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1.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13458, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996238

RESUMO

This study investigates the effect of the addition of plant-derived extracts (control, garlic extract or a combination of carvacrol, thymol, cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol oils extracts) to pig feedstuff and the reduction in salt content (NaCl or a mixture 60:40 sodium chloride:potassium lactate) on some physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptability of dry-fermented sausages. Six different batches were formulated. The pH, color, lipid oxidation, and microbial counts were measured, and a consumer home test was performed. Both the use of a plant-derived extract and salt type affected the dry-fermented sausage characteristics. The low-salt batches presented a lower pH and higher microbial counts than the control. The salt reduction affected the color but only in the oil batches, resulting in higher L* and lower a* values. The oil batches presented the highest TBAR values (>1 mg/kg), suggesting that antioxidant compounds present into the meat were not bioavailable on the sausages or were missed during the curing process. The use of plant-derived extracts affected to consumer acceptability, whereas salt replacement did not. Oil batches scored lower than the other. From the current results, the oil extract would not be a recommended additive in pig feedstuff, especially when a low-salt strategy will be employed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Produtos da Carne , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Suínos , Paladar , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Cor , Fermentação , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Produtos da Carne/análise
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108853, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932195

RESUMO

Outgrowth and toxinogenesis of Clostridium botulinum Group II (non-proteolytic) type B were studied in cooked ham prepared with different NaNO2 (ranging from 0 to 80 mg/kg) and sodium chloride (NaCl, ranging from 12 to 19 g/kg) incorporation rates. Cured ground pork batters were inoculated with a cocktail of 3 strains of C. botulinum Group II type B at 3.5 log10 CFU/g, portioned and samples of 50 g were vacuum packed then cooked and cooled based on thermal processing employed by the meat processing industry. These cooked ham model samples were stored under reasonably foreseeable conditions of use and storage i.e. for 14 days at 4 °C, followed by a cold chain break for 1 h at 20 °C then up to 33 days at 8 °C. Storage times and temperatures were used to mimic those commonly encountered along the supply chain. Enumeration of C. botulinum and detection of the botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) were performed in triplicate at different storage times. Under these experimental conditions, incorporation rates of NaNO2 ≥ 30 mg/kg prevented the outgrowth and toxinogenesis of C. botulinum Group II type B in the cooked ham model, regardless of the NaCl concentrations tested. In contrast, total removal of nitrite allowed outgrowth and toxin production during storage of the processed meat product. Results showed that the maximum ingoing amount of nitrite (i.e. 150 mg/kg) that may be added according to the EU legislation (Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008) can be reduced in cooked ham while still ensuring control of C. botulinum Group II type B. According to the multiple factors that could affect C. botulinum behavior in processing meat products, outgrowth and toxin production of C. botulinum should be evaluated on a case by case basis, depending on the recipe, manufacturing process, food matrix and storage conditions.


Assuntos
Clostridium botulinum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium botulinum/metabolismo , Conservantes de Alimentos/análise , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , Nitrito de Sódio/análise , Animais , Toxinas Botulínicas/análise , Toxinas Botulínicas/metabolismo , Clostridium botulinum/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Culinária , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Nitrito de Sódio/farmacologia , Vácuo
3.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2902-2914, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776553

RESUMO

We tested the hypothesis that reduced-salt versions of four "better-for-you" dishes enhanced with monosodium glutamate (MSG) through a "Salt Flip" in an amount that still substantially reduced total sodium matched the consumer acceptance of normal-salt versions. Three versions each-standard recipe with normal salt, reduced salt, and reduced salt with MSG, of four dishes-roasted vegetables (RV), quinoa bowl (QB), savory yogurt dip (SD), and pork cauliflower fried rice (CR) were evaluated by 163 consumers for overall liking and liking of appearance, flavor, and texture/mouthfeel on the nine-point hedonic scale, preference, adequacy of flavor, saltiness, and aftertaste on just-about-right (JAR) scales, likeliness to order, and sensory characteristics by check-all-that-apply. For each dish, the MSG recipe was liked the same (or significantly more for SD, P < 0.05) than the standard recipe, and better than the reduced salt recipe for QB and CR. The same was true of likeliness to order. MSG recipes of QB and SD were significantly preferred to the standard recipes, with no difference for RV and CR. MSG recipes were consistently described as "delicious," "flavorful," and "balanced." Penalty-lift analysis showed that "delicious," "flavorful," "balanced," "fresh," and "savory"; and "bland," "rancid," and "bitter," were positive and negative drivers of liking, respectively. Two of three uncovered preference clusters, accounting for 68% of consumers, consistently liked MSG recipes, and the same or more so than standard recipes. We conclude that MSG can successfully be used to mitigate salt and sodium reduction without compromising consumer acceptance of better-for-you foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The Salt Flip offers a promising dietary sodium reduction strategy through the addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to reduced-salt, savory, better-for-you foods that does not compromise consumer acceptance of their sensory profile.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio/metabolismo , Paladar , Verduras/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análise , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Verduras/química
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649660

RESUMO

Freshwater wetlands of the temperate north are exposed to a range of pollutants that may alter their function, including nitrogen (N)-rich agricultural and urban runoff, seawater intrusion, and road salt contamination, though it is largely unknown how these drivers of change interact with the vegetation to affect wetland carbon (C) fluxes and microbial communities. We implemented a full factorial mesocosm (378.5 L tanks) experiment investigating C-related responses to three common wetland plants of eastern North America (Phragmites australis, Spartina pectinata, Typha latifolia), and four water quality treatments (fresh water control, N, road salt, sea salt). During the 2017 growing season, we quantified carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes, above- and below-ground biomass, root porosity, light penetration, pore water chemistry (NH4+, NO3-, SO4-2, Cl-, DOC), soil C mineralization, as well as sediment microbial communities via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Relative to freshwater controls, N enrichment stimulated plant biomass, which in turn increased CO2 uptake and reduced light penetration, especially in Spartina stands. Root porosity was not affected by water quality, but was positively correlated with CH4 emissions, suggesting that plants can be important conduits for CH4 from anoxic sediment to the atmosphere. Sediment microbial composition was largely unaffected by N addition, whereas salt amendments induced structural shifts, reduced sediment community diversity, and reduced C mineralization rates, presumably due to osmotic stress. Methane emissions were suppressed by sea salt, but not road salt, providing evidence for the additional chemical control (SO4-2 availability) on this microbial-mediated process. Thus, N may have stimulated plant activity while salting treatments preferentially enriched specific microbial populations. Together our findings underpin the utility of combining plant and microbial responses, and highlight the need for more integrative studies to predict the consequences of a changing environment on freshwater wetlands.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Solo/química , Ciclo do Carbono , Connecticut , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Qualidade da Água , Áreas Alagadas
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(15): 9398-9407, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597171

RESUMO

Widespread use of NaCl for road deicing has caused increased chloride concentrations in lakes near urban centers and areas of high road density. Chloride can be toxic, and water quality guidelines have been created to regulate it and protect aquatic life. However, these guidelines may not adequately protect organisms in low-nutrient, soft water lakes such as those underlain by the Precambrian Shield. We tested this hypothesis by conducting laboratory experiments on six Daphnia species using a soft water culture medium. We also examined temporal changes in cladoceran assemblages in the sediments of two small lakes on the Canadian Shield: one near a highway and the other >3 km from roads where salt is applied in the winter. Our results showed that Daphnia were sensitive to low chloride concentrations with decreased reproduction and increased mortality occurring between 5 and 40 mg Cl-/L. Analysis of cladoceran remains in lake sediments revealed changes in assemblage composition that coincided with the initial application of road salt in this region. In contrast, there were no changes detected in the remote lake. We found that 22.7% of recreational lakes in Ontario have chloride concentrations between 5 and 40 mg/L suggesting that cladoceran zooplankton in these lakes may already be experiencing negative effects of chloride.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Zooplâncton , Animais , Lagos , Ontário , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108688, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497940

RESUMO

The impact of salt and fat intake on human health drives the consumer's attention towards dairy food with reduced salt and fat contents. How changes in salt and fat content modulate dairy LAB population and the associated proteolytic activities have been poorly studied. Here, non-starter LAB populations from 12 Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheeses (12-month ripened), clustered in low salt and fat content (LL-PR) and high salt and fat content (HH-PR) groups, were investigated and identified at specie-level with molecular assays. Lactobacillus rhamnosus was dominant in HH-PR samples, whereas Lactobacillus paracasei in LL-PR samples. (GTG)5 rep-PCR analysis discriminated 11 and 12 biotypes for L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei isolates, respectively. Screening for proteolytic activity identified L. rhamnosus strains more proteolytic than L. paracasei, and, within L. rhamnosus species, HH-PR strains were generally more proteolytic than LL-PR strains. Two L. rhamnosus representatives, namely strain 0503 from LL-PR and strain 2006 from HH-PR, were functionally characterized in cow milk fermentation assay. HH-PR strain 2006 overcame LL-PR strain 0503 in acidification performance, leading to a fermented milk with higher angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. L. rhamnosus 2006 was more prone to release VPP, while L. rhamnosus 0503 released higher amount of IPP. This study provides evidences that salt/fat content affects NSLAB cultivable fraction and the associated proteolytic ability resulting in a complex occurrence of bioactive peptides featuring health-promoting properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Queijo/análise , Gorduras/análise , Fermentação , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(24): 30162-30177, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451894

RESUMO

This study explores the contamination potential of groundwater due to the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) in the wintertime. The research was conducted in two Iranian cities, Malayer and Hamedan, where groundwater is the major source of water for drinking and irrigating purposes. However, the amount of deicing salt used in the former is about 10 times less than that used in the latter. The assessment of geochemical dataset from 2004 to 2018 revealed no significant trend in the groundwater characteristics of Malayer where the water quality indices were in the range of WHO and USEPA permissible limits. In contrast, the indices had a continually increasing trend (~ 2.3% annually) in Hamedan's supply wells over the same period and particularly near the urban areas that showed higher levels (> 5 times on average) than those observed in Malayer. This could mainly be ascribed to the influx of halite. Based on the USSL diagram, the water samples retrieved from the latter system were mostly classified as C3-S1 (decreasing the soil fertility) and even as C4-S2 (harmful for agriculture activities). Chloride contamination rates also reached 250 mg/L, which could negatively affect the water potability and threaten the aquatics microorganisms. In this region, a rather similar distribution of NaCl and arsenic was observed, implying mobilization of toxic trace metals with the increased salt encroachment into the aquifer. Based on such findings, it is suggested that in snow-influenced cities (e.g., Hamedan), new approaches for winter maintenance be considered to prevent the gradual deterioration of water resources.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Irã (Geográfico) , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
8.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1651-1660, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460413

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of different NaCl content and drying temperatures on the lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, and physical properties of dry-cured chicken. In the final product, lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, and physical properties were significantly affected by NaCl and temperature. Increased NaCl content and temperature led to significantly increased level of indicators including conjugated diene, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and carbonyl contents (P < 0.05). Conversely, the sulfhydryl contents and surface hydrophobicity significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis further indicated that NaCl and temperature affected protein oxidation and degradation. According to the drying curve, the main factor affecting the drying time was the drying temperature and a slower rate of moisture loss occurred in samples with higher NaCl content. Moreover, due to the effects of temperature on lipid and protein oxidation and moisture diffusion, the hardness and shrinkage ratio increased with temperature. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Dry-cured chicken is a kind of air-dried meat product. During actual production of dry-cured chicken, its physicochemical characteristics (e.g., lipid and protein oxidation and texture) are affected by NaCl content and drying temperature. In this study, the NaCl content and drying temperature were found to promote lipid and protein oxidation and have significant effects on texture properties. Therefore, the NaCl content and drying temperature should be controlled to improve the quality of dry-cured chicken.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dessecação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Dureza , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Oxirredução , Temperatura , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
9.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1565-1575, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282071

RESUMO

We evaluated the temporal profile of the flavor enhancers monosodium glutamate (MSG), disodium inosinate (IMP), disodium guanylate (GMP), and monoammonium glutamate (MAG). We also evaluated the ability of these flavor enhancers to enhance salty taste in solutions containing different reductions of sodium chloride. Four experiments were conducted using Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD) with focus on two objectives: concentration of flavor enhancers (0% to 1%) and reduction of sodium chloride content (0% to 100%). A 0.75% saline solution of NaCl was used as a control. In each experiment, the treatments were evaluated by the intensity of salty and umami tastes using an intensity scale. Treatments, selected according to the results of CCRD, were analyzed using time-intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) analyses. Glutamates (MSG/MAG) showed greater capacity to enhance salty taste than treatments containing nucleotides (IMP/GMP). The intensity of umami taste, using all the examined flavor enhancers, showed a similar sensory profile. Temporal perception curves (TI and TDS) of salty and umami tastes also showed a similar temporal profile. The glutamic acid amino acids were better able to improve salty taste than nucleotides in any range of sodium chloride reduction. Flavor enhancers showed greater ability to increase salty taste in smaller reductions in sodium chloride content. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research expand the knowledge about the ability to enhance the salty taste of flavor enhancers in different reductions in sodium content, Beside that, will provide information about the time profile of flavor enhancers. This study provides scientific technical information on the ability to intensify the salty taste of flavor enhancers and can assist the industry to develop new low sodium products and encourage the scientific community to conduct future research on this subject.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Inosina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análise , Humanos , Inosina Monofosfato/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Glutamato de Sódio/análise , Paladar
10.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2696-2702, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213250

RESUMO

Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped, moderately halotolerant bacteria, designated as HMF5848T and HME7618, were isolated from salt/brine and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Growth of both yellow-coloured strains occurred in the presence of 1-9 % NaCl (w/v; optimum, 2-3 %), at 15-45 °C (optimum, 37 °C) and pH 6-9 (optimum, pH 7). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified glycolipids, three unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified polar lipids. DNA G+C content was 37.4 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains HMF5848T and HME7618 clustered with Bacillus luteolus YIM 93174T. Strains HMF5848T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Bacillus humi LMG 22167T (96.1 %), Bacillus isabeliae CVS-8T (96.0 %) and Bacillus luteolus YIM 93174T (96.0 %). The values of in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity between strains HMF5848T and B. humi DSM 16318T were 25.8 and 69.7 %, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, strain HMF5848T represents a novel species, Bacillus salinus sp. nov. The type strain is HMF5848T (=KCTC 43010T=CECT 9695T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Sais , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(7): 3145-3156, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076782

RESUMO

Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a beneficial bacterium widely used in food as a probiotic and as a cheese-ripening starter. In these different applications, it is produced, dried, and stored before being used. Both freeze-drying and spray-drying were considered for this purpose. Freeze-drying is a discontinuous process that is energy-consuming but that allows high cell survival. Spray-drying is a continuous process that is more energy-efficient but that can lead to massive bacterial death related to heat, osmotic, and oxidative stresses. We have shown that P. freudenreichii cultivated in hyperconcentrated rich media can be spray-dried with limited bacterial death. However, the general stress tolerance conferred by this hyperosmotic constraint remained a black box. In this study, we modulated P. freudenreichii growth conditions and monitored both osmoprotectant accumulation and stress tolerance acquisition. Changing the ratio between the carbohydrates provided and non-protein nitrogen during growth under osmotic constraint modulated osmoprotectant accumulation. This, in turn, was correlated with P. freudenreichii tolerance towards different stresses, on the one hand, and towards freeze-drying and spray-drying, on the other. Surprisingly, trehalose accumulation correlated with spray-drying survival and glycine betaine accumulation with freeze-drying. This first report showing the ability to modulate the trehalose/GB ratio in osmoprotectants accumulated by a probiotic bacterium opens new perspectives for the optimization of probiotics production.


Assuntos
Betaína/metabolismo , Dessecação , Propionibacterium freudenreichii/fisiologia , Trealose/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Carbono/análise , Queijo/microbiologia , Proteção Cruzada , Meios de Cultura/química , Dessecação/métodos , Liofilização , Viabilidade Microbiana , Pressão Osmótica , Probióticos , Propionibacterium freudenreichii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Propionibacterium freudenreichii/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 600-610, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017103

RESUMO

This study was the first to evaluate the influence of the combination strategies of flavor addition and microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) processing for salt reduction implications. In freshly prepared mashed potatoes, a 30% and 50% salt reduction (w/w) in comparison to a 100% salt sample with three flavor variations (no additional flavor, garlic, and pepper) were investigated. Also, using the ideal profile method (IPM), the influence of MATS versus retort processing, in comparison to a freshly prepared sample, and flavor addition on mashed potato sensory properties and acceptance was investigated. Chemical characterization using the electronic tongue for nonvolatile compounds and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for volatile analysis was completed. IPM revealed the ideal data were consistent at both the panel and consumer levels from a sensory and hedonic perspective. Results demonstrated the ideal mashed potato product would remain low in bitterness but have more intense pepper and potato aromas and flavors than the current samples evaluated. The salt level could be reduced by 50% while still maintaining flavor and overall acceptance in freshly prepared samples, but this was accompanied by a loss in saltiness intensity perception. The saltiness intensity was not different from the freshly prepared samples when processed via MATS but was different when processed by the retort. For chemical characterization, the electronic tongue showed a high discrimination index (>89%) and correlated highly (>0.8) with many sensory attributes. As salt concentration in the mashed potatoes decreased, the recovery of volatile compounds decreased. The present work contributes to the understanding of product reformulation for the purpose of salt reduction. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Product developers need strategies to bring salt down to target levels while maintaining consumer acceptance. The combination strategies of flavor addition and MATS processing may allow for a new strategy to assist product developers in reaching salt reduction targets. Furthermore, developers should bear in mind that noticeable intensity differences may not alter the preference for the product. Thus, intensity differences that result in changes in acceptance should be the focus of quality insurance rather than utilizing just noticeable differences.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Culinária/instrumentação , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Alho/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Odorantes/análise , Piper nigrum/química , Paladar
13.
Analyst ; 145(5): 1716-1723, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904032

RESUMO

We developed an electrolyte pre-deposition-based saliva pattern modulation method to detect ovulation with high accuracy and reliability. Ovulation tests using human saliva have advantages in terms of the earlier ovulation detection and more convenient sample collection procedure; however, accuracy is low, which is a critical limitation given that the concentrations of salivary constituents can vary depending on the health status of the tested individual and subjective user judgement of the test result. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed saliva patterns according to the concentrations of electrolytes and proteins in the ovulation test and found that changes in the saliva pattern during the ovulatory period can be controlled by sodium chloride (NaCl) pre-deposition, which directly affects the accuracy of ovulation detection. The 100 nmol NaCl pre-deposition condition proved optimal, being two-fold more sensitive to changes in saliva pattern versus the non-pre-deposition condition (accuracy of ovulation detection = 66.6% and 33.3%, respectively). Although accuracy remained insufficient for actual applications compared to the urine-based ovulation detection method, we expect that the electrolyte pre-deposition method will greatly contribute to enhancing the performance of saliva-based ovulation detection tests, toward a commercially satisfactory level of accuracy.


Assuntos
Eletrólitos/análise , Detecção da Ovulação/métodos , Ovulação/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Soroalbumina Bovina/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Saliva/química , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(6): 1678-1693, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997433

RESUMO

AIMS: Differences in the bacterial population of cucumber fermentations brined with no salt, 100 mmol l-1 (1·1%) calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) or 1·03 mol l-1 (6%) sodium chloride (NaCl) were studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in the microbiology and chemistry of commercial and laboratory scale cucumber fermentations occurring as a function of time were monitored using colony counts and metagenetic analysis, and a pH probe and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis respectively. Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide content were monitored in commercial fermentations. Fermentations brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) or no salt sustained faster microbial growth and reduction in pH than those brined with 1·03 mol l-1 NaCl. Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Weissella dominated in fermentations brined with no salt or 100 mmol l-1 CaCl2 on day 1 as compared to Weissella and enterobacteria in fermentations containing 1·03 mol l-1 NaCl. Lactobacilli dominated all fermentations by the third day, regardless of salt type, and was followed, in relative abundance by Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Weissella. From 84 to 96% of the population was composed of Lactobacillus by day 7 of the fermentations, except in the no salt fermentations in which a mixed population of LAB remained. The population of LAB found in commercial cucumber fermentations brined with 100 mmol l-1 CaCl2 (n = 18) or 1·03 mol l-1 NaCl (n = 9) mimicked that of laboratory fermentations. A declining population of aerobes was detected in commercial fermentations brined with CaCl2 on day 1. CONCLUSION: A reduced NaCl content in cucumber fermentation enhances microbial diversity. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study fills a knowledge gap and aids in the design of improved reduced NaCl cucumber fermentations.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cucumis sativus , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiota , Sais/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloreto de Cálcio/análise , Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125779, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927372

RESUMO

Great ecological and human health risks may arise from the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aquatic environments and particularly in sediments, where they often partition. In spite of the apparent risk, knowledge about PAHs and their polar derivatives in sediments is limited. We, therefore, carried out an assessment of the concentrations of parent PAHs and their derivatives (polar PAHs) in sediments of Lake Macquarie: the largest saltwater lake in the southern hemisphere. A total of 31 sediment samples along the pollution prone western shoreline of the estuary were analysed. Multiple source apportionment methods were used to investigate PAH sources contributing to parent and polar PAH concentrations in the estuarine sediments. Concentration levels were highest for high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs compared to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs. The highest PAH concentrations were recorded for oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) compared to parent and other polar PAHs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diagnostic ratios and compositional analysis showed that PAHs in Lake Macquarie were predominantly pyrogenic exhibiting strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.972) with total PAH concentrations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) identified three groupings of PAHs with oxy-PAHs and NPAHs dominating (40.2%). Carbazole, a heterocyclic PAH, was also a prominent contributor to sediment PAH concentrations. Atmospheric deposition, coal combustion and vehicular emissions were implicated as the major contributors to sediment pollution.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Austrália , Carvão Mineral/análise , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Humanos , Lagos/análise , Compostos Policíclicos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
16.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113398, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662250

RESUMO

In aquatic environments, organisms such as freshwater mussels are likely exposed to complex contaminant mixtures related to industrial, agricultural, and urban activities. With growing interest in understanding the risk that chemical mixtures pose to mussels, this investigation focused on the effects of various waterborne contaminants (ammonia, chloride, copper, and potassium) and selected binary mixtures of these chemicals following a fixed-ratio design to Villosa iris glochidia and juvenile Lampsilis fasciola. In individual exposures, 48-h EC50 values were determined for V. iris glochidia exposed to ammonia chloride (7.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.6-8.2] mg N/L), ammonia sulfate (8.4 [7.6-9.1] mg N/L), copper sulfate (14.2 [12.9-15.4] µg Cu2+/L), potassium chloride (12.8 [11.9-13.7] mg K+/L), potassium sulfate (10.1 [8.9-11.2] mg K+/L), and sodium chloride (480.5 [435.5-525.5] mg Cl-/L). The 7-d LC50 values for juvenile L. fasciola were determined for potassium sulfate (45.0 [18.8-71.2] mg K+/L), and sodium chloride (1738.2 [1418.6-2057.8] mg Cl-/L). In Ontario these waterborne contaminants have been reported to co-occur, with concentrations exceeding the EC10 for both life stages at some locations. Data from binary mixture exposures for V. iris glochidia (chloride-ammonia, chloride-copper, and copper-ammonia) and juvenile L. fasciola (chloride-potassium) were analyzed using a regression-based, dose-response mixture analysis modeling framework. Results from the mixture analysis were used to determine if an additive model for mixture toxicity [concentration addition (CA) or independent action (IA)] best described the toxicity of each mixture and if deviation towards dose-ratio (DR) or dose-level (DL) synergism/antagonism (S/A) occurred. For all glochidia binary mixture exposures, CA was the best fit model with DL deviation reported for the chloride-copper mixture and DR deviation reported for the copper-ammonia mixture. Using the model deviation ratio (MDR), the observed toxicity in all three glochidia mixture exposures were adequately described by both CA (mean = 0.71) and IA (mean = 0.97) whereas the juvenile mixture exposure was only adequately described by CA (mean = 0.64; IA mean = 0.05).


Assuntos
Unionidae/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Amônia/análise , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloretos/análise , Cloro , Cobre/análise , Cobre/toxicidade , Água Doce/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Minerais/análise , Ontário , Potássio/análise , Potássio/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Unionidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103329, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703874

RESUMO

Four sets of doenjang (traditional Korean fermented soybean paste) with 9%, 12%, 15%, and 18% solar salt concentrations were prepared and their pH, microbial abundances and communities, metabolites, and volatile compounds were analyzed periodically during the entire fermentation. The speeds of decrease in pH and increase in microbial abundances, representing microbial activity, were higher during early fermentation in lower (9% and 12%) salt doenjang. Microbial abundances in 15% and 18% salt doenjang were significantly lower than in the 9% and 12% salt doenjang, indicating low microbial activity. Community analysis revealed that Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Clostridium and Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Mucor, and Penicillium, which might be derived from doenjang-meju used for preparing doenjang, were identified as major bacterial and fungal genera, respectively, in all doenjang samples. Weissella, Tetragenococcus, Oceanobacillus, and Debaryomyces, not dominant in doenjang-meju, were also identified as major groups in low salt doenjang. Metabolite analysis showed that amino acid profiles were relatively similar independent of salt concentrations and microbial growth, indicating important roles of indigenous proteases present in doenjang-meju, not microbial activity during doenjang fermentation, in amino acid production. The metabolism of free sugars to organic acids and biogenic amine production were greater in lower salt doenjang, which might be associated with the growth of microbes, particularly lactic acid bacteria. A higher level of and more diverse volatile compounds were identified in lower salt doenjang, indicating close association with microbial growth. This study provides a deeper understanding of doenjang fermentation and insight into the development of low salt doenjang.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Soja/microbiologia , Ácidos/análise , Ácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110083, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864123

RESUMO

The combined effects of salinity and organic amendments on lead (Pb) toxicity to earthworms as important components of soil invertebrates are still largely unknown. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to examine how the combined use of NaCl salinity and cow manure would affect the sublethal Pb toxicity to chronically exposed Eisenia fetida in natural soil. The response of life-cycle parameters of this earthworm species and biological properties to NaCl-induced salinity (0, 4 and 8 dS m-1) was determined in a Pb-contaminated clay loam soil amended or unamended with fresh cow manure. The NaCl salt and cow manure (4%, w/w) were added to the soil and the mixtures were incubated for 90 days under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that NaCl salinity increased soil Pb availability and toxicity, increased earthworm Pb concentration and uptake, and decreased earthworm survivorship, population (adults and juveniles), reproduction, wet weight, cocoon production, and cast activity. The detrimental effects of NaCl salinity on earthworms and biological properties were greater at high than low salinity levels. Addition of cow manure lowered the NaCl-induced Pb toxicity to earthworms at all salinity levels, suggesting the harmful effect of salinity-induced Pb toxicity was reduced due to the decreased Pb availability following manure application. This study demonstrated that soil salinity and animal manures can have a great impact on the life-cycle endpoints and activity of E. fetida, which requires attention when using saline waters for irrigation and organic amendments for soil amelioration in Pb-contaminated environments. It is concluded that (i) the multiple stresses induced by salinity and Pb mixtures may negatively affect earthworms and (ii) organic amendment application has a high potential for lowering the stronger negative effect of salinity in Pb-polluted environments and for improving earthworm population, reproduction and activity.


Assuntos
Chumbo/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Argila , Poluição Ambiental , Feminino , Esterco , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
Food Chem ; 303: 125401, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466031

RESUMO

Salt addition and thermal pretreatment were used to improve the freeze-thaw stability of Pickering emulsion gels (PEGs) stabilized by compound proteins. Thermal pretreatment with the presence of salt could promote the formation of gel-like structure and alter the interactions between the emulsion droplets of PEGs, sequentially increase the resistance of the PEGs to water separation, creaming, and oiling-off during freeze-thaw cycles (freeze at -20 °C for 22 h and thawing at 37 °C for 2 h), especially at higher salt levels (200 and 500 mM). Microstructures indicated that the presence of high salt concentration and heat pretreatment could help to maintain the gel-like structures of PEGs during freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, our results showed that novel viscoelastic food materials with good freeze-thaw stability can be produced by controlling the electrostatic interactions between the emulsion droplets and the gelation of emulsion gels. These materials may be useful for application in frozen food products.


Assuntos
Fixadores/química , Géis/química , Emulsões/química , Congelamento , Temperatura Alta , Óleos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Água/química
20.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 77(6): 687-692, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859647

RESUMO

Sweat test is the gold standard of the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of our study was to identify the indications leading to perform a sweat test and those that led to the diagnosis of CF. METHODOLOGY: We collected data of all sweat tests performed between 2008, 1th of March and 2015, 28th of February. They were analyzed following Rosenstein diagnosis criteria (1998): clinical manifestations suggesting CF, positive neonatal screening (≥ 1 positive assay of immunoreactive trypsin) or familial history of CF. RESULTS: We reviewed 1,208 sweat tests over this period. Patients were aged from 13 days to 79 years. Indications were: clinical events (94.0%), a positive neonatal screening (3.7%) and a family history (2.3%). Over the 20 newly diagnosed patients, a positive neonatal screening was the main indication for the sweat test (55%). A positive neonatal screening (p<0.0001), a family history (p<0.0001) and pulmonary signs associated with digestive signs (p=0.004) were more frequently found in these patients. CONCLUSION: Sweat test indications are mostly clinical and mainly pulmonary. This study confirms that a sweat test should be performed in case of pulmonary manifestations suggesting CF especially if these are associated with digestive manifestations.


Assuntos
Cloro/análise , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Sódio/análise , Suor/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cloro/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
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