Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 56.477
Filtrar
1.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(3): 752-762, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388132

RESUMO

In this study, an electro-oxidation (EO) process using graphite electrodes as electrode pairs was used for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4+-N), and color from real textile printing wastewater. The effects of solution pH, sodium chloride (NaCl) dosage, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), which is the oldest and still most important chlorine-based bleach, dosage, and oxidation time were investigated on the removal efficiencies. Operating conditions for the EO reactor were applied to current density 1 mA/cm2, distance between the electrodes: 2 cm, 150 min operation time, and stirring speed of 500 rpm. At optimum conditions: pH 9.5, applied current density 1 mA/cm2, NaCl dosage of 8 g/L, NaOCl dosage of 44.4 mg/L and 150 min electro-oxidation time, the obtained removal efficiencies were 86.5% and 91.1% for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen, respectively. Efficiency was increased to 91.1% for ammoniacal nitrogen from 21.7% after applying EO combined with NaOCl addition compared to individual NaOCl addition.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Eletrodos , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Impressão Tridimensional , Cloreto de Sódio , Têxteis , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Anal Chem ; 93(32): 11200-11207, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346671

RESUMO

Conformational changes of antibodies and other biologics can decrease the effectiveness of pharmaceutical separations. Hence, a detailed mechanistic picture of antibody-stationary phase interactions that occur during ion-exchange chromatography (IEX) can provide critical insights. This work examines antibody conformational changes and how they perturb antibody motion and affect ensemble elution profiles. We combine IEX, three-dimensional single-protein tracking, and circular dichroism spectroscopy to investigate conformational changes of a model antibody, immunoglobulin G (IgG), as it interacts with the stationary phase as a function of salt conditions. The results indicate that the absence of salt enhances electrostatic attraction between IgG and the stationary phase, promotes surface-induced unfolding, slows IgG motion, and decreases elution from the column. Our results reveal previously unreported details of antibody structural changes and their influence on macroscale elution profiles.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G , Cloreto de Sódio , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360759

RESUMO

Salt and osmotic stress are the main abiotic stress factors affecting plant root growth and architecture. We investigated the effect of salt (100 mM NaCl) and osmotic (200 mM mannitol) stress on the auxin metabolome by UHPLC-MS/MS, auxin distribution by confocal microscopy, and transcript levels of selected genes by qRT-PCR in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (Col-0) and DR5rev::GFP (DR5) line. During long-term stress (13 days), a stability of the auxin metabolome and a tendency to increase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were observed, especially during salt stress. Short-term stress (3 h) caused significant changes in the auxin metabolome, especially NaCl treatment resulted in a significant reduction of IAA. The data derived from auxin profiling were consistent with gene expressions showing the most striking changes in the transcripts of YUC, GH3, and UGT transcripts, suggesting disruption of auxin biosynthesis, but especially in the processes of amide and ester conjugation. These data were consistent with the auxin distribution observed in the DR5 line. Moreover, NaCl treatment caused a redistribution of auxin signals from the quiescent center and the inner layers of the root cap to the epidermal and cortical cells of the root elongation zone. The distribution of PIN proteins was also disrupted by salt stress; in particular, PIN2 was suppressed, even after 5 min of treatment. Based on our results, the DR5 line was more sensitive to the applied stresses than Col-0, although both lines showed similar trends in root morphology, as well as transcriptome and metabolome parameters under stress conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10272-10280, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436886

RESUMO

Salt is very important for human health and food seasoning. Recently, several peptides isolated from natural food products have been reported exhibiting a salty taste or a saltiness-enhancing function. In this investigation, taste-active peptides occurring in commercial Chinese fermented soybean curd were isolated and identified using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and nano-LC/Q-TOF MS/MS. The salty taste-enhancing function of the target fractions was confirmed by both a rat taste cell model and/or human sensory evaluation. Four decapeptides were found as taste-active compounds. Among them, peptide E (EDEGEQPRPF) was the most potent saltiness-enhancing peptide: 0.4 mg/mL in 50 mmol/L NaCl solution could increase its salty perception equivalent to the salt level of 63 mmol/L NaCl reference solution. The sequence of the peptide has been found in the α'-subunit of ß-conglycinin [Glycine max]. The remaining peptides V (VGPDDDEKSW), DD (DEDEQPRPIP), and DG (DEGEQPRPFP) showed umami and kokumi tastes as well as a weak saltiness-enhancing sensation. These findings suggest that the decapeptide EDEGEQPRPF could be a possible alternative to partially reduce the amount of sodium intake without compromising for saltiness.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Alimentos de Soja , Animais , China , Peptídeos , Ratos , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Paladar
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451001

RESUMO

Special regulations have been laid down to establish the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of old mining workings which are adapted for tourism. To comply with these regulations the measurements were taken in the Bochnia Salt Mine, which has been in use for 800 years. The presented work demonstrates the use of a sonic probe extensometer in connection with the obtained results of displacement measurements in intact rocks surrounding the gallery. There were also test measurements carried out for determination of the real accuracy of the instrument. The presented study of deformations detected by electromagnetic extensometer measurements is presumed to be the first time that research has been made in salt mines operating in rock mass affected by tectonic stress. The paper presents the process of rock salt flow into the gallery observed over a period of 3 years. It is an unprecedented depiction of salt deformation subjected to natural stresses. One of the more surprising results presented here is the discovery of the occurrence of a specific distribution of strain around the measured gallery. The results of measurements showed that the southern part of the intact rock mass surrounding the passage is more compressed (strain rate 3.6 mm/m/year) than the northern one (strain rate 1.6 mm/m/year). This illustrates the presence and influence of additional tectonic effects resulting from the Carpathian push. These observations represent a new kind of research into tectonic stress and tectonic activity in underground measurements.


Assuntos
Mineração , Cloreto de Sódio
6.
Water Res ; 203: 117498, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371229

RESUMO

A novel design for a flow-electrode capacitive deionization (FCDI) system consisting of tubular electrodes in a shell and tube heat exchanger configuration is proposed. Each electrode consists of a metallic mesh current collector along the inner circumference of a tubular ion-exchange membrane. This tubular FCDI design is suitable for scale-up as it consists of easily manufactured components which can be assembled in an array. An apparatus with 4 tubular electrodes with a large effective area (202.3 cm2) was constructed and shown to provide a high net salt (NaCl) removal rate (0.15 mg s-1 at 1.2 V applied voltage and ∼2000 mg L-1 influent total dissolved solids concentration). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model incorporating ion migration and transport mechanisms was developed to simulate the ion concentration and electrical potential profiles in the water channel. The results of CFD modelling highlighted the need to maximize regions of both high potential gradient and high hydraulic flow in order to achieve optimal salt removal. In brief, this study presents a new design approach for FCDI scale-up and provides a computational tool for optimization of this design and future innovative FCDI designs.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Troca Iônica , Cloreto de Sódio
7.
Water Res ; 203: 117522, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384947

RESUMO

Flow electrode capacitive deionization (FCDI) is a promising electrochemical technique for brackish water desalination; however, there are challenges in estimating the distribution of resistance and energy consumption inside a FCDI system, which hinders the optimization of the rate-limiting compartment. In this study, energy consumption of each FCDI component (e.g., flow electrodes, membranes and desalination chamber) was firstly described by using in situ potential measurement (ISPM). Results of this study showed that the energy consumption (EC) of the flow electrodes dominated under most conditions. While an increase in the carbon black content in the flow electrodes could improve the energy efficiency of the electrode component, consideration should be given to the contribution of ion exchange membranes (IEMs) and the desalination chamber to the EC. Based on the above analysis, system optimization was carried out by introducing IEMs with relatively low resistance and/or packing the desalination chamber with titanium meshes. Results showed that the voltage-driven desalination capability was increased by 39.3% with the EC reduced by 17.5% compared to the control, which overcame the tradeoff between the kinetic and energetic efficiencies. Overall, the present work facilitates our understanding of the potential drops across an FCDI system and provides insight to the optimization of system design and operation.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Eletrodos , Troca Iônica , Cloreto de Sódio
8.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117636, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380226

RESUMO

Increasing chloride concentrations from road salt applications are an emerging threat to freshwater diversity in cold weather regions. Few studies have focused on how road salt affects freshwater biota and even fewer have focused on how the rate of exposure alters organism responses. We hypothesized that road salt concentrations delivered gradually would result in slower population declines and more rapid rebounds due to evolved tolerance. To test this hypothesis, we examined the responses of freshwater lake organisms to four environmentally relevant salt concentrations (100, 230, 860, and 1600 mg Cl-/L) that differed in application rate (abrupt vs. gradual). We used outdoor aquatic mesocosms containing zooplankton, filamentous algae, phytoplankton, periphyton, and macroinvertebrates. We found negative effects of road salt on zooplankton and macroinvertebrate abundance, but positive effects on phytoplankton and periphyton, likely resulting from reduced grazing. Only rarely did we detect a difference between abrupt vs gradual salt applications and the directions of those differences were not consistent. This affirms the need for additional research on how road salt pollution entering ecosystems at different frequencies and magnitudes will alter freshwater communities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Lagos , Fitoplâncton , Cloreto de Sódio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zooplâncton
9.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 335, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although salt plays an important role in maintaining the normal physiological metabolism of the human body, many abnormalities in the liver caused by a high-salt diet, especially with normal pathological results, are not well characterized. METHODS: Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into a normal group and a high salt group. These groups were then fed with normal or sodium-rich chow (containing 6% NaCl) for 6 weeks. Liver injury was evaluated, and the influences of a high-salt diet on the liver were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing at the end of week 6. RESULTS: We found that although no liver parenchymal injury could be found after high-salt feeding, many metabolic abnormalities had formed based on transcriptome sequencing results. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of differentially expressed genes revealed that at least 15 enzymatic activities and the metabolism of multiple substances were affected by a high-salt diet. Moreover, a variety of signaling and metabolic pathways, as well as numerous biological functions, were involved in liver dysfunction due to a high-salt diet. This included some known pathways and many novel ones, such as retinol metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: A high-salt diet can induce serious abnormal liver metabolic activities in mice at the transcriptional level, although substantial physical damage may not yet be visible. This study, to our knowledge, was the first to reveal the impact of a high-salt diet on the liver at the omics level, and provides theoretical support for potential clinical risk evaluation, pathogenic mechanisms, and drug design for combating liver dysfunction. This study also provides a serious candidate direction for further research on the physiological impacts of high-salt diets.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Transcriptoma , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445127

RESUMO

The common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) is a facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, and its ability to recover from stress-induced CAM has been confirmed. We analysed the photosynthetic metabolism of this plant during the 72-h response period following salinity stress removal from three perspectives. In plants under salinity stress (CAM) we found a decline of the quantum efficiencies of PSII (Y(II)) and PSI (Y(I)) by 17% and 15%, respectively, and an increase in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) by almost 25% in comparison to untreated control. However, 48 h after salinity stress removal, the PSII and PSI efficiencies, specifically Y(II) and Y(I), elevated nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and donor side limitation of PSI (YND), were restored to the level observed in control (C3 plants). Swelling of the thylakoid membranes, as well as changes in starch grain quantity and size, have been found to be components of the salinity stress response in CAM plants. Salinity stress induced an over 3-fold increase in average starch area and over 50% decline of average seed number in comparison to untreated control. However, in plants withdrawn from salinity stress, during the first 24 h of recovery, we observed chloroplast ultrastructures closely resembling those found in intact (control) ice plants. Rapid changes in photosystem functionality and chloroplast ultrastructure were accompanied by the induction of the expression (within 24 h) of structural genes related to the PSI and PSII reaction centres, including PSAA, PSAB, PSBA (D1), PSBD (D2) and cp43. Our findings describe one of the most flexible photosynthetic metabolic pathways among facultative CAM plants and reveal the extent of the plasticity of the photosynthetic metabolism and related structures in the common ice plant.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Ácido das Crassuláceas/genética , Mesembryanthemum/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroplastos/genética , Metabolismo Ácido das Crassuláceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesembryanthemum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Plastídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plastídeos/genética , Salinidade , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Amido/genética , Tilacoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Tilacoides/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205441

RESUMO

The article shows that the type and concentration of inorganic salt can be translated into the structure of the bulk phase and the performance properties of ecological all-purpose cleaners (APC). A base APC formulation was developed. Thereafter, two types of salt (sodium chloride and magnesium chloride) were added at various concentrations to obtain different structures in the bulk phase. The salt addition resulted in the formation of spherical micelles and-upon addition of more electrolyte-of aggregates having a lamellar structure. The formulations had constant viscosities (ab. 500 mPa·s), comparable to those of commercial products. Essential physical-chemical and performance properties of the four formulations varying in salt types and concentrations were evaluated. It was found that the addition of magnesium salt resulted in more favorable characteristics due to the surface activity of the formulations, which translated into adequately high wettability of the investigated hydrophobic surfaces, and their ability to emulsify fat. A decreasing relationship was observed in foaming properties: higher salt concentrations lead to worse foaming properties and foam stability of the solutions. For the magnesium chloride composition, the effect was significantly more pronounced, as compared to the sodium chloride-based formulations. As far as safety of use is concerned, the formulations in which magnesium salt was used caused a much lesser irritation compared with the other investigated formulations. The zein value was observed to decrease with increasing concentrations of the given type of salt in the composition.


Assuntos
Detergentes/toxicidade , Detergentes/química , Cloreto de Magnésio/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Tensão Superficial , Molhabilidade
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 340, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TLPs (Tubby-like proteins) are widespread in eukaryotes and highly conserved in plants and animals. TLP is involved in many biological processes, such as growth, development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, while the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In this paper we characterized the biological function of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Tubby-like protein 8 (CsTLP8) in Arabidopsis. RESULTS: In cucumber, the expression of the tubby-like protein CsTLP8 was induced by NaCl treatment, but reduced by PEG (Polyethylene Glycol) and ABA (Abscisic Acid) treatment. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation activity analysis revealed that CsTLP8 possessed two characteristics of classical transcription factors: nuclear localization and trans-activation activity. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed interactions of CsTLP8 with CsSKP1a and CsSKP1c, suggesting that CsTLP8 might function as a subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligase. The growth activity of yeast with ectopically expressed CsTLP8 was lower than the control under NaCl and mannitol treatments. Under osmotic and salt stresses, overexpression of CsTLP8 inhibited seed germination and the growth of Arabidopsis seedlings, increased the content of MDA (Malondialdehyde), and decreased the activities of SOD (Superoxide Dismutase), POD (Peroxidase) and CAT (Catalase) in Arabidopsis seedlings. Overexpression of CsTLP8 also increased the sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and ABA-mediated stomatal closure. CONCLUSION: Under osmotic stress, CsTLP8 might inhibit seed germination and seedling growth by affecting antioxidant enzymes activities. CsTLP8 acts as a negative regulator in osmotic stress and its effects may be related to ABA.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Germinação , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes , Transdução de Sinais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/embriologia , Cloreto de Sódio , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
13.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(2): 314-322, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312339

RESUMO

Operational data over 2 years from three large Austrian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with design capacities of 4 million, 950,000 and 110,000 population equivalent (PE) were examined. Salt peaks, due to thawing road salt were detected and quantified by electrical conductivity, temperature and chloride measurement in the inflow of the WWTPs. Daily NaCl inflow loads up to 1,147 t/d and PE-specific loads of 0.26-0.5 kg NaCl/(PE · y) were found. To mimic the plants' behaviour in a controlled environment, NaCl was dosed into the inflow of a laboratory-scale activated sludge plant. The influence of salt peaks on important activated sludge parameters such as sludge volume index, settling velocity and floc size were investigated. Influent and effluent were sampled extensively to calculate removal rates. Respiration measurements were performed to quantify activated sludge activity. Particle size distributions of the activated sludge floc sizes were measured using laser diffraction particle sizing and showed a decrease of the floc size by approximately two-thirds. The floc structure was examined and documented using light microscopy. At salt concentrations below 1 g/L, increased respiration was found for autotrophic biomass, and between 1 and 3 g NaCl/L respiration was inhibited by up to 30%.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Purificação da Água , Áustria , Floculação , Cloreto de Sódio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
14.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(4): 330-335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297695

RESUMO

Dexmedetomidine is a sedative medication with co-analgesic effects that has been used primarily in critical care and anesthesia as a continuous intravenous infusion. Its utility in the treatment of refractory agitated delirium is being investigated in other settings including palliative care, but continuous intravenous infusions are not always feasible during end-of-life care. Subcutaneous infusions are more commonly used in this setting, but smaller volumes and higher concentrations are typically required. Investigations into stability at these higher concentrations are required to address preparation and administration feasibility issues. The objective of this research was to study the chemical stability of high-concentration dexmedetomidine 20 mcg/mL prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags with 0.9% sodium chloride and storage up to 9 days under refrigeration and room temperature conditions. A total of four solutions of dexmedetomidine 20 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride were prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags under sterile conditions. Two bags were stored under refrigeration and two bags at room temperature. Duplicate samples were withdrawn from each bag at hours 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, and 216 and frozen at -20°C (total of 4 samples per time point at each storage condition). These samples were thawed and transferred to glass vials prior to their analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and pH testing. All samples of dexmedetomidine 20 mcg/mL met stability criteria by retaining more than 90% of the initial concentration after 9 days under refrigeration and room temperature. There was no evidence of precipitation or color change during the study period. The pH reduced slightly over time under both refrigerated (5.7 to 4.5) and room temperature conditions (5.7 to 4.6). Dexmedetomidine solutions of 20 mcg/mL intended for subcutaneous use were stable in polyvinyl chloride bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride for 9 days under refrigeration and room temperature.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina , Cloreto de Polivinila , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Infusões Intravenosas , Infusões Subcutâneas , Cloreto de Sódio
15.
Kidney Int ; 100(2): 272-275, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294206

RESUMO

Salbutamol activates the NaCl cotransporter of the distal convoluted tubule. Salbutamol, in conjunction with high salt intake, induced hypertension in mice, rescued by thiazide therapy. Phosphoproteomics identified protein phosphatase 1/inhibitor 1 as a distinct regulatory node for NaCl cotransporter activation by salbutamol, which did not activate the transporter in inhibitor 1 knockout mice. Salbutamol is widely used in respiratory medicine, and the acquisition of salt sensitivity may be relevant to understanding cardiovascular risk in certain patients.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Albuterol/efeitos adversos , Animais , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Túbulos Renais Distais , Camundongos , Cloreto de Sódio , Membro 3 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto
16.
Talanta ; 233: 122602, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215090

RESUMO

A smartphone-based technique for determining the titration equivalence point from a linear-segment curve was developed for the first time. In this method, a titrant in an increasing microliter-volume was added to a set of sample aliquots containing an indicator covering both sides of the equivalence point. The solutions were subsequently photographed in one shot, in a dark box using a smartphone camera and an illuminating screen of a tablet or light emitting diode lamps arranged below a white acrylic sheet as a light source. After the colors of the solutions were delineated to Red, Green, and Blue (RGB) values, 1/log G was used to construct a plot in which the equivalence point was located at the intersection of the two lines in the region before and after the equivalence point. The technique was successfully applied to the miniaturized titration of sodium chloride injections, showing the good linear relationship of equivalence points to the sodium chloride concentration in the range of 0.4163-0.9675% w/v (R2 of 0.9998). The assay was accurate (% recovery of 98.92-100.52), precise (% relative standard deviation ≤ 1.20), and unaffected by the use of different types of microplates, smartphones, and RGB analysis tools. Additionally, it required no expensive nor complicated equipment and offered the possibility of performing analysis on a single smartphone device when it was used with a mobile application developed to aid data processing and immediate production of reports of analytical results.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Cloreto de Sódio , Colorimetria , Comprimidos
17.
Trials ; 22(1): 427, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluid therapy represents the most common intervention critically ill patients are exposed to. Hyperchloremia and metabolic acidosis associated with 0.9% sodium chloride have been observed to lead to worse outcomes, including mortality. Balanced solutions, such as Plasma-Lyte 148 and Compound Sodium Lactate, represent potential alternatives but the evidence on optimal fluid choices in critically ill children remains scarce. This study aims to demonstrate whether balanced solutions, when used as intravenous fluid therapy, are able to reduce the incidence of a rise in serum chloride level compared to 0.9% sodium chloride in critically ill children. METHODS: This is a single-centre, open-label randomized controlled trial with parallel 1:1:1 assignment into three groups: 0.9% sodium chloride, Plasma-Lyte 148, and Compound Sodium Lactate solutions for intravenous fluid therapy. The intervention includes both maintenance and bolus fluid therapy. Children aged < 16 years admitted to intensive care and receiving intravenous fluid therapy during the first 4 h of admission are eligible. The primary outcome measure is a ≥ 5mmol/L increase in serum chloride level within 48 h post-randomization. The enrolment target is 480 patients. The main analyses will be intention-to-treat. DISCUSSION: This study tests three types of intravenous fluid therapy in order to compare the risk of hyperchloremia associated with normal saline versus balanced solutions. This pragmatic study is thereby assessing the most common intervention in paediatric critical care. This is a single-centre open-label study with no blinding at the level of delivery of the intervention. Certain paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patient groups such as those admitted with a cardiac condition or following a traumatic brain injury are excluded from this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has received ethical approval (HREC/19/QCHQ/53177: 06/06/2019). It is registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12619001244190 ) from 9th September 2019. Recruitment commenced on 12th November 2019. The primary results manuscript will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Lactato de Sódio , Austrália , Criança , Hidratação , Gluconatos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Cloreto de Magnésio , Cloreto de Potássio , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acetato de Sódio
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208420

RESUMO

The quality control of medicines guarantees the effectiveness of treatments for diseases. We explore the use of texture analysis of patterns in dried droplets as a tool to readily detect both impurities and changes in drug concentration. Four types of medicines associated with different routes of administration were analyzed: Methotrexate, Ciprofloxacin, Clonazepam, and Budesonide. We use NaCl and a hot substrate at 63 ∘C to promote aggregate formation and to reduce droplet drying time. Depending on the medicine, optical microscopy reveals different complex aggregates such as circular to oval splatters, fern-like islands, crown shapes, crown needle-like and bump-like patterns as well as dendritic branched and star-like crystals. We use some physical features of the stains (as the stain diameter and superficial area) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) to characterize patterns of dried droplets. Finally, we show that structural analysis of stains can achieve 95% accuracy in identifying medicines with 30% water dilution, while it achieves 99% accuracy in detecting drugs with 10% other substances.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Cloreto de Sódio , Dessecação , Controle de Qualidade , Água
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044628, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current salt intake in Malaysia is high. The existing national salt reduction policy has faced slow progress and does not yet include measures to address the out of home sector. Dishes consumed in the out of home sector are a known leading contributor to daily salt intake. This study aims to develop a salt reduction strategy, tailored to the out of home sector in Malaysia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a qualitative analysis of stakeholder views towards salt reduction. Participants will be recruited from five zones of Malaysia (Western, Northern, Eastern and Southern regions and East Malaysia), including policy-makers, non-governmental organisations, food industries, school canteen operators, street food vendors and consumers, to participate in focus group discussions or in-depth interviews. Interviews will be transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers will be identified and used to develop a tailored salt reduction strategy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Research Ethics Committee (UKM PPI/1118/JEP-2020-524), the Malaysian National Medical Research Ethics Committee (NMRR-20-1387-55481 (IIR)) and Queen Mary University of London Research Ethics Committee (QMERC2020/37) . Results will be presented orally and in report form and made available to the relevant ministries for example, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Trade to encourage adoption of strategy as policy. The findings of this study will be disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed publications and webinars.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio , Humanos , Malásia , Políticas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200590

RESUMO

The aim of the presented research was to obtain reconstituted atelocollagen fibers after extraction from poultry cartilage using the pepsin-acidic method in order to remove telopeptides from the tropocollagen. Firstly, we examined the extraction of collagen from the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) after proteoglycans (PG) had been removed by the action of salts, i.e., NaCl or chaotropic MgCl2. Additionally, the effects of the salt type used for PG and hyaluronic acid removal on the properties of self-assembled fibers in solutions at pH 7.4 and freeze-dried matrices were investigated. The basic features of the obtained fibers were characterized, including thermal properties using scanning calorimetry, rheological properties using dynamic oscillatory rheometry, and the structure by scanning electron microscopy. The fibers obtained after PG removal with both analyzed types of salts had similar thermal denaturation characteristics. However, the fibers after PG removal with NaCl, in contrast to those obtained after MgCl2 treatment, showed different rheological properties during gelatinization and smaller diameter size. Moreover, the degree of fibrillogenesis of collagens after NaCl treatment was complete compared to that with MgCl2, which was only partial (70%). The structures of fibers after lyophilization were fundamentally different. The matrices obtained after NaCl pretreatment form regular scaffolds in contrast to the thin, surface structures of the cartilage matrix after proteoglycans removal using MgCl2.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...