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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1480-1493, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899641

RESUMO

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) possesses a substantial share of the global markets for its unique sweet flavor and diverse pharmacological compounds. Cultivated licorice is widely distributed in northwest regions of China, covered with land with a broad range of salinities. A preliminary study indicated that suitable salt stress significantly increased the content of bioactive constituents in licorice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of salinity on the accumulation of these constituents remain unclear, which hinders quality breeding of cultivated licorice. In our study, flavonoid-related structural genes were obtained, and most of them, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, cinnamate 4-hydroxylases, 4-coumarate: CoA ligases, chalcone synthases, chalcone-flavanone isomerase, and flavonol synthase, showed high levels after salt treatment. In the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin, three key enzymes (bAS, CYP88D6, and CYP72A154) were identified as differentially expressed proteins and remarkably upregulated in the salt-stressed group. Combining these results with the contents of 14 bioactive constituents, we also found that the expression patterns of those structural proteins were logically consistent with changes in bioactive constituent profiles. Thus, we believe that suitable salt stress increased the accumulation of bioactive constituents in licorice by upregulating proteins involved in the related biosynthesis pathways. This work provided valuable proteomic information for unraveling the molecular mechanism of flavonoid and glycyrrhizin metabolism and offered fundamental resources for quality breeding in licorice.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/genética , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirrízico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Estresse Salino
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(11): 170, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673816

RESUMO

Debaryomyces hansenii is a halotolerant yeast of importance in basic and applied research. Previous reports hinted about possible links between saline and oxidative stress responses in this yeast. The aim of this work was to study that hypothesis at different molecular levels, investigating after oxidative and saline stress: (i) transcription of seven genes related to oxidative and/or saline responses, (ii) activity of two main anti-oxidative enzymes, (iii) existence of common metabolic intermediates, and (iv) generation of damages to biomolecules as lipids and proteins. Our results showed how expression of genes related to oxidative stress was induced by exposure to NaCl and KCl, and, vice versa, transcription of some genes related to osmotic/salt stress responses was regulated by H2O2. Moreover, and contrary to S. cerevisiae, in D. hansenii HOG1 and MSN2 genes were modulated by stress at their transcriptional level. At the enzymatic level, saline stress also induced antioxidative enzymatic defenses as catalase and glutathione reductase. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both stresses are connected by the generation of intracellular ROS, and that hydrogen peroxide can affect the accumulation of in-cell sodium. On the other hand, no significant alterations in lipid oxidation or total glutathione content were observed upon exposure to both stresses tested. The results described in this work could help to understand the responses to both stressors, and to improve the biotechnological potential of D. hansenni.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Saccharomycetales/fisiologia , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Antioxidantes , Catalase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Osmorregulação/genética , Osmorregulação/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Cloreto de Potássio/metabolismo , Proteômica , Saccharomycetales/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
3.
J Microbiol ; 57(11): 997-1002, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659686

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, alkalitolerant, and halophilic bacterium-designated as strain NKC3-5T-was isolated from kimchi that was collected from the Geumsan area in the Republic of Korea. Cells of isolated strain NKC3-5T were 0.5-0.7 µm wide and 1.4-2.8 µm long. The strain NKC3-5T could grow at up to 20.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 10%), pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum pH 9.0), and 25-40°C (optimum 35°C). The cells were able to reduce nitrate under aerobic conditions, which is the first report in the genus Salicibibacter. The genome size and genomic G + C content of strain NKC3-5T were 3,754,174 bp and 45.9 mol%, respectively; it contained 3,630 coding sequences, 16S rRNA genes (six 16S, five 5S, and five 23S), and 59 tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA showed that strain NKC3-5T clustered with bacterium Salicibibacter kimchii NKC1-1T, with a similarity of 96.2-97.6%, but formed a distinct branch with other published species of the family Bacillaceae. In addition, OrthoANI value between strain NKC3-5T and Salicibibacter kimchii NKC1-1T was far lower than the species demarcation threshold. Using functional genome annotation, the result found that carbohydrate, amino acid, and vitamin metabolism related genes were highly distributed in the genome of strain NKC3-5T. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that strain NKC3-5T had 716 pan-genome orthologous groups (POGs), dominated with carbohydrate metabolism. Phylogenomic analysis based on the concatenated core POGs revealed that strain NKC3-5T was closely related to Salicibibacter kimchii. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified lipids. Anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, anteiso-C17:0, and iso-C15:0 were the major cellular fatty acids, and menaquinone-7 was the major isoprenoid quinone present in strain NKC3-5T. Cell wall peptidoglycan analysis of strain NKC3-5T showed that meso-diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid. The phephenotypic, genomic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic properties reveal that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Salicibibacter, for which the name Salicibibacter halophilus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain NKC3-5T (= KACC 21230T = JCM 33437T).


Assuntos
Bacillaceae/classificação , Bacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Bacillaceae/genética , Bacillaceae/fisiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genômica , Halobacteriales , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptidoglicano/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Tolerância ao Sal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12945-12952, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661263

RESUMO

Salt stress is one of the most common factors limiting plant cultivation. In this study, metabolic responses to salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) leaves were analyzed in situ by neutral desorption-extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ND-EESI-MS) without any sample pretreatment. Metabolic changes of A. thaliana leaves were observed in response to salt stress conditions, including the levels of serine, glutamic acid, arginine, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin, morin, myricetin, apigravin, and ß-cotonefuran. The content of serine increased under 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl salt stress, reaching the highest level at 200 mM NaCl, but decreased under the maximum concentration of 300 mM NaCl. A similar phenomenon was observed for arginine, glutamic acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and epicatechin, respectively, involved in the metabolic pathway of shikimate-phenylpropanoid. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) showed that the salt stress treatment groups of the higher concentrations (200 and 300 mM) could be well distinguished from those of the lower concentrations (50 and 100 mM) and the control. Marker metabolites, like m/z 261 (apigravin) and m/z 305 (ß-cotonefuran), were assistantly selected from the fingerprints by variable importance for the projection (VIP). Our results indicated the potential of the ND-EESI-MS method for the rapid recognition of metabolic conditions in plant leaves under salt stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/química , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(10): 160, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606850

RESUMO

In this work Talaromyces australis and Penicillium murcianum pigment production in liquid cultures and the cytotoxic effect of such pigments on skin model cells were studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize culture conditions aiming to increase pigment production in malt extract and peptone-glucose-yeast extract medium. Cytotoxicity of fungal pigments and also from lixiviates of wool fabrics dyed with T. australis and P. murcianum pigment was evaluated on mammalian cell lines HEK293 and NIH/3T3. Results showed that variations on initial pH, NaCl and peptone, resulted in increments up to 188.2% for red pigment of T. australis and 107.4% for yellow pigment of P. murcianum, regarding non-optimized conditions. Tested fungi also showed great differences in culture conditions for the maximum pigment production, with P. murcianum requiring an alkaline medium (initial pH 9) supplemented with NaCl and T. australis an acidic medium (initial pH 5) without addition of salt. The cytotoxicity assays provided evidences on the safe nature of these natural pigments when used for textile applications. The cytotoxicity assay showed that the threshold of toxicity, given by the lowest IC50 value (0.21 g L-1) was more than double of the concentration of pigment required to dye the wool samples. In addition, cytotoxicity of lixiviates depicted no toxic effect over tested cells.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Penicillium/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Talaromyces/metabolismo , Têxteis/microbiologia , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo
6.
Microbiol Res ; 229: 126331, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521945

RESUMO

The uses of halotolerant bacteria isolated from naturally saline habitats have the potential to be useful crop protection agents for plants in stressful conditions. These beneficial microbes generate several plant growth regulators and bioactive molecules, which enhance plant protection from adversities, such as plant pathogens, salts and metals stresses. In this study, 15 halotolerant bacterial strains endowed with important antimicrobial activities were isolated from Sfax solar saltern (Tunisia). All of these strains were characterized by biochemical and molecular tools aiming to investigate their in-vitro and in-vivo antifungal potentialities, plant growth promotion capabilities and metal tolerance abilities under saline stress condition. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolated strains were affiliated to different phylum and three species were described for the first time as plant growth promoting strains (Idiomarina zobelli FMH6v, Nesterenkonia halotolerans FMH10 and Halomonas janggokensis FMH54). The tested strains exhibited several potentialities: to tolerate high salt and heavy metal concentrations, to produce biosurfactants, exopolysaccharides and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, to form biofilms and to liberate plant promoting substances. Eight strains were able to protect tomatoes fruits from the proliferation of the fungal disease caused by Botrytis cinerea and six strains improved plant vigor indexes. Principal component analysis showed an important correlation between in-vitro and in-vivo potentialities and two strains Bacillus velezensis FMH2 and Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii FMH45 were statistically considered as the most effective strains in protecting plants from fungal pathogens attack and promoting the growth of tomatoes seedlings under saline and multi heavy-metals stress conditions.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Botrytis/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Salinidade , Água do Mar/química , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Tunísia
7.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(12): 1435-1442, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494741

RESUMO

Bacteria under stress increase the proportion of dormant cells to ensure their survival. Cold and osmotic stress are similar, because in both the availability of water is reduced. Glycine betaine (GB) is one of the most common osmoprotectants in bacteria and possesses cryoprotectant properties. Our aim was to determine whether GB modifies the proportion of dormant Deinococcus sp. UDEC-P1 and Psychrobacter sp. UDEC-A5 cells exposed to osmotic stress. Both bacterial strains were incubated in the presence of up to 1 M NaCl with or without GB. Active and dormant cells were evaluated by both spectrophotometric and flow cytometry analysis. Without GB, Deinococcus sp. UDEC-P1 grew in the presence of 0.05 M NaCl, but with 5 mM GB grew at 0.1 M NaCl. Psychrobacter sp. UDEC-A5 grew in the presence of up to 0.25 M NaCl, but with 5 mM GB grew at 0.5 M NaCl. Under osmotic stress, the proportion of dormant cells of Deinococcus sp. UDEC-P1 and Psychrobacter sp. UDEC-A5 increased significantly (about eightfold and fivefold, respectively). The addition of GB (5 mM) exerted a different effect on the two strains, since it avoided the entrance into the dormancy of Psychrobacter sp. UDEC-A5 cells, but not of Deinococcus sp. UDEC-P1 cells. Our results suggest that the effect of GB on bacterial metabolism is strain dependent. For bacteria in which GB avoids dormancy, such as Psychrobacter sp. UDEC-A5, it could be a "double-edged sword" by reducing the "seed bank" available to recover the active population when favorable conditions return.


Assuntos
Betaína/metabolismo , Deinococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psychrobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Deinococcus/fisiologia , Pressão Osmótica , Psychrobacter/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6973-6980, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants activate defense mechanisms to cope with adverse environmental conditions, leading to the accumulation and / or depletion of general and specialized metabolites. In this study, a multiplatform untargeted metabolomics strategy was employed to evaluate metabolic changes in strawberry fruit of cv. Camarosa grown under osmotic stress conditions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data from strawberries grown under two water-deficit conditions, irrigated at 95% crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and 85% ETc, and one excess salt condition with a 80 mmol L-1 NaCl solution, were analyzed to determine treatment effects on fruit metabolism. RESULTS: Multivariate principal component analysis, orthogonal projections to latent structures - discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and univariate statistical analyses were applied to the data set. While multivariate analyses showed group separation by treatment, T-tests and fold change revealed 12 metabolites differentially accumulated in strawberries from different treatments - among them phenolic compounds, glycerophospholipids, phytosterols, carbohydrates, and an aromatic amino acid. CONCLUSION: Untargeted metabolomic analysis allowed for the annotation of compounds differentially accumulated in strawberry fruit from plants grown under osmotic stress and non-stressed plants. The metabolic disturbance in plants under stress involved metabolites associated with the inhibition of reactive oxygen species and cell-wall and membrane lipid biosynthesis, which might serve as osmotic stress biomarkers. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fragaria/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Pressão Osmótica , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 848-856, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426227

RESUMO

Seagrass meadows are recognized as critical and among the most vulnerable habitats on the planet. As a worldwide concern, there is an urgent need to develop techniques to restore and preserve these vital coastal ecosystems due to their alarming decline rate. To effectively preserve and restore seagrasses, more research is required on the germination ecology of seeds. The seagrass Zostera japonica Asch. & Graebn is an endangered species in its native range, the Northwestern Pacific Coast. The present study investigated the germination and seedling establishment in Z. japonica seeds (collected from northern China) under different temperature and salinity conditions to explore suitable seed germination and establishment conditions, as well as the seedling formation process. Results showed that salinity had a more significant influence on seed germination rate. Germination rate decreased with an increase in salinity, and seeds did not germinate when salinity was higher than 40 psu. Temperature was more likely to influence germination speed, which increased with an increase in temperature, with high germination rates and the most rapid germination speed observed at 30 °C. Therefore, the optimal culture conditions were 10 psu salinity at 30 °C for germination and 10-20 psu salinity at 20 °C for seedling establishment, with a seed germination rate of 45.6% after 6 days of germination culture and a seedling establishment rate of 14.3% after 6 days of seedling culture, respectively. A new seedling raising method with low salinity (5 psu) germination and high salinity (20 psu) seedling establishment was proposed and a flow chart of seedling formation of Z. japonica was created. The results provide insight into the seed germination and seedling establishment in Z. japonica, and will facilitate future large-scale seedling culture and field restoration activities for this seagrass species.


Assuntos
Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zosteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Germinação , Salinidade , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Zosteraceae/metabolismo
10.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 717-724, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452042

RESUMO

Salterns are hypersaline extreme environments with unique physicochemical properties such as a salinity gradient. Although the investigation of microbiota in salterns has focused on archaea and bacteria, diverse fungi also thrive in the brine and soil of salterns. Fungi isolated from salterns are represented by black yeasts (Hortaea werneckii, Phaeotheca triangularis, Aureobasidium pullulans, and Trimmatostroma salinum), Cladosporium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium species. Most studies on saltern-derived fungi gave attention to black yeasts and their physiological characteristics, including growth under various culture conditions. Since then, biochemical and molecular tools have been employed to explore adaptation of these fungi to salt stress. Genome databases of several fungi in salterns are now publicly available and being used to elucidate salt tolerance mechanisms and discover the target genes for agricultural and industrial applications. Notably, the number of enzymes and novel metabolites known to be produced by diverse saltern-derived fungi has increased significantly. Therefore, fungi in salterns are not only interesting and important subjects to study fungal biodiversity and adaptive mechanisms in extreme environments, but also valuable bioresources with potential for biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Sais/química , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Adaptação Fisiológica , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Tolerância ao Sal
11.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2250-2255, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313323

RESUMO

The ability to produce various extracellular enzymes is considered as an important virulence feature in Aeromonas spp., in addition to producing specific virulence factors such as aerolysin and hemolysin. In this study, the effect of salinity and pH on the production of extracellular virulence factors by Aeromonas was investigated. Aeromonas was obtained from different food sources. A comparative study of the activities of extracellular enzymes secreted by these bacteria at different environmental conditions can widen our understanding on their pathogenicity. The activities of various extracellular enzymes such as amylase, gelatinase, and caseinase, which are implicated as virulence factors, were measured in vitro by calculating the enzymatic activity index (EAI) of each enzyme using standard laboratory protocols. For all enzymes, a significant change (P < 0.05) in the EAI was observed when the concentration of NaCl in the media increased from 0.5% to 3%. Among three enzymes tested, caseinase was found to be affected the most by salinity, with a significant difference in EAI when NaCl concentration in the media increased from 0.5% to 2%. Similarly, amylase was found to be affected the most by acidity. The pH values ranging from 6 to 9 did not exert any significant change in EAI of amylase; however, a pH value of 5 had a significant effect. Overall, compared to salinity, the change in pH was found to be less effective in controlling the extracellular virulence factor production in Aeromonas. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The practical application is to minimize the extracellular virulence factor production by Aeromonas in food commodities by altering the salt content and pH. The results demonstrate that an increase in salinity and a decrease in pH can minimize the extracellular virulence factor production by Aeromonas spp.


Assuntos
Aeromonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Aeromonas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/metabolismo , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Fatores de Virulência/genética
12.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 555-563, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280647

RESUMO

Salt-sensing mechanisms in hypertension involving the kidney, vasculature, and central nervous system have been well studied; however, recent studies suggest that immune cells can sense sodium (Na+). Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) including dendritic cells critically modulate inflammation by activating T cells and producing cytokines. We recently found that Na+ enters dendritic cells through amiloride-sensitive channels including the α and γ subunits of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and mediates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent formation of immunogenic IsoLG (isolevuglandin)-protein adducts leading to inflammation and hypertension. Here, we describe a novel pathway in which the salt-sensing kinase SGK1 (serum/glucocorticoid kinase 1) in APCs mediates salt-induced expression and assembly of ENaC-α and ENaC-γ and promotes salt-sensitive hypertension by activation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and formation of IsoLG-protein adducts. Mice lacking SGK1 in CD11c+ cells were protected from renal inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and developed blunted hypertension during the high salt feeding phase of the N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride/high salt model of salt-sensitive hypertension. CD11c+ APCs treated with high salt exhibited increased expression of ENaC-γ which coimmunoprecipitated with ENaC-α. This was associated with increased activation and expression of various nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of SGK1 in CD11c+ cells prevented the high salt-induced expression of ENaC and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. These studies indicate that expression of SGK1 in CD11c+ APCs contributes to the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension.


Assuntos
Antígeno CD11c/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Nefrite/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Antígeno CD11c/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Immunoblotting , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Nefrite/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
13.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 112(10): 1533-1544, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165292

RESUMO

A taxonomic study of a Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, motile, asporogenous, catalase- and oxidase-positive bacterium, sh-6T, forming pink-red colonies, isolated from a contaminated R2A plate in the laboratory was performed. Its optimum growth temperature was determined to be 28 °C in the absence of NaCl on R2A plates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain sh-6T belongs to the genus Hymenobacter and is closely related to Hymenobacter deserti ZLB-3T (95.05%), Hymenobacter paludis KBP-30T (94.96%), Hymenobacter coalescens WW84T (94.04%), Hymenobacter gummosus ANT-18T (93.38%), Hymenobacter ocellatus Myx2105T (93.70%), Hymenobacter jeollabukensis 1-3-3-8T (93.48%) and Hymenobacter koreensis GYR3077T (93.21%). Comparison of the genome of strain sh-6T and that of H. gummosus ANT-18T gave digital DNA-DNA hybridization and Average Nucleotide Identity values of 20.6% and 78.4%, respectively. The respiratory isoprenoid quinone and polyamine component were identified as MK-7 and sym-homospermidine, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids identified as iso-C15:0, summed feature 4 (iso-C17:1 I/anteiso B), iso-C16:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0. The major polar lipid of strain sh-6T determined to be phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 60.5 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, Hymenobacter oligotrophus sp. nov., is proposed, with the type strain sh-6T (= CCTCC AB 2016064T = KCTC 62345T).


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia Ambiental , Ágar , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/fisiologia , Composição de Bases , Análise por Conglomerados , Meios de Cultura , Citosol/química , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Locomoção , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , Quinonas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 112(10): 1567-1575, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147966

RESUMO

A novel Gram-negative bacterium, non-motile and short rod-shaped, designated strain GY511T, was isolated from the intestines of fish collected from Maowei Sea, China. Growth occurred at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0), 4-37 °C (optimum 28 °C) and at 0-2.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1.0%). The result of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain GY511T is closely related to O. oryzae NBRC 113109T (97.6%), O. konkukae DSM 105395T (97.4%), Ottowia beijingensis CGMCC 1.12324T (95.9%), Ottowia pentelensis DSM 21699T (95.2%) and Ottowia thiooxydans DSM 14619T (95.0%). The DNA-DNA hybridization values of strain GY511T with O. oryzae NBRC 113109T and O. konkukae DSM 105395T were 35.4 ± 3.1% and 26.3 ± 1.8%, respectively. The major fatty acids (> 10%) were identified as summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c), C16:0 and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c) and the major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and an unidentified phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 62.9 mol%. Thiosulfate could be utilized as co-substrate for aerobic growth and was oxidised to sulfate. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain GY511T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Ottowia, for which the name Ottowia flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GY511T (= NBRC 113500T = DSM 107425T = CGMCC 1.13650T).


Assuntos
Comamonadaceae/classificação , Comamonadaceae/isolamento & purificação , Peixes/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Aerobiose , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Comamonadaceae/genética , Comamonadaceae/fisiologia , Citosol/química , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , Quinonas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4090-4101, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232415

RESUMO

Salt reduction in liquid/semi-solid processed foods remains a significant challenge as these foods contribute mostly to the high dietary sodium intake in our daily life. From the results of a taste contrast and quantitative saltiness analysis with trained panels, we found that the addition of high amounts of gum arabic could enhance the saltiness perception of standard NaCl solution and enable a 30% reduction of salt in yogurt drink and mayonnaise without impacting the saltiness perception. Via in vitro sodium retention experiments conducted using ex vivo porcine tongue, simulated tongue and Transwell methods, we suggested that the enhanced saltiness and sodium retention on the mucosa were possibly due to the mucopenetration ability of gum arabic. This finding would be useful for the design of low-salt liquid/semi-solid foods and has implications for novel food formulations to enhance flavor and nutrient delivery.


Assuntos
Alimentos Especializados , Goma Arábica/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Pectinas , Polissacarídeos , Sódio/metabolismo , Suínos , Paladar , Língua/fisiologia , Água/química , Iogurte
16.
J Microbiol ; 57(10): 836-841, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250399

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming motile by means of peritrichous flagella, facultatively anaerobic bacterium designated TI45-13arT was isolated from Nuruk, a Korean traditional Makgeolli fermentation starter. It grew at 4-35°C (optimum, 28-30°C), pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and NaCl concentrations up to 5% (w/v). Phylogenetic trees generated using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TI45-13arT belonged to the genus Paenibacillus and showed the highest sequence similarities with Paenibacillus kyungheensis DCY88T (98.5%), Paenibacillus hordei RH-N24T (98.4%) and Paenibacillus nicotianae YIM h-19T (98.1%). The major fatty acid was anteiso-C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 39.0 mol%, and MK-7 was the predominant isoprenoid quinone. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified glycolipids, and one unidentified aminoglycolipid. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomy study, it was suggested that strain TI45-13arT represents a novel species within the genus Paenibacillus for which the name Paenibacillus nuruki sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain was TI45-13arT (= KACC 18728T = NBRC 112013T).


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Paenibacillus/classificação , Paenibacillus/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Paenibacillus/genética , Paenibacillus/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213986, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039145

RESUMO

Among cereal crops, salinity tolerance is rare and complex. Multiple genes control numerous pathways, which constitute plant's response to salinity. Cell cultures act as model system and are useful to investigate the salinity response which can possibly mimic a plant's response to stress. In the present study two indica rice varieties, KS-282 and Super Basmati which exhibited contrasting sodium chloride (NaCl) stress response were used to establish cell cultures. The cell cultures showed a contrasting response to salt stress at 100 mM NaCl. High level of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) were observed in sensitive cell culture for prolonged period as compared to the tolerant cells in which an extracellular H2O2 burst along with controlled intracellular H2O2 and NO signal was seen. To evaluate the role of NO in inducing cell death under salt stress, cell death percentage (CDP) was measured after 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) pre-treatment. CDP was reduced significantly in both tolerant and sensitive cell cultures emphasizing NO's possible role in programmed cell death. Expression analysis of apoplastic NADPH oxidase, i.e. OsRbohA and recently characterised OSCA family members i.e. OsOSCA 1.2 and OsOSCA 3.1 was done. Intracellular H2O2/NO levels displayed an interplay between Ca2+ influx and ROS/RNS signal. Detoxifying enzyme (i.e. ascorbate peroxidase and catalase) activity was considerably higher in tolerant KS-282 while the activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly prominent in the sensitive cells triggering greater oxidative damage owing to the prolonged presence of intracellular H2O2. Salt stress and ROS responsive TFs i.e. OsSERF1 and OsDREB2A were expressed exclusively in the tolerant cells. Similarly, the expression of genes involved in maintaining high [K+]/[Na+] ratio was considerably higher and earlier in the tolerant variety. Overall, we suggest that a control over ROS production, and an increase in the expression of genes important for potassium homeostasis play a dynamic role in salinity tolerance in rice cell cultures.


Assuntos
Homeostase/fisiologia , Oryza/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Oryza/citologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sementes/citologia , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(6-7): 849-857, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the N-terminal nonessential domains on the enzymological properties of a pullulanase (BmP) from Bacillus megaterium strain P6. METHODS: The domains of BmP were identified by the conserved domain (CD) search online software. BmP was prepared by fermentation with the strain P6 and its N-terminal truncated form (BmNTP) was obtained by heterologous expression. Structure-property relations were analyzed by homology modeling. RESULTS: BmP showed a domain architecture consisting of CBM41a-CBM41b-X-CBM48-pulA. CBM41a-CBM41b-X was removed in BmNTP. In comparison with BmP, BmNTP was lower in pH stability, specific activity and optimum NaCl concentration, but higher in Km value, thermostability, optimum pH and temperature, and activity enhancement by NaCl. Particularly, BmNTP was active over 0-35% (w/v) NaCl concentrations and enhanced 8.7 folds in specific activity (from 17.6 to 170 U/mg) in 10% NaCl. The solvent accessible surface area (SASA) of the catalytic triad was found to be correlated positively to the substrate affinity and negatively to the optimum temperature and activity enhancement by NaCl. CONCLUSION: The impact of CBM41a-CBM41b-X on the pullulanase properties was extensive and distinguished from the previous reports. The decrease in SASA may be responsible for the enzymological changes.


Assuntos
Bacillus megaterium/enzimologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/enzimologia , Ativadores de Enzimas/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Deleção de Sequência , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Animal ; 13(10): 2268-2276, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062685

RESUMO

Due to global climatic changes, water and soil salinization is an increasing worldwide phenomenon, thus creating new threats for farm animal production. The present study was designed to investigate the adaptation capacity of goats towards sodium chloride (NaCl) in drinking water. Twelve non-pregnant Boer goats with an average body weight of 50.5 ± 9.0 kg were kept in individual pens. The study was conducted in four phases applying a two-choice preference test. In the control phase (phase 1) only fresh water was supplied in two containers. In phase 2, water with different salt concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25% and 1.5%) was offered in one container and tap water in the other (sensitivity test). During the third phase (adaptation), goats were stepwise habituated to saline water by offering only saline water with different increasing concentrations (between 0% and 1.5% NaCl) in both containers. Subsequently, in phase 4 (sensitivity re-test) the same treatment as in phase 2 was repeated. Goats had ad libitum access to hay, water and a mineral licking block. Individual water and feed intake were recorded daily, while body weight and body condition score were measured every 2nd week. Body weight was not affected by saline water intake, whereas dry matter intake and body condition scores decreased significantly during the experiment. Water intake was significantly (P<0.001) higher in phase 2 (sensitivity test) and phase 3 (adaptation), compared to phase 1 (control) and phase 4 (sensitivity re-test). Total sodium intake followed the same pattern. In phase 2, when goats had the choice between fresh and saline water for the first time they preferred higher salt concentrations and consumed significantly (P<0.001) higher amounts of saline water (75.4 ± 53.2 g/kg BW0.82 per day) than in the re-test (40.4 ± 34.0 g/kg BW0.82 per day) after the habituation period. Thus, salt discrimination rejection thresholds were lowered to 1.25% in phase 4 compared to 1.5% in phase 2. The results suggest that a stepwise adaptation to saline drinking water in goats is an effective method to habituate the animals to saline water intake when concentrations were below 1.5%. Goats reacted more sensitively to the salinity of drinking water after prolonged exposure to saline water indicating flexible regulation mechanisms depending on the total sodium balance of the animal.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Cabras/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Água Doce/química , Águas Salinas/química , Tolerância ao Sal , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 679: 279-287, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082601

RESUMO

Wastewaters generated in regions with water scarcity usually have high alkalinity, hardness, and elevated osmotic pressure (OP). Those characteristics should be considered when using biological systems for wastewater treatment along with the salinity heterogeneity. The interaction of different salts in mixed electrolyte solutions may cause inhibition, antagonism, synergism, and stimulation effects on microbial communities. Little is known about those effects on microbial activity and community structure of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In this work, factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 on nitrifying and denitrifying communities. Antagonistic relationships between all salts were observed and they had greater magnitude on the nitrifying community. Stimulus and synernism were more evident on the nitrifying and denitrifying experiments, respectively. For this reason, the highest nitrification and denitrification specific rates were 1.1 × 10-1 mgN-NH4+ gSSV-1 min-1 for condition 01 and 6.5 × 10-2 mgN-NO3- gSSV-1 min-1 for control condition, respectively. The toxicity of the salts followed the order of NaCl > MgCl2 > CaCl2 and the antagonism between MgCl2 and NaCl was the most significant. PCR/DGGE analyses showed that Mg2+ may be the element that expresses the least influence in the differentiation of microbial structure even though it significantly affects the activity of the autotrophic microorganisms. The same behavior was observed for Ca2+ on denitrifying microorganism. In addition, microbial diversity and richness was not negatively affected by different salinities. Genetic sequencing suggested that the genus Aeromonas, Alishewanella, Azospirillum, Pseudoalteromonas, and Thioalkalivibrio were outstanding on ammonium and nitrate removal under saline conditions. The specific toxicity of each salt and the interactions among them are the major effects on microbial activity in biological wastewater treatments rather than the osmotic pressure caused by the final salinity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio/metabolismo , Desnitrificação , Cloreto de Magnésio/metabolismo , Nitrificação , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Cátions/metabolismo , Clima Desértico , Microbiota , Águas Residuárias/química
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