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1.
Physiol Plant ; 167(1): 2-4, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268563

RESUMO

Generating salt-tolerant plants that can cope with increasing soil salinity is a major goal of crop-breeding programs worldwide. Together with genetic approaches, research efforts are focusing on finding chemical modulators of salt tolerance. The exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been shown to improve salt tolerance in diverse crop species, but its mechanism of action is not properly understood. Wu et al. (2019) report that ALA treatment enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the roots of salt-stressed strawberry plants. Activation of several key ion transporters downstream to the ROS signal helps to sequester the toxic Na+ ions in the roots and protects the shoots against salt stress.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/metabolismo , Fragaria/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109460, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349103

RESUMO

Phytomanagement of polycontaminated soils is challenging, especially in areas simultaneously affected by salinity. The wetland halophyte plant species Kosteletzkya pentacarpos was cultivated in a column device allowing leachate harvest, on a polycontaminated spiked soil containing Cd (6.5 mg kg-1 DW), As (75 mg kg-1 DW), Zn (200 mg kg-1 DW) and Pb (300 mg kg-1 DW) and irrigated with salt water (final soil electrical conductivity 5.0 ms cm-1). Salinity increased Cd bioavailability in the soil and Cd accumulation in the shoots while it had an opposite effect on As. Salinity did not modify Pb and Zn bioavailability and accumulation. Cultivating plants on the polluted soil drastically reduced the volume of leachate. In all cases, salinity reduced the total amounts of heavy metals removed by the leachate and significantly increased the proportion of Cd and Zn removed by the plants. Heavy metal contamination induced a decrease in shoot dry weight and an increase in malondialdehyde (an indicator of oxidative stress); both symptoms were alleviated by the additional presence of NaCl but this positive impact was not related to increase in protecting phytochelatins synthesis. It is concluded i) that bioavailability estimated by the 0.01M CaCl2 extraction procedure is not fully relevant from the heavy metal mobility, ii) that salinity decreased heavy metal percolation, especially in soils cultivated with K. pentacarpos and iii) that salinity improves plant tolerance to heavy metals in K. pentacarpos and that this species is a promising plant material for phytoremediation of polycontaminated soils.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Malvaceae/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Absorção Fisico-Química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Malvaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Solo/química
3.
Chemosphere ; 233: 954-965, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340423

RESUMO

Heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc constitute major pollutants in coastal areas and frequently accumulate in salt marshes. The wetland halophyte plant species Kosteletzkya pentacarpos is a promising species for phytostabilization of contaminated areas. In order to assess the role of the antisenescing phytohormone cytokinin in heavy metal resistance in this species, seedlings were exposed for two weeks to Cd (10 µM), Zn (100 µM) or Cd + Zn (10 µM + 100 µM) in the presence or absence of 50 mM NaCl and half of the plants were sprayed every two days with the cytokinin trans-zeatine riboside (10 µM). Zinc reduced the endogenous cytokinin concentration. Exogenous cytokinin increased plant growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis and total ascorbate and reduced oxidative stress estimated by malondialdehyde in Zn-treated plants maintained in the absence of NaCl. Heavy metal induced an increase in the senescing hormone ethylene which was reduced by cytokinin treatment. Plants exposed to the mixed treatment (Cd + Zn) exhibited a specific hormonal status in relation to accumulation of abscisic acid and depletion of salicylic acid. Non-protein thiols (glutathione and phytochelatins) accumulated in response to Cd and Cd + Zn. It is concluded that toxic doses of Cd and Zn have different impacts on the plant behavior and that the simultaneous presence of the two elements induces a specific physiological constraint at the plant level. Salinity helps the plant to cope with heavy metal toxicities and the plant hormone cytokinin assumes key function in Zn resistance but its efficiency is lower in the presence of NaCl.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Citocininas/metabolismo , Hibiscus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Zinco/toxicidade , Ácido Abscísico/análise , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hibiscus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Salicílico/análise , Salinidade , Plântula/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Áreas Alagadas
4.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(3): 215-222, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251490

RESUMO

Anurans occupy a wide variety of habitats of diverse salinities, and their osmoregulatory ability is strongly regulated by hormones. In this study, we compared the adaptability and hormonal responses to osmotic stress between two kajika frogs, Buergeria japonica (B.j.) and B. buergeri, (B.b.), which inhabit coastal brackish waters (BW) in the Ryukyu Islands and freshwater (FW) in the Honshu, respectively. Both hematocrit and plasma Na+ concentration were significantly higher in B.j. than in B.b. when both were kept in FW. After transfer to one-third seawater (simulating the natural BW environment), which is slightly hypertonic to their body fluids, their body mass decreased and plasma Na concentration increased significantly in both species. After transfer, plasma Na+ concentration increased significantly in both species. We examined the gene expression of two major osmoregulatory hormones, arginine vasotocin (AVT) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), after partial cloning of their cDNAs. ANP mRNA levels were more than 10-fold higher in B.j. than in B.b. in FW, but no significant difference was observed for AVT mRNA levels due to high variability, although the mean value of B.j. was twice that of B.b. Both AVT and ANP mRNA levels increased significantly after transfer to BW in B.b. but not in B.j., probably because of the high levels in FW. These results suggest that B.j. maintains high plasma Na+ concentration and anp gene expression to prepare for the future encounter of the high salinity. The unique preparatory mechanism may allow B.j. wide distribution in oceanic islands.


Assuntos
Anuros/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Águas Salinas/química , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Animais , Fator Natriurético Atrial/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Japão , Masculino , Osmorregulação/fisiologia , RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Vasotocina/metabolismo
5.
Food Microbiol ; 83: 95-103, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202424

RESUMO

This study assessed the adhesion and formation of biofilm by five Salmonella enterica strains (S. Enteritidis 132, S. Infantis 176, S. Typhimurium 177, S. Heidelberg 281 and S. Corvallis 297) on polypropylene (PP) and glass (G) surfaces as affected by pH (4-7), NaCl concentration (0-10% w/v) and temperature (8-35 °C). Sessile counts <3 log CFU/cm2 were considered lack of adhesion (category 1), while counts ≥ 3 and < 5 log CFU/cm2 corresponded to adhesion (category 2) and counts ≥ 5 log CFU/cm2 corresponded biofilm formation (category 3). The obtained results categorized in these three responses were used to develop ordinal regression models to predict the probability of biofilm stages on PP- and G-surfaces. The experimental outcomes for lack of adhesion were >90% on PP- and G-surfaces. Generally, adhesion outcomes corresponded to approximately 36% of the total, whereas biofilm outcomes were close to 65% in both PP- and G-surfaces. The biofilm stages varied among the strains studied and with the material surface under the same experimental conditions. According to the generated ordinal models, the probability of adhesion and biofilm formation on PP-surface by the five S. enterica strains tested decreased at pH 4 or 5 in NaCl concentrations >4% and at a temperature <20 °C. On G-surface, the probability of adhesion increased pH 6 or 7, in the absence of NaCl and temperatures <20 °C, while, the probability of biofilm formation increased in the same pH, NaCl concentration up to 4% and temperatures ≥20 °C. This is the first study assessing the biofilm formation through categorical, ordinal responses and it shows that ordinal regression models can be useful to predict biofilm stages of S. enterica as a function of pH, NaCl, and temperature or their interactions.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Vidro , Polipropilenos , Salmonella enterica/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Aderência Bacteriana , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Logísticos , Análise de Regressão , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24900-24910, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240650

RESUMO

Klebsiella sp. TN-10, isolated from tannery wastewater, exhibited excellent nitrification ability cultivated in media with NaCl contents ranging from 0 to 35 g/L. Analysis of antioxidative enzyme activities of TN-10 stressed by NaCl showed that the stain produced more superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) to fight against salt stress conditions. Moreover, the auto-aggregation index of TN-10 decreased with the increment of NaCl contents, which is consistent with results of zeta potentials. Extinction-emission matrix (EEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum analyses showed that the compositions of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by TN-10 after NaCl shock were similar. Furthermore, proteins and polysaccharides were the main components of EPS, and the contents were greatly influenced by salinity. Then, circular dichroism (CD) spectrum was used to calculate the contents of each protein secondary structure. These results provided further insights into the knowledge of nitrification characteristics, auto-aggregation performance, and EPS compositions of TN-10 during NaCl shock.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/metabolismo , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Dicroísmo Circular , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/química , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Nitrificação , Salinidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 377, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane is a natural isothiocyanate available from cruciferous vegetables with multiple characteristics including antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory effect. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing has been used for long-read de novo assembly of plant genome. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism related to glucosinolates biosynthesis in Chinese kale using combined NGS and SMRT sequencing. RESULTS: SMRT sequencing produced 185,134 unigenes, higher than 129,325 in next-generation sequencing (NGS). NaCl (75 mM), methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 40 µM), selenate (Se, sodium selenite 100 µM), and brassinolide (BR, 1.5 µM) treatment induced 6893, 13,287, 13,659 and 11,041 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Chinese kale seedlings comparing with control. These genes were associated with pathways of glucosinolates biosynthesis, including phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, cysteine and methionine metabolism, and glucosinolate biosynthesis. We found NaCl decreased sulforaphane and glucosinolates (indolic and aliphatic) contents and downregulated expression of cytochrome P45083b1 (CYP83b1), S-alkyl-thiohydroximatelyase or carbon-sulfur lyase (SUR1) and UDP-glycosyltransferase 74B1 (UGT74b1). MeJA increased sulforaphane and glucosinolates contents and upregulated the expression of CYP83b1, SUR1 and UGT74b1; Se increased sulforaphane; BR increased expression of CYP83b1, SUR1 and UGT74b1, and increased glucosinolates contents. The desulfoglucosinolate sulfotransferases ST5a_b_c were decreased by all treatments. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that NaCl inhibited the biosynthesis of both indolic and aliphatic glucosinolates, while MeJA and BR increased them. MeJA and BR treatments, conferred the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, and Se and MeJA contributed to sulforaphane in Chinese kale via regulating the expression of CYP83b1, SUR1 and UGT74b1.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Brassica/genética , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ácido Selênico/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
8.
Meat Sci ; 155: 16-19, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055229

RESUMO

The combined effect of temperature, water activity (aw) and NaCl content, usually found in dry-cured ham, on the growth and expression of the virulence and stress-related genes of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in a dry-cured ham model system. The highest growth of this pathogen was observed at 15 °C and, at 0.98 and 0.96 aw values. At 0.94 and 0.92 aw values, moderate NaCl levels stimulated the L. monocytogenes growth and repressed the expression of the four tested genes. At 7 °C, the expression of the plcA gene was favored while at 15 °C the hly and iap genes were activated. Preventive actions based on temperature, aw and salt content should be taken to minimise risks associated with growth and gene expression of L. monocytogenes in dry-cured ham.


Assuntos
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Suínos , Temperatura Ambiente , Virulência/genética , Água
9.
J Food Sci ; 84(6): 1547-1553, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107547

RESUMO

Frozen storage of lobster meat (Homarus americanus) can result in undesirable quality changes that decrease consumer acceptability of these products. Current seafood industry methods use cryoprotective agents that contain phosphates including sodium tripolyphosphates (STPP). However, recent evidence suggests that cryoprotective mixtures that combine different carbohydrates and STPP can have equal or even greater cryoprotective properties compared to using STPP alone. The objective of this study was to compare the overall consumer acceptability of lobster meat stored for 6 months in different blends of these cryoprotective solutions. One hundred and seven panelists were recruited to score the acceptability of the lobster samples using nine-point hedonic scales. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question containing 27 literature-informed, sensory descriptors was also used to identify terms frequently used to describe lobster meat. Analysis of variance analysis, indicated a significant increase for overall liking (22.1%, P < 0.0001), liking of flavor (23.6%, P < 0.0001) and texture (15.6%, P = 0.000) scores for samples stored in a novel carbohydrate blend plus sodium chloride (NaCl) and STPP compared to the water control. Subsequent penalty analysis revealed that overall liking scores were most positively associated with the attributes tender, sweet, moist and soft. Moreover, the attributes with the highest positive mean impact were more frequently used to describe lobster samples stored in solutions containing NaCl and the novel carbohydrate blend, as well as NaCl and STPP (Lobster-3 and Lobster-5 samples, respectively). PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The positive impact on the sensory quality of this novel blend of cryoprotective compounds (carbohydrates and NaCl) is proof of concept that this mixture is comparable, if not better than preservatives currently used by the seafood industry. Given the necessary regulatory approval and industry acceptance, lobster processors may consider this novel blend as a suitable alternative to freeze lobster products for up to 6 months.


Assuntos
Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Nephropidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Aromatizantes/química , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Congelamento , Humanos , Carne/análise , Nephropidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Paladar
10.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(8): 915-926, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037366

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Transgenic callus and roots of ice plant with altered SnRK1 function were established using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The role of McSnRK1 in controlling Na+ influx and Na/K ratio was demonstrated. SnRK1 kinases (SNF1-related protein kinase1) control metabolic adaptation during energy deprivation and regulate protective mechanisms against environmental stress. Yeast SNF1 activates a P-type ATPase, the Na+ exclusion pump, under glucose starvation. The involvement of plant SnRK1 in salt stress response is largely unknown. We previously identified a salt-induced McSnRK1 in the halophyte ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum). In the current study, the function of McSnRK1 in salt tolerance was analyzed in transgenic cultured cells and roots of ice plant. Ice plant callus constitutively expressed a high level of McSnRK1 and introducing the full-length McSnRK1 did not alter the Na/K ratio at 24 h after 200 mM NaCl treatment. However, interfering with McSnRK1 activity by introducing a truncate McSnRK1 to produce a dominant-negative form of McSnRK1 increased cellular Na+ accumulation and Na/K ratio. As a result, the growth of cultured cells diminished under salt treatment. Hydroponically grown ice plants with roots expressing full-length McSnRK1 had better growth and lowered Na/K ratio compared to the wild-type or vector-only plants. Roots expressing a truncate McSnRK1 had reduced growth and high Na/K ratio under 400 mM NaCl treatment. The changes in Na/K ratio in transgenic cells and whole plants demonstrated the function of SnRK1 in controlling Na+ flux and maintaining Na/K homeostasis under salinity. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system could be a versatile tool for functional analysis of genes involved in salt tolerance in the ice plant.


Assuntos
Mesembryanthemum/enzimologia , Mesembryanthemum/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Homeostase , Mesembryanthemum/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 140: 43-54, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078783

RESUMO

- Salinity is a major threat to agriculture. However, depending on the concentration of soluble salts in soil, increased secondary metabolite levels can occur with no major damages to plant growth and development. The phytoecdysteroid (PE) 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a secondary metabolite with biotechnological, medicinal, pharmaceutical and agrochemical applicability. Here, we characterize the responses (growth and physiology) of Pfaffia glomerata under different NaCl concentrations and examine the production of 20E as affected by salinity. Forty-day-old plants grown in greenhouse were exposed to 0, 120, 240, 360 or 480 mM of NaCl for 11 days. Moderate salinity (i.e., 120 mM of NaCl) led to increased 20E concentrations in leaves (47%) relative to the control with no significant effect on photosynthesis and biomass accumulation, thus allowing improved 20E contents on a per whole-plant basis. In contrast, plants under high salinity (i.e., 240-480 mM of NaCl) displayed similar 20E concentrations in leaves compared to the control, but with marked impairments to biomass accumulation and photosynthetic performance (coupled with decreased sucrose and starch levels) in parallel to nutritional imbalance. High salinity also strongly increased salicylic acid levels, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmoregulatory status. Regardless of stress severity, 20E production was accompanied by the upregulation of Spook and Phantom genes. Our findings suggest that P. glomerata cultivation in moderate salinity soils can be considered as a suitable agricultural option to increase 20E levels, since metabolic and structural complexity that makes its artificial synthesis very difficult.


Assuntos
Panax/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Biomassa , Ecdisterona/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 304: 11-18, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146053

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of ohmic cooking (OH) and water bath cooking (WB) on the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in pork batter with addition of sodium chloride (NaCl) were studied, and the recovery and growth of OH and WB treated E. coli O157:H7 were also investigated during storage. The time for samples cooked by OH to reach the targeted endpoint temperature (61, 65, and 72 °C) was shorter than that of WB, and the addition of NaCl dramatically shortened the cooking time of OH treated samples, however, no significant effect was observed by WB. Samples with NaCl and cooked by OH had lower cooking loss than that of WB, but the inactivation effect of E. coli O157:H7 by OH was comparable to WB. During storage, the recovery and growth of sublethally injured E. coli O157:H7 were slower at 4 °C, and storage at 4 °C for 24 h delayed their recovery at 37 °C from 36 h to 48 h. These results indicated that OH had greater potential in the application of meat batter processing.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Escherichia coli O157/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Temperatura Alta , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Suínos
13.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083611

RESUMO

Melatonin is a biological hormone that plays crucial roles in stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous melatonin on abiotic stress in the tea plant. Under cold, salt and drought stress, increasing malondialdehyde levels and decreasing maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII were observed in tea leaves. Meanwhile, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased significantly under abiotic stress. Interestingly, pretreatment with melatonin on leaves alleviated ROS burst, decreased malondialdehyde levels and maintain high photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, 100 µM melatonin-pretreated tea plants showed high levels of glutathione and ascorbic acid and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase under abiotic stress. Notably, melatonin treatments can positively up-regulate the genes (CsSOD, CsPOD, CsCAT and CsAPX) expression of antioxidant enzyme biosynthesis. Taken together, our results confirmed that melatonin protects tea plants against abiotic stress-induced damages through detoxifying ROS and regulating antioxidant systems.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086079

RESUMO

As calcium signal sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) play vital roles in stimulating the production of secondary metabolites to participate in plant development and response to environmental stress. However, investigations of the Glycyrrhiza uralensis CPK family genes and their multiple functions are rarely reported. In this study, a total of 23 GuCPK genes in G. uralensis were identified, and their phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary characteristics, gene structure, motif distribution, and promoter cis-acting elements were analyzed. Ten GuCPKs showed root-specific preferential expressions, and GuCPKs indicated different expression patterns under treatments of CaCl2 and NaCl. In addition, under 2.5 mM of CaCl2 and 30 mM of NaCl treatments, the diverse, induced expression of GuCPKs and significant accumulations of glycyrrhizic acid and flavonoids suggested the possible important function of GuCPKs in regulating the production of glycyrrhizic acid and flavonoids. Our results provide a genome-wide characterization of CPK family genes in G. uralensis, and serve as a foundation for understanding the potential function and regulatory mechanism of GuCPKs in promoting the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizic acid and flavonoids under salt stress.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirrízico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Estresse Salino , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 140: 113-121, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100704

RESUMO

Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress affecting plant growth and yield, due to both osmotic and ionic stresses. JUBGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1) is a NAC family transcription factor that has been shown to be involved in responses to abiotic stresses, such as water deficit, osmotic, salinity, heat and oxidative stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), JUB1 has been shown to improve plant stress tolerance by regulating H2O2 levels. In the horticultural crop, Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker (tomato), overexpression of AtJUB1 has been shown to partially alleviate water deficit stress at the vegetative stage. In this study, we investigated the effect of Arabidopsis JUB1 overexpression in salinity tolerance in tomato. In hydroponically grown tomato seedlings, AtJUB1 overexpression results in higher prolines levels and improves the maintenance of water content in the plant under salinity stress. The transgenic tomato plants are more tolerant to salinity stress compared to control lines based on plant biomass. However, at the reproductive stage, we found that overexpression of AtJUB1 only provided marginal improvements in yield-related parameters, in the conditions used for the current work. The combination of improved water deficit and salinity stress tolerance conferred by AtJUB1 overexpression may be beneficial when tomato plants are grown in the field under marginal environments.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Mol Biotechnol ; 61(6): 421-426, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937688

RESUMO

The B-box proteins (BBXs) are zinc finger proteins containing one or two B-box domain(s) and involved in regulation of development processes as transcription factors in plants. Here, seven BBX genes in Malus domestica genome (MdBBXs) were identified and found to be up-regulated under abiotic stresses, with 2-12 folds in roots. All recombinant MdBBXs expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) enhanced the cell's tolerance to salt and osmotic stresses, respectively. Deficiency of B-box domain of MdBBX10 led to the loss of anti-stress functions. Five conservative cysteines in B-box domain played crucial roles in stress resistance, which are involved in two of metal iron binding sites of zinc finger motifs in BBXs. All the above results suggested MdBBXs confer stress tolerance to E. coli cell against abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco/genética
17.
Mol Biotechnol ; 61(6): 442-450, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980224

RESUMO

Soil salinity imposes a serious threat to the productivity of agricultural crops. Among several other transporters, high-affinity K+ transporter (HKT)'s play an important role in reducing the phytotoxicity of Na+. Expression of Eutrema salsugineum (a halophyte) HKT1;2 is induced upon salt exposure. To elucidate the role of its promoter, we compared the sequences of HKT1;2 promoters from E. salsugineum (1822 bp) and E. botschantzevii (1811 bp) with Arabidopsis thaliana HKT1;1 (846 bp) promoter. In silico analysis predicted several cis-acting regulatory elements (GT-1 elements, core motifs of DRE/CRT, MYC/MYB-recognition sites and ACGT elements). Activities of the three promoters were analyzed by measuring HKT1;1 and/or HKT1;2 transcript level in the Athkt1;1 mutant plants. NaCl tolerance of the transgenics was also assessed. Our results depicted that expressing either AtHKT1;1 or EsHKT1;2 coding regions under the control of AtHKT1;1 promoter, almost reversed the hypersensitivity of the mutant for salt, on contrarily, when AtHKT1;1 coding sequence expressed under either Es or EbHKT1;2 promoters did not. Changes in shoot Na+/K+ concentrations under salt exposure is significantly consistent with the complementation ability of the mutant. The transcript concentration for genes under the control of either of Eutrema promoters, at control level was very less. This may suggest that either an important upstream response motif is missed or that A. thaliana misses a transcriptional regulator that is essential for salt-inducible HKT1 expression in Eutrema.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Brassicaceae/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Simportadores/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Brassicaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassicaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética , Transporte de Íons/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Potássio/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987184

RESUMO

1-Deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathway (MEP). In this study, PtDXS (XM_024607716.1) was isolated from Populus trichocarpa. A bioinformatics analysis revealed that PtDXS had high homology with the DXSs of other plant species. PtDXS expression differed among plant tissues and was highest in young leaves and lowest in roots. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), purified, and its activity evaluated. The purified protein was capable of catalyzing the formation of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate. A functional color assay in E. coli harboring pAC-BETA indicated that PtDXS encodes a functional protein involved in the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors. The treatment of P. trichocarpa seedlings with 200 µM abscisic acid (ABA), 200 mM NaCl, 10% polyethylene glycol6000, and 2 mM H2O2 resulted in increased expression of PtDXS. The ABA and gibberellic acid contents of the transgenic lines (Poplar Nanlin 895) were higher than wild types, suggesting that DXS is important in terpenoid biosynthesis. Overexpression of PtDXS enhanced resistance to S. populiperda infection. Furthermore, the transgenic lines showed decreased feeding by Micromelalopha troglodyta, supporting the notion that PtDXS is a key enzyme in terpenoid biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Animais , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Mariposas/fisiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Populus/microbiologia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 558-568, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029029

RESUMO

The interplaying defensive roles of silicon (Si) and proline (Pro) in improving growth and yield attributes, physio-biochemical attributes, and antioxidant defense systems in common bean plant grown under saline (NaCl) and/or cadmium (Cd2+) stress were assessed. Seed were sown in plastic pots filled with sand-free ions as a growing medium that watered with a ½-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. Twenty five days after planting, pots were split into 4 plots; control (no stress), 150 mM NaCl (salt stress), 1.5 mM Cd2+ in CdCl2 (Cd2+ stress), and 100 mM NaCl + 1.0 mM Cd2+ (salt + Cd2+ stress). Four treatments; foliar spray with distilled water, 6 mM Si (in K2SiO3.nH2O) solution, 6 mM Pro solution, and a combination of Si and Pro were allotted under each of the 4 plots. The experimental layout was a completely randomized design with 15 replicates. Compared to control, NaCl or Cd2+ stress significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced plant growth and yield attributes, leaf contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, N, P, and K+, K+/Na+ ratio, RWC, MSI, Pn and Tr, while elevated significantly leaf EL, leaf contents of proline, soluble sugar, glutathione, MDA, Na+, and root, leaf and pod contents of Cd2+. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were also raised. The combined stress (NaCl + Cd2+) was more influential. Addition of Si and/or Pro for common bean plants under NaCl and/or Cd2+ stress significantly enhanced all investigated attributes of physiology, morphology, and biochemistry, and further increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Supplementation of Si + Pro was the best treatment having more positive influential, especially reducing the Cd2+ content in Phaseolus vulgaris pods to the limits (0.27 mg kg-1) for legumes. Therefore, this combined treatment is recommended to use for alleviating environmental stress effects, especially salinity and Cd2+ for common bean production.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacologia , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia , Silício/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940557

RESUMO

The freshwater red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) is found not only in freshwater but also in coastal saline habitats. Hyperosmotic salinity can induce cell damage. p53, regarded as the guardian of the genome, is very important and versatile in response to the change of environment. In this study, the role of p53 in T. s. elegans under environmental salinity change will be explored. The results indicated that amino acid sequence of p53 showed high similarity to p53 of other species. In addition, the expression of p53 showed differences in various tissues under normal condition. Under salinity stress, the mRNA levels of p53 in the liver increased significantly at 48 h with 15‰ group (15 practical salinity units-exposed group). In the heart, p53 mRNA levels increased at 6 h in 5‰ (5 practical salinity units) and 15‰ groups. Furthermore, the changes of p21 mRNA expression levels in liver and heart were similar to p53, while cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase4 (CDK4) and cyclin-dependent kinase6 (CDK6) showed opposite changes to p53. Moreover, Bax and caspase 3 mRNA expression levels were similar to p53, respectively, while Bcl-2 showed opposite changes. The positive cells of apoptosis were found in the liver of 15‰ at 48 h and 30 d of chronic stress. Taken together, these results indicated that the T. s. elegans may protect itself by regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis of damaged cells under salinity stress, which played an important role for T. s. elegans in salinity adaptation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
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