitamins. Salt has a marked effect on growth, which decreases for salinities higher than 110 mM. Nonetheless, plants cultivated with intermediate levels of salinity (110 and 200 mM) revealed better antioxidant status with higher amounts of phenolic compounds. Overall, results from this paper indicated that soilless culture systems using low-intermediate salinities produces S. ramosissima plants fit for commercialization and human consumption.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Chenopodiaceae/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/análise , Chenopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodiaceae/microbiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/química , Vitaminas/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127594, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673874

RESUMO

Salinization of freshwater ecosystems caused by human activities and climate change is a global problem that threatens freshwater resources and aquatic organisms. The aggravation of salinization and the presence of cyanobacterial blooms may pose a serious threat to crustacean zooplankton Daphnia. To test the consequences of these effects, we exposed Daphnia magna to the combined treatments of different chloride concentrations and three food compositions (100% Chlorella pyrenoidosa, 90% C. pyrenoidosa + 10% toxic Microcystis aeruginosa, 80% C. pyrenoidosa + 20% toxic M. aeruginosa) for 21 days, recorded relevant life history indicators, and fitted them using Sigmoidal and Gaussian model if appropriate. Results showed that both increased chloride and the presence of toxic M. aeruginosa in the food had significantly negative effects on key life history traits and clearance rate, and the two factors also had a significant interaction on the survival, development, and reproduction of D. magna. The maximum values of the key life-history traits and clearance rate, the median effect chloride concentrations, and the optimal chloride concentrations derived from the models showed that the survival, reproduction, and clearance rate of D. magna were threatened by high chloride concentrations, which were exacerbated by the presence of toxic M. aeruginosa, but lower concentration of chloride was beneficial to D. magna to resist toxic M. aeruginosa. In conclusion, the combined effects of increasing chloride concentration and cyanobacterial blooms have severely adverse impacts on cladocerans, which may cause cladocera population to decline more rapidly and potentially disrupt the food webs of aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce/química , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Daphnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Daphnia/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Traços de História de Vida , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115244, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688196

RESUMO

The application of roadway deicing salts is increasing the salinity of freshwater systems. Increased salinization from salts, such as NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2, can have direct, negative impacts on freshwater organisms at concentrations found in nature. Yet, our understanding of how these salts can indirectly impact freshwater organisms by altering important ecological interactions, such as those between hosts and their parasites, is limited. Using a larval amphibian and infectious free-living helminth (i.e. trematode) model, we examined whether exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 1) influence trematode mortality; 2) alter amphibian-trematode interactions; and 3) alter larval amphibian activity (a behavior associated with parasite avoidance). We found that exposure to CaCl2 greatly reduced trematode survival across all Cl- concentrations (230, 500, 860 and 1000 mg Cl- L-1) while NaCl and MgCl2 had no effect. When both host and parasites were exposed to the salts, exposure to NaCl, but not MgCl2 or CaCl2, increased infection. The lack of effect of CaCl2 on infection was likely driven by CaCl2 reducing trematode survival. Exposure to NaCl increased infection at 500 mg Cl- L-1, but not 230 or 860 mg Cl- L-1. Increased infection was not due to salt exposure altering tadpole behavior. Our results suggest that NaCl can negatively impact amphibian populations indirectly by increasing trematode infections in tadpole hosts.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Trematódeos , Animais , Água Doce , Larva , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio
16.
Water Res ; 183: 116044, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721704

RESUMO

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method of removing salt ions from brackish water. A common assumption in CDI is that monovalent ions (e.g., Na+, Cl-) are removed in a 1:1 symmetry on the electrodes. Validation of this assumption with techniques such as ion chromatography is not commonly performed, but is important to better understand how parasitic process, such as faradaic reactions, affect ion removals. In this study, we quantified the removals of Na+ and Cl- as a function of electrode orientation in flow-through CDI. When the cathode was positioned upstream, Na+ and Cl- removals approached a 1:1 symmetry, but when the anode was located upstream, we observed a significant drop in Na+, but not Cl-, removals. We attributed this drop to oxygen reduction reactions at the cathode that competed with Na+ adsorption. Oxidation of carbon in the upstream anode yielded H+ that enhanced the reduction of oxygen to H2O2 at the downstream cathode, which in turn diverted electrons from Na+ adsorption. In the absence of oxygen, Na+ removals increased in the upstream anode orientation and were comparable to Cl- removals, confirming that competition with oxygen reduction reactions was the primary reason for decreased Na+ removal. In the upstream cathode orientation, we show that H2O2 generated at the cathode can be oxidized at the downstream anode, possibly enhancing Na+ removals via internal electron recycling. Salt adsorption capacities calculated using actual ion removals did not always agree with those estimated using changes in solution conductivity, with the largest disagreement observed when conductivity data were corrected for pH changes. Our results highlight that faradaic reactions, particularly oxygen reduction reactions, can contribute to asymmetrical removals of monovalent ions in flow-through CDI.


Assuntos
Sódio , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Cloretos , Eletrodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Cloreto de Sódio
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701993

RESUMO

Peptide signalling is an integral part of cell-to-cell communication which helps to relay the information responsible for coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation. Phytosulfokine Receptor (PSKR) is a transmembrane LRR-RLK family protein with a binding site for small signalling peptide, phytosulfokine (PSK). PSK signalling through PSKR promotes normal growth and development and also plays a role in defense responses. Like other RLKs, these PSKRs might have a role in signal transduction pathways related to abiotic stress responses. Genome-wide analysis of phytosulfokine receptor gene family has led to the identification of fifteen putative members in the Oryza sativa genome. The expression analysis of OsPSKR genes done using RNA-seq data, showed that these genes were differentially expressed in different tissues and responded specifically to heat, salt, drought and cold stress. Furthermore, the real-time quantitative PCR for fifteen OsPSKR genes revealed temporally and spatially regulated gene expression corresponding to salinity and drought stress. Our results provide useful information for a better understanding of OsPSKR genes and provide the foundation for additional functional exploration of the rice PSKR gene family in development and stress response.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Oryza/genética , Hormônios Peptídicos/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Peptídeos/classificação , Filogenia , Salinidade , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
18.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127623, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668363

RESUMO

The global demand of lithium is rising steadily, and many industrially advanced countries may find it hard to secure an uninterrupted supply of lithium for meeting their manufacturing demands. Thus, innovative processes for lithium recovery from a wide range of natural reserves should be explored for meeting the future demands. In this study, a novel integrated approach was investigated by combining nanofiltration (NF), membrane distillation (MD) and precipitation processes for lithium recovery from salt-lake brines. Initially, the brine was filtered with an NF membrane for the separation of lithium ions (Li+) from competing ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. The extent of permeation of metal ions by the NF membrane was governed by their hydrated ionic radii. Rejection by NF membrane was 42% for Li, 48% for Na and 61% for K, while both the divalent cations were effectively rejected (above 90%). Importantly, in the NF-permeate, Mg2+/Li+ mass ratio reduced to less than 6 (suggested for lithium recovery). The result showed that MD can enrich lithium with a concentration of 2.5 for raw brine and 5 for NF-treated brine. Following the enrichment of NF-permeate by the MD membrane, a two-stage precipitation method was used for the recovery of lithium. X-ray diffraction confirmed the precipitation of lithium as well as the formation of lithium carbonate crystals.


Assuntos
Lagos/química , Lítio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cátions Bivalentes , Destilação , Íons , Lítio/química , Sais , Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2221-2231, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-438384

RESUMO

In this paper, we analyzed medical records of 40 patients with coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), in order to explore the clinical efficacy of Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection in the treatment of COVID-19. The investigation was based on the results of a previous animal test, which was aimed to investigate and confirme the clinical efficacy of Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection in the treatment of COVID-19. The animal test demonstrated that Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection has a significant therapeutic effect on the human coronavirus pneumonia for the model mice. The lung inhibition index reached up to 86.86%. The evaluation was conducted on 40 confirmed cases of COVID-19 treated at Jingzhou Hospital of Infectious Disease(Chest Hospital) of Hubei Pro-vince from January 30~(th) to March 21~(th), 2020. In these cases, patients were treated with other integrated Chinese and Western medicines regimens in the recommended Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection diagnosis and treatment regimen. The clinical manifestations, laboratory data, nucleic acid clearance time, and imaging data were compared and analyzed before and after treatment. After administration with Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection, the clinical symptoms of 40 cases were alleviated markedly, and their blood analysis and biochemical indexes returned to normal. The lung CT showed more than 50% of lesion absorption rate, and the viral nucleic acid test showed the average clearance time of patients was 16.6 days, and the average length of hospital stay was 25.9 days. After administration with Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection, the symptoms of cough and fatigue were alleviated significantly, and the appetite was significantly improved compared with before, especially for patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Additionally, laboratory indicators, especially absolute value and ratio of lymphocytes and CRP were significantly alleviated. According to the chest CT for short-term review, the absorption of lung lesions was faster than before, especially for grid-like and fibrotic lesions. Compared with antiviral drugs, such as Abidol and Kriging, the nucleic acid clearance time was significantly shorter than the cases treated with Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection. The clinical effective rate of 40 cases was 100.0%. We believed that Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection have a good clinical effect in the treatment of COVID-19, and suggested increasing the clinical application and further conducting large-sample-size cli-nical verification.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Alcaloides , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Quinolizinas , Cloreto de Sódio , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2221-2231, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495574

RESUMO

In this paper, we analyzed medical records of 40 patients with coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), in order to explore the clinical efficacy of Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection in the treatment of COVID-19. The investigation was based on the results of a previous animal test, which was aimed to investigate and confirme the clinical efficacy of Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection in the treatment of COVID-19. The animal test demonstrated that Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection has a significant therapeutic effect on the human coronavirus pneumonia for the model mice. The lung inhibition index reached up to 86.86%. The evaluation was conducted on 40 confirmed cases of COVID-19 treated at Jingzhou Hospital of Infectious Disease(Chest Hospital) of Hubei Pro-vince from January 30~(th) to March 21~(th), 2020. In these cases, patients were treated with other integrated Chinese and Western medicines regimens in the recommended Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection diagnosis and treatment regimen. The clinical manifestations, laboratory data, nucleic acid clearance time, and imaging data were compared and analyzed before and after treatment. After administration with Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection, the clinical symptoms of 40 cases were alleviated markedly, and their blood analysis and biochemical indexes returned to normal. The lung CT showed more than 50% of lesion absorption rate, and the viral nucleic acid test showed the average clearance time of patients was 16.6 days, and the average length of hospital stay was 25.9 days. After administration with Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection, the symptoms of cough and fatigue were alleviated significantly, and the appetite was significantly improved compared with before, especially for patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Additionally, laboratory indicators, especially absolute value and ratio of lymphocytes and CRP were significantly alleviated. According to the chest CT for short-term review, the absorption of lung lesions was faster than before, especially for grid-like and fibrotic lesions. Compared with antiviral drugs, such as Abidol and Kriging, the nucleic acid clearance time was significantly shorter than the cases treated with Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection. The clinical effective rate of 40 cases was 100.0%. We believed that Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection have a good clinical effect in the treatment of COVID-19, and suggested increasing the clinical application and further conducting large-sample-size cli-nical verification.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Alcaloides , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Quinolizinas , Cloreto de Sódio , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA