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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13875, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807805

RESUMO

Respiratory protection is key in infection prevention of airborne diseases, as highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic for instance. Conventional technologies have several drawbacks (i.e., cross-infection risk, filtration efficiency improvements limited by difficulty in breathing, and no safe reusability), which have yet to be addressed in a single device. Here, we report the development of a filter overcoming the major technical challenges of respiratory protective devices. Large-pore membranes, offering high breathability but low bacteria capture, were functionalized to have a uniform salt layer on the fibers. The salt-functionalized membranes achieved high filtration efficiency as opposed to the bare membrane, with differences of up to 48%, while maintaining high breathability (> 60% increase compared to commercial surgical masks even for the thickest salt filters tested). The salt-functionalized filters quickly killed Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria aerosols in vitro, with CFU reductions observed as early as within 5 min, and in vivo by causing structural damage due to salt recrystallization. The salt coatings retained the pathogen inactivation capability at harsh environmental conditions (37 °C and a relative humidity of 70%, 80% and 90%). Combination of these properties in one filter will lead to the production of an effective device, comprehensibly mitigating infection transmission globally.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/química , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/microbiologia , Membranas Artificiais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Aerossóis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cristalização , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649724

RESUMO

Halophiles are relatively unexplored as potential sources of novel species. However, little is known about the culturable bacterial diversity thrive in hypersaline lakes. In this work, a total of 343 bacteria from sediment samples of Aiding Lake, China, were isolated using nine different media supplemented with 5% or 15% (w/v) NaCl. The number of species and genera of bacteria recovered from the different media varied, indicating the need to optimize the isolation conditions. The results showed an unexpected level of bacterial diversity, with four phyla (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Rhodothermaeota), fourteen orders (Actinopolysporales, Alteromonadales, Bacillales, Balneolales, Chromatiales, Glycomycetales, Jiangellales, Micrococcales, Micromonosporales, Oceanospirillales, Pseudonocardiales, Rhizobiales, Streptomycetales, and Streptosporangiales), including 17 families, 43 genera (including two novel genera), and 71 species (including four novel species). The predominant phyla included Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and the predominant genera included Actinopolyspora, Gracilibacillus, Halomonas, Nocardiopsis, and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this is the first time that members of phylum Rhodothermaeota were identified in sediment samples from a salt lake.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , China , Lagos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730292

RESUMO

Grapevines, although adapted to occasional drought or salt stress, are relatively sensitive to growth- and yield-limiting salinity stress. To understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and identify genes commonly regulated by both stresses in grapevine, we investigated transcript profiles in leaves of the salt-tolerant grapevine rootstock 1616C under salt- and ER-stress. Among 1643 differentially expressed transcripts at 6 h post-treatment in leaves, 29 were unique to ER stress, 378 were unique to salt stress, and 16 were common to both stresses. At 24 h post-treatment, 243 transcripts were unique to ER stress, 1150 were unique to salt stress, and 168 were common to both stresses. GO term analysis identified genes in categories including 'oxidative stress', 'protein folding', 'transmembrane transport', 'protein phosphorylation', 'lipid transport', 'proteolysis', 'photosynthesis', and 'regulation of transcription'. The expression of genes encoding transporters, transcription factors, and proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis increased in response to both ER and salt stresses. KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes for both ER and salt stress were divided into four main categories including; carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, signal transduction and lipid metabolism. Differential expression of several genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, which validated our microarray results. We identified transcripts for genes that might be involved in salt tolerance and also many genes differentially expressed under both ER and salt stresses. Our results could provide new insights into the mechanisms of salt tolerance and ER stress in plants and should be useful for genetic improvement of salt tolerance in grapevine.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Vitis/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Osmose , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tunicamicina/farmacologia
4.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000722, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569301

RESUMO

Inflammation and infection can trigger local tissue Na+ accumulation. This Na+-rich environment boosts proinflammatory activation of monocyte/macrophage-like cells (MΦs) and their antimicrobial activity. Enhanced Na+-driven MΦ function requires the osmoprotective transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), which augments nitric oxide (NO) production and contributes to increased autophagy. However, the mechanism of Na+ sensing in MΦs remained unclear. High extracellular Na+ levels (high salt [HS]) trigger a substantial Na+ influx and Ca2+ loss. Here, we show that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1, also known as solute carrier family 8 member A1 [SLC8A1]) plays a critical role in HS-triggered Na+ influx, concomitant Ca2+ efflux, and subsequent augmented NFAT5 accumulation. Moreover, interfering with NCX1 activity impairs HS-boosted inflammatory signaling, infection-triggered autolysosome formation, and subsequent antibacterial activity. Taken together, this demonstrates that NCX1 is able to sense Na+ and is required for amplifying inflammatory and antimicrobial MΦ responses upon HS exposure. Manipulating NCX1 offers a new strategy to regulate MΦ function.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110775, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535365

RESUMO

Due to the limitation of suitable water for crop production in the world, recycling water is among the most proper methods enhancing water efficiency and availability. One modern method, which is of economic, health, and environmental significance, and may improve water properties for plant use is water magnetization. Medicinal plants are of nutritional, economic and medical values and their growth decreases under salinity stresses. This research was hypothesized and conducted because there is not any data, to our knowledge, on the use of magnetized salty water affecting the growth and biochemical properties of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). The experiment was a split plot design with three replicates. The main plots consisted of magnetic fields at control (M1), 100 mT (M2), 200 mT (M3), and 300 mT (M4), the sub-plots consisted of salinity treatments (NaCl) at control (S1), 4 dS/m (S2), 8 dS/m (S3), and 12 dS/m (S4), and the growth media including cocopeat (X1), palm (X2), cocopeat + perlite (V/V = 50, X3) and palm + perlite (V/V = 50, X4) were located in the sub-sub-plots. Different plant growth and biochemical properties including plant fresh and dry weight, plant menthol, menthone, chlorophyll and proline contents were determined. Analysis of variance indicated the significant effects of experimental treatments and their interactions on the growth and biochemistry of peppermint. Different magnetic fields significantly increased plant growth, and interestingly with increasing the salinity level the alleviating effects of magnetic field on salinity stress became more clear (significant interaction between salinity and magnetic field treatments). Cocopeat was the most efficient growth medium. At the third level of salinity (8 dS/m) just the two levels of 100 and 200 mT increased plant menthol concentration. Treatments M3S2X4 and M1S1X1 resulted in the highest (38%) and the least menthol percentage (13%), respectively. Treatments S2 and M2 and M3 significantly increased plant menthone concentration, especially in the growth media of X1 and X3. However, at the third level of salinity, M3 and M4 were the most effective treatments. The highest (25.8%) and the least (1.2%) concentrations of menthone were related to treatments M3S2X4 and M2S4X1, respectively. The results indicated that it is possible to alleviate the stress of salinity on peppermint growth and improve its biochemical (medicinal) properties using magnetized salty water, although proline concentration was not much affected by the magnetic field.


Assuntos
Mentha piperita/fisiologia , Estresse Salino , Produção Agrícola , Mentol , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Salinas , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Água/farmacologia
6.
Food Chem ; 327: 127061, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454271

RESUMO

This study mainly investigated the effect of different salt concentrations (1, 3, or 5%) on triglycerides (TG) hydrolysis in muscle during salting by analyzing moisture distribution, TG hydrolysis, TG hydrolase activity, native and phosphorylated adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein content, lipid droplets morphology, and muscle microstructure. The results showed that increasing salt concentration could significantly decrease T21 moisture proportion and relaxation time (p < 0.05), which was more beneficial to the lipase activity. The TG hydrolase activity increased first and then decreased with the salt concentration increasing during dry-salting process, and 3% salt concentration was the point of inflection. Western blot (WB) analysis detected both ATGL, HSL and their phosphorylated proteins, which were increased with the salt content increase. The microstructure analysis showed that the lipid droplets were split into small lipid droplets with the increase of salt content, which was more conducive to the triglycerides hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Músculos Isquiossurais/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Músculos Isquiossurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Gotículas Lipídicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Suínos
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1241: 167-194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383121

RESUMO

Sugar beet is used not only in the sugar production, but also in a wide range of industries including the production of bioethanol as a source of renewable energy, extraction of pectin and production of molasses. The red beetroot has attracted much attention as health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. The negative effects of environmental stresses, including abiotic and biotic ones, significantly decrease the cash crop sugar beet productivity. In this paper, we outline the mechanisms of sugar beet response to biotic and abiotic stresses at the levels of physiological change, the genes' functions, transcription and translation. Regarding the physiological changes, most research has been carried out on salt and drought stress. The functions of genes from sugar beet in response to salt, cold and heavy metal stresses were mainly investigated by transgenic technologies. At the transcriptional level, the transcriptome analysis of sugar beet in response to salt, cold and biotic stresses were conducted by RNA-Seq or SSH methods. At the translational level, more than 800 differentially expressed proteins in response to salt, K+/Na+ ratio, iron deficiency and resupply and heavy metal (zinc) stress were identified by quantitative proteomics techniques. Understanding how sugar beet respond and tolerate biotic and abiotic stresses is important for boosting sugar beet productivity under these challenging conditions. In order to minimize the negative impact of these stresses, studying how the sugar beet has evolved stress coping mechanisms will provide new insights and lead to novel strategies for improving the breeding of stress-resistant sugar beet and other crops.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Beta vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407323

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a form of serine/threonine protein kinase that activated by extracellular stimulation acting through the MAPK cascade (MAPKKK-MAPKK-MAPK). The MAPK cascade gene family, an important family of protein kinases, plays a vital role in responding to various stresses and hormone signal transduction processes in plants. In this study, we identified 14 CmMAPKs, 6 CmMAPKKs and 64 CmMAPKKKs in melon genome. Based on structural characteristics and a comparison of phylogenetic relationships of MAPK gene families from Arabidopsis, cucumber and watermelon, CmMAPKs and CmMAPKKs were categorized into 4 groups, and CmMAPKKKs were categorized into 3 groups. Furthermore, chromosome location revealed an unevenly distribution on chromosomes of MAPK cascade genes in melon, respectively. Eventually, qRT-PCR analysis showed that all 14 CmMAPKs had different expression patterns under drought, salt, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), red light (RL), and Podosphaera xanthii (P. xanthii) treatments. Overall, the expression levels of CmMAPK3 and CmMAPK7 under different treatments were higher than those in control. Our study provides an important basis for future functional verification of MAPK genes in regulating responses to stress and signal substance in melon.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/enzimologia , Cucumis melo/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cucumis melo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Secas , Éxons/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Íntrons/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
9.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(3): 233-238, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448733

RESUMO

Domains of unknown function protein family 1517 (DUF1517) in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, could be induced by abiotic stresses, whose upstream regulatory sequence might be an ideal source of abiotic-induced promoter. In this study, a 1026-bp promoter of AmDUF1517 from A. mongolicus was cloned. Five deletion fragments (Full, Q1-Q4) of different length of the AmDUF1517 promoter were fused with the ß-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana. The deletion analysis showed that sequences Full, Q1 and Q3 responded well to mannitol, NaCl and 4 °C stresses, while Q2 and Q4 segments did not. The Q3 fragment (280 bp; -280 to -1 bp) showed the highest promoter activity under normal and mannitol, NaCl and 4 °C conditions. The result suggested that Q3 in the AmDUF1517 gene promoter could be a new source of induced promoters for abiotic resistance breeding in plant genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Temperatura Baixa , Fabaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Manitol/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
10.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(2): F215-F228, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463727

RESUMO

Nitric oxide synthase inhibition by Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) plus a high-salt diet (HS) is a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) characterized by marked hypertension and renal injury. With cessation of treatment, most of these changes subside, but progressive renal injury develops, associated with persistent low-grade renal inflammation. We investigated whether innate immunity, and in particular the NF-κB system, is involved in this process. Male Munich-Wistar rats received HS + l-NAME (32 mg·kg-1·day-1), whereas control rats received HS only. Treatment was ceased after week 4 when 30 rats were studied. Additional rats were studied at week 8 (n = 30) and week 28 (n = 30). As expected, HS + l-NAME promoted severe hypertension, albuminuria, and renal injury after 4 wk of treatment, whereas innate immunity activation was evident. After discontinuation of treatments, partial regression of renal injury and inflammation occurred, along with persistence of innate immunity activation at week 8. At week 28, glomerular injury worsened, while renal inflammation persisted and renal innate immunity remained activated. Temporary administration of the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, in concomitancy with the early 4-wk HS + l-NAME treatment, prevented the development of late renal injury and inflammation, an effect that lasted until the end of the study. Early activation of innate immunity may be crucial to the initiation of renal injury in the HS + l-NAME model and to the autonomous progression of chronic nephropathy even after cessation of the original insult. This behavior may be common to other conditions leading to CKD.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Nefrite/fisiopatologia , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia
11.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236357

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the effect of a calcium hydroxide (CH) paste (CleaniCal®) containing N-2-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a vehicle on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms compared with other products containing saline (Calasept Plus™) or propylene glycol (PG) (Calcipex II®). METHODOLOGY: Standardized bovine root canal specimens were used. The antibacterial effects were measured by colony-forming unit counting. The thickness of bacterial microcolonies and exopolysaccharides was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Morphological features of the biofilms were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Bovine tooth blocks covered with nail polish were immersed into the vehicles and dispelling was observed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p<0.05). RESULTS: CleaniCal® showed the highest antibacterial activity, followed by Calcipex II® (p<0.05). Moreover, NMP showed a higher antibacterial effect compared with PG (p<0.05). The thickness of bacteria and EPS in the CleaniCal® group was significantly lower than that of other materials tested (p<0.05). FE-SEM images showed the specimens treated with Calasept Plus™ were covered with biofilms, whereas the specimens treated with other medicaments were not. Notably, the specimen treated with CleaniCal® was cleaner than the one treated with Calcipex II®. Furthermore, the nail polish on the bovine tooth block immersed in NMP was completely dispelled. CONCLUSIONS: CleaniCal® performed better than Calasept Plus™ and Calcipex II® in the removal efficacy of E. faecalis biofilms. The results suggest the effect might be due to the potent dissolving effect of NMP on organic substances.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinonas/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/química , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Combinação de Medicamentos , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Cloreto de Potássio/química , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Pirrolidinonas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Bicarbonato de Sódio/química , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267888

RESUMO

The diagnosis of implant-associated infections is hampered due to microbial adherence and biofilm formation on the implant surface. Sonication of explanted devices was shown to improve the microbiological diagnosis by physical removal of biofilms. Recently, chemical agents have been investigated for biofilm dislodgement such as the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT). We compared the activity of chemical methods for biofilm dislodgement to sonication in an established in vitro model of artificial biofilm. Biofilm-producing laboratory strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984), S. aureus (ATCC 43300), E. coli (ATCC 25922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 53278) were used. After 3 days of biofilm formation, porous glass beads were exposed to control (0.9% NaCl), sonication or chemical agents. Quantitative and qualitative biofilm analyses were performed by colony counting, isothermal microcalorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Recovered colony counts after treatment with EDTA and DTT were similar to those after exposure to 0.9% NaCl for biofilms of S. epidermidis (6.3 and 6.1 vs. 6.0 log10 CFU/mL, S. aureus (6.4 and 6.3 vs. 6.3 log10 CFU/mL), E. coli (5.2 and 5.1 vs. 5.1 log10 CFU/mL and P. aeruginosa (5.1 and 5.2 vs. 5.0 log10 CFU/mL, respectively). In contrast, with sonication higher CFU counts were detected with all tested microorganisms (7.5, 7.3, 6.2 and 6.5 log10 CFU/mL, respectively) (p <0.05). Concordant results were observed with isothermal microcalorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. In conclusion, sonication is superior to both tested chemical methods (EDTA and DTT) for dislodgement of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa biofilms. Future studies may evaluate potential additive effect of chemical dislodgement to sonication.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Quelantes/farmacologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Substâncias Redutoras/farmacologia , Sonicação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Calorimetria , Ditiotreitol/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Substâncias Redutoras/química , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus epidermidis/fisiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135478

RESUMO

Atriplex canescens is a C4 shrub with excellent adaptation to saline and arid environments. Our previous study showed that the secretion of excessive Na+ into leaf salt bladders is a primary strategy in salt tolerance of A. canescens and external 100 mM NaCl can substantially stimulate its growth. To investigate whether NaCl could facilitate Atriplex canescens response to drought stress, five-week-old seedlings were subjected to drought stress (30% of field water capacity) in the presence or absence of additional 100 mM NaCl. The results showed that, under drought stress, the addition of NaCl could substantially improve the growth of A. canescens by increasing leaf relative water content, enhancing photosynthetic activity and inducing a significant declined leaf osmotic potential (Ψs). The addition of NaCl significantly increased Na+ concentration in leaf salt bladders and the Na+ contribution to leaf Ψs, while had no adverse effects on K+ accumulation in leaf laminae. Therefore, the large accumulation of Na+ in salt bladders for enhancing osmotic adjustment (OA) ability is a vital strategy in A. canescens responding to drought stress. In addition, the concentration of free proline, bataine and soluble sugars exhibited a significant increase in the presence of NaCl under drought stress, and the betaine contribution to leaf Ψs was significantly increased by additional NaCl compared with that under drought treatment alone, suggesting that compatible solutes are also involved in OA in addition to functioning as protectants to alleviate water deficit injury.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Atriplex , Secas , Cloreto de Sódio , Estresse Fisiológico , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Atriplex/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230755, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218594

RESUMO

Melatonin (MEL) can act as a plant growth regulator and biostimulator in stressful situations. Using MEL in seed pretreatment also affects the future growth of plants. Therefore, this research investigated the effects of MEL on seed germination and seedling growth under NaCl in in vitro conditions. The additional effects of MEL on the accumulation of steviol glycosides (SGs) and on the expression of appropriate genes were also studied. Five µM of MEL was the best concentration for seed germination, while 20 µM exerted a positive impact on the biomass of stevia plantlets. NaCl significantly decreased seed germination, but MEL alleviated this effect when seeds were germinated in 50 mM of NaCl. Under salinity, the values of almost all morphological traits decreased as MEL concentration increased. The highest amounts of stevioside and rebaudioside A (Reb A) were observed as a result of treating seeds with 5 and 20 µM of MEL, respectively. When adding NaCl, positive impacts of MEL on the accumulation of both SGs were also observed. Expression analyses of the genes involved in SGs biosynthesis was explored in seeds and leaves, and the transcripts of key enzymes occurred in both the tissues. However, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis showed that all tested genes were upregulated in younger leaves, contrary to older ones. Also in younger, rather than older, leaves SG gene expression varied according to MEL concentration. This study, therefore, presents the promising potential of MEL for improving stevia seed germination under salinity conditions and for enhancing the production of SGs in stevia plants.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/biossíntese , Melatonina/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Stevia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos de Caurano , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Stevia/metabolismo
15.
J Neurosci ; 40(10): 2069-2079, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005766

RESUMO

The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) contains NaCl-sensitive neurons to regulate thirst, neuroendocrine function, and autonomic outflow. The OVLT also expresses the angiotensin II (AngII) type1 receptor, and AngII increases Fos expression in OVLT neurons. The present study tested whether individual OVLT neurons sensed both NaCl and AngII to regulate thirst and body fluid homeostasis. A multifaceted approach, including in vitro whole-cell patch recordings, in vivo single-unit recordings, and optogenetic manipulation of OVLT neurons, was used in adult, male Sprague Dawley rats. First, acute intravenous infusion of hypertonic NaCl or AngII produced anatomically distinct patterns of Fos-positive nuclei in the OVLT largely restricted to the dorsal cap versus vascular core, respectively. However, in vitro patch-clamp recordings indicate 66% (23 of 35) of OVLT neurons were excited by bath application of both hypertonic NaCl and AngII. Similarly, in vivo single-unit recordings revealed that 52% (23 of 44) of OVLT neurons displayed an increased discharge to intracarotid injection of both hypertonic NaCl and AngII. In marked contrast to Fos immunoreactivity, neuroanatomical mapping of Neurobiotin-filled cells from both in vitro and in vivo recordings revealed that NaCl- and AngII-responsive neurons were distributed throughout the OVLT. Next, optogenetic excitation of OVLT neurons stimulated thirst but not salt appetite. Conversely, optogenetic inhibition of OVLT neurons attenuated thirst stimulated by hypernatremia or elevated AngII but not hypovolemia. Collectively, these findings provide the first identification of individual OVLT neurons that respond to both elevated NaCl and AngII concentrations to regulate thirst and body fluid homeostasis.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Body fluid homeostasis requires the integration of neurohumoral signals to coordinate behavior, neuroendocrine function, and autonomic function. Extracellular NaCl concentrations and the peptide hormone angiotensin II (AngII) are two major neurohumoral signals that regulate body fluid homeostasis. Herein, we present the first compelling evidence that individual neurons located in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis detect both NaCl and AngII. Furthermore, optogenetic interrogations demonstrate that these neurons play a pivotal role in the regulation of thirst stimulated by NaCl and AngII. These novel observations lay the foundation for future investigations for how such inputs as well as others converge onto unique organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons to coordinate body fluid homeostasis and contribute to disorders of fluid balance.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Hipernatremia/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Organum Vasculosum/fisiologia , Sede/fisiologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
16.
Food Chem ; 316: 126348, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044699

RESUMO

The 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02 (GtGBE, EC 2.4.1.18) does not possess the thermostability required by modified starch industry. To increase its thermostability, a rational design strategy was used to introduce additional salt bridges into GtGBE. The strategy involved in mutation of individual residues to form "local" two-residue salt bridges. Accordingly, five of local salt bridges (Q231R-D227, Q231K-D227, T339E-K335, T339D-K335, and I571D-R569 mutants) were separately introduced into GtGBE. The half-times of these mutants at 60 °C were 17% to 51% longer than that of wild-type. Subsequently, these two-residue salt bridges were extended to form salt bridge networks (Q231R/K-D227-D131H, T339D/E-K335-I291H, and I571D-R569-R617H mutants). Among these mutants, except I571D-R569-R617H, the half-times of Q231R/K-D227-D131H, T339D/E-K335-I291H mutants at 60 °C were 15%, 17%, 21% and 17% longer than those of the corresponding two-residue salt bridges, respectively. The results showed that design and introduction of salt bridges improves enzyme thermostability in GtGBE.


Assuntos
Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Geobacillus/enzimologia , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Geobacillus/genética , Mutação , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Temperatura
17.
Food Chem ; 315: 126275, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004982

RESUMO

The effects of individual epi-brassinolide (eBL) and NaCl, as well as their combination on contents of main phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated. Our results showed that the application of 100 nM eBL decreased the contents of individual and total glucosinolates, while treatments of 160 mM NaCl both alone and combined with 100 nM eBL enhanced the glucosinolates accumulation by promoting the expression of genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis in Chinese kale sprouts and the combined treatment led to significantly higher content of most glucosinolate profiles. Moreover, it also elevated the contents of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids, whereas did not influence the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity. These findings indicated that the combined treatment of 100 nM eBL plus 160 mM NaCl could provide a new strategy to improve the main health promoting compounds in Chinese kale sprouts.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Brassinosteroides/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Plântula/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Carotenoides/química , Glucosinolatos/química , Fenóis/química , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 193: 110345, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092578

RESUMO

Many areas of the world are affected simultaneously by salinity and heavy metal pollution. Halophytes are considered as useful candidates in remediation of such soils due to their ability to withstand both osmotic stress and ion toxicity deriving from high salt concentrations. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a halophyte with a high resistance to abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, frost), but its capacity to cope with heavy metals has not yet been fully investigated. In this pot experiment, we investigated phytoextraction capacity, effects on nutrient levels (P and Fe), and changes in gene expression in response to application of Cr(III) in quinoa plants grown on saline or non-saline soil. Plants were exposed for three weeks to 500 mg kg-1 soil of Cr(NO3)3·9H2O either in the presence or absence of 150 mM NaCl. Results show that plants were able tolerate this soil concentration of Cr(III); the metal was mainly accumulated in roots where it reached the highest concentration (ca. 2.6 mg g-1 DW) in the presence of NaCl. On saline soil, foliar Na concentration was significantly reduced by Cr(III). Phosphorus translocation to leaves was reduced in the presence of Cr(III), while Fe accumulation was enhanced by treatment with NaCl alone. A real-time RT-qPCR analysis was conducted on genes encoding for sulfate, iron, and phosphate transporters, a phytochelatin, a metallothionein, glutathione synthetase, a dehydrin, Hsp70, and enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of proline (P5CS), glycine betaine (BADH), tocopherols (TAT), and phenolic compounds (PAL). Cr(III), and especially Cr(III)+NaCl, affected transcript levels of most of the investigated genes, indicating that tolerance to Cr is associated with changes in phosphorus and sulfur allocation, and activation of stress-protective molecules. Moderately saline conditions, in most cases, enhanced this response, suggesting that the halophytism of quinoa could contribute to prime the plants to respond to chromium stress.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Cromo/toxicidade , Salinidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Cromo/farmacocinética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/biossíntese , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Estresse Fisiológico , Enxofre/metabolismo , Tocoferóis/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0220275, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929552

RESUMO

Many freshwater ecosystems worldwide, and particularly Mediterranean ones, show increasing levels of salinity. These changes in water conditions could affect abundance and distribution of inhabiting species as well as the provision of ecosystem services. In this study we conduct laboratory experiments using the macroinvertebrate Smicridea annulicornis as a model organism. Our factorial experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of geographical origin of organisms and salinity levels on survival and behavioral responses of caddisflies. The experimental organisms were captured from rivers belonging to three hydrological basins along a 450 Km latitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region of Chile. Animals were exposed to three conductivity levels, from 180 to 1400 µS/cm, close to the historical averages of the source rivers. We measured the behavioral responses to experimental stimuli and the survival time. Our results showed that geographical origin shaped the behavioral and survival responses to salinity. In particular, survival and activity decreased more strongly with increasing salinity in organisms coming from more dilute waters. This suggests local adaptation to be determinant for salinity responses in this benthic invertebrate species. In the current scenario of fast temporal and spatial changes in water levels and salt concentration, the conservation of geographic intra-specific variation of aquatic species is crucial for lowering the risk of salinity-driven biodiversity loss.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Neópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Chile , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Geografia , Neópteros/fisiologia , Salinidade
20.
Phytochemistry ; 171: 112236, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923723

RESUMO

Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) is a medicinal plant with valuable specialised metabolites such as triterpene sweetener glycyrrhizin. Salinity stress is the main environmental stress limiting plant growth and development. The effects of six levels of NaCl (0, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mM) on growth, osmolyte content, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzyme activities, K+/Na+ ratio, glycyrrhizin content, and gene expression of glycyrrhizin biosynthesis (bAS, CYP88D6, and CYP72A154) were investigated in licorice rhizomes of two populations. The results showed that the salt stress progressively reduced the growth parameters and increased the proline concentrations in the rhizomes. K+/Na+ ratio showed a significant decrease under salinity as compared to the controls. Salt stress resulted in oxidative stress on the rhizomes, as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide concentrations and elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes (i.e., ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase). The glycyrrhizin content increased only under 100 and 200 mM NaCl treatments. The same trend was observed in the expression of bAS, CYP88D6, and CYP72A154 genes in Fars population. Fars population was found to have more glycyrrhizin content than Khorasan population. But, growth, glycyrrhizin content, and biosynthesis genes of glycyrrhizin showed more reduction in Khorasan population as compared to those of Fars population. The results indicate that the application of 100 mM NaCl up-regulated the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins and directly enhanced the production of glycyrrhizin. Accordingly, G. glabra can be introduced as a halophyte plant.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glicirrízico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/biossíntese , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Físico-Química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Glycyrrhiza/química , Glycyrrhiza/genética , Ácido Glicirrízico/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/química
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