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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(7): 7691-7709, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400105

RESUMO

Chlorine (Cl) in the terrestrial environment is of interest from multiple perspectives, including the use of chloride as a tracer for water flow and contaminant transport, organochlorine pollutants, Cl cycling, radioactive waste (radioecology; 36Cl is of large concern) and plant science (Cl as essential element for living plants). During the past decades, there has been a rapid development towards improved understanding of the terrestrial Cl cycle. There is a ubiquitous and extensive natural chlorination of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems where naturally formed chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) in soil frequently exceed the abundance of chloride. Chloride dominates import and export from terrestrial ecosystems while soil Clorg and biomass Cl can dominate the standing stock Cl. This has important implications for Cl transport, as chloride will enter the Cl pools resulting in prolonged residence times. Clearly, these pools must be considered separately in future monitoring programs addressing Cl cycling. Moreover, there are indications that (1) large amounts of Cl can accumulate in biomass, in some cases representing the main Cl pool; (2) emissions of volatile organic chlorines could be a significant export pathway of Cl and (3) that there is a production of Clorg in tissues of, e.g. plants and animals and that Cl can accumulate as, e.g. chlorinated fatty acids in organisms. Yet, data focusing on ecosystem perspectives and combined spatiotemporal variability regarding various Cl pools are still scarce, and the processes and ecological roles of the extensive biological Cl cycling are still poorly understood.


Assuntos
Cloro , Ecossistema , Cloretos/análise , Cloro/análise , Halogenação , Solo
2.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(1): 31-40, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388839

RESUMO

In this study, the quality of groundwater was assessed in a semi-arid region of India by using an entropy weighted water quality index (EWQI) and a pollution index of groundwater (PIG). The EWQI and PIG methods were used to evaluate data on physicochemical parameters in relation to drinking water quality standards. Groundwater samples were collected from the Dubbak region, Telangana state, India, and were analyzed for pH, total hardness, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, bicarbonate (HCO3-), chloride (Cl-), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), fluoride (F-), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), and potassium (K+). The groundwater of the study region is alkaline in nature. The abundance of cations and anions based on their mean values is in the following order: Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > HCO3- > NO3- > SO42- > F-, respectively. The calculated EWQI values ranged from 49.0 to 174.6, with an average of 93.3. Overall, EWQI data showed that only 60% of groundwater samples were of suitable quality for drinking, although only marginally, whereas the remaining 40% of samples were unsuitable for drinking purposes and would therefore require treatment. The values of PIG varied from 0.5 to 1.8, with an average of 1.0, which showed that only 63% of groundwater samples from the study area were suitable for drinking purposes.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Entropia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Cloretos/análise , Fluoretos/análise , Índia , Magnésio/análise , Minerais/análise , Nitratos/análise , Saúde da População Rural , Sulfatos/análise
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108938, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166912

RESUMO

A packaging system using gaseous chlorine dioxide generating film (CDGF) in a sealed container was developed to extend the shelf life of semi-dry longan pulp (moisture content 38.8 wt%; aw0.8). The antimicrobial properties, formation of chloroxyanion residues and effects of CDGF on the quality of semi-dry longan pulp were investigated. CDGF was triggered by the moisture vapor from semi-dry longan pulp in the sealed container and released gaseous ClO2 into the headspace of the container. The antifungal test showed that CDGF significantly inactivated artificially inoculated molds in semi-dry longan pulp and achieved reductions of over 3 log CFU/g after 28 days storage at room temperature (25 °C). CDGF reduced total aerobic bacterial populations by over 6.4 log CFU/g and maintained these population levels at around 2.0 log CFU/g throughout the 180-day storage period at room temperature. The residual concentrations of chloride, chlorate and perchlorate in longan pulp increased and then decreased during the 180-day storage. Residual chloride levels were maintained at 1.5 mg/g after Day 120 and residual chlorate and perchlorate levels were not detected after Day 120 and Day 180, respectively, in CDGF-treated samples. CDGF treatments reduced total polyphenol content but didn't have any significant impact on the levels of polysaccharides in samples. There were no significant differences between CDGF-treated and control samples in color changes during storage. The content of 5-hydroymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in both samples increased during storage, suggesting that the Maillard reaction occurred. This study demonstrated an effective approach to develop a new antimicrobial packaging system for semi-dry longan pulp.


Assuntos
Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óxidos/farmacologia , Cloretos/análise , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases/farmacologia , Percloratos/análise , Sapindaceae/microbiologia
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 230: 105693, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310671

RESUMO

Sea dumping of chemical warfare (CW) took place worldwide during the 20th century. Submerged CW included metal bombs and casings that have been exposed for 50-100 years of corrosion and are now known to be leaking. Therefore, the arsenic-based chemical warfare agents (CWAs), pose a potential threat to the marine ecosystems. The aim of this research was to support a need for real-data measurements for accurate risk assessments and categorization of threats originating from submerged CWAs. This has been achieved by providing a broad insight into arsenic-based CWAs acute toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. Standard tests were performed to provide a solid foundation for acute aquatic toxicity threshold estimations of CWA: Lewisite, Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine (PDCA), CWA-related compounds: TPA, arsenic trichloride and four arsenic-based CWA degradation products. Despite their low solubility, during the 48 h exposure, all CWA caused highly negative effects on Daphnia magna. PDCA was very toxic with 48 h D. magna LC50 at 0.36 µg × L-1 and Lewisite with EC50 at 3.2 µg × L-1. Concentrations at which no immobilization effects were observed were slightly above the analytical Limits of Detection (LOD) and Quantification (LOQ). More water-soluble CWA degradation products showed no effects at concentrations up to 100 mg × L-1.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Cloretos/análise , Ecossistema , Dose Letal Mediana , Limite de Detecção , Água do Mar/química , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127754, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738714

RESUMO

In this study, different organic acids-such as citric, acetic, lactic, propionic, and butyric acid-were evaluated to ascertain the optimum leaching solvent for dechlorinating fly ash. Results suggest that the acid type, concentration, and interactions between both parameters contributed significantly to the variations in the efficiency of fly ash dechlorination. Simple main-effect analysis suggested that a higher acid concentration yields better dechlorination efficiency. However, improvements in dechlorination efficiency did not necessarily yield a low chlorine content leaching residue because in a specific acid concentration region, the increased acid concentration may also accelerate the mass reduction rate of the leaching residue. Experimental results also demonstrate that citric and acetic acid yield the highest dechlorination efficiency, followed by propionic and butyric acid. The least dechlorination efficiency of lactic acid could be attributed to the formation of precipitate (i.e. calcium lactate) which might cover the chlorides and reduce the contact area of intimal chlorides with the leaching solvent. Therefore, a specific concentration of organic matter fermentation broth rich in citric and acetic radicals may present itself as an ideal water substitute for fly ash dechlorination.


Assuntos
Ácidos Acíclicos/química , Cloretos/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Solventes/química , Ácido Acético/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Material Particulado/análise
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461394, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823099

RESUMO

The early identification of unstable glass objects in museum collections is essential for their conservation, but as yet cannot be accomplished straightforwardly. Accordingly, this paper describes the development and validation of a simple protocol for quantitative determination of ions characteristic of the chemical decay of historic glass, using surface swabbing combined with ion-exchange chromatography. The establishment of a robust protocol is an important step in the development of an early warning system for the chemical deterioration of unstable glass. Using a model system, the protocol was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection, and limits of quantification for 10 anionic species (fluoride, acetate, formate, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, carbonate, sulfate and phosphate) and 6 cationic species (lithium, sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium and calcium). Good validation parameters (R2 > 0.995; RSD < 5%; Recovery 90-100%) were obtained for acetate, formate, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Chloride (R2 = 0.934; RSD = 13.6%; recovery 71.4%) and carbonate (R2 = 0.993; RSD = 10.3%; recovery 120%) had poor validation parameters. Sulfate had low recovery (78.2%), but high reproducibility (RSD = 4.32%) with R2 = 0.997. Limits of quantification were below 1 mg/L for all analytes, which is satisfactory for the study of unstable glass in museum collections. The validated sampling protocol was trialled using artificially aged unstable glass fragments, which resulted in a high relative standard deviation (between 1 and 30%). The ability to achieve improved care of historic glass by application of the validated protocol in museum collections is discussed in the context of a pilot study undertaken at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Vidro/química , Íons/análise , Cloretos/análise , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Fluoretos/análise , Íons/química , Limite de Detecção , Metais/análise , Metais/química , Museus , Nitratos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375358

RESUMO

(1) Background: Diagnostic testing for cystic fibrosis (CF) is based on a sweat chloride test (SCT) considering the appropriate signs and symptoms of the disease and results of a gene mutation analysis. In 2014, the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) established a pilot Italian external quality assessment program for CF SCT (Italian EQA-SCT), which is now a third party service carried out by the ISS. (2) Methods: The ongoing scheme is prospective, enrollment is voluntary, and the payment of a fee is required. Results are shared through a dedicated web-facility. Assessment covers the analysis, interpretation, and reporting of results. (3) Results: Thirteen, fifteen, sixteen, and fifteen different laboratories, respectively, participated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2018 to 2019 in the Italian EQA-SCT scheme. Eleven different laboratories participated each year in all four rounds of the Italian EQA-SCT. (4) Conclusions: The overall results obtained from the laboratories participating constantly clearly show that their qualitative and quantitative performance improved significantly. This is due to the opportunity-after receiving the EQA results-to constantly review their performance and address any inconsistencies. We firmly believe that participation in the EQA program will improve the quality of participating laboratories and that EQA participation should become mandatory as a fundamental requirement for laboratory accreditation.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Suor , Cloretos/análise , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Prospectivos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Suor/química
8.
Am J Nurs ; 120(6): 58-66, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443130

RESUMO

In this article, the second in a new series designed to improve acute care nurses' understanding of laboratory abnormalities, the author continues her discussion of important values in the basic metabolic panel (see Back to Basics, January, for a discussion of sodium and fluid balance). Here she addresses the electrolytes potassium and chloride as well as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, four values that are best considered together because they both reflect and impact renal function as well as acid-base homeostasis. Important etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment concerns are also presented. Three case studies are used to integrate select laboratory diagnostic tests with history and physical examination findings, allowing nurses to develop a thorough, focused plan of care for electrolyte abnormalities and kidney disorders commonly encountered in the medical-surgical setting.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/sangue , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Creatinina/análise , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Hiperpotassemia/fisiopatologia , Hipopotassemia/sangue , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Hipopotassemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Potássio/análise , Potássio/sangue
9.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(7): 1653-1660, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of a newly developed skin wipe test (SWT) for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). STUDY DESIGN: Spontaneously formed sweat from the forearm was wiped by a cotton swab moistened with 100 µL of deionized (DI) water and extracted into 400 µL of DI water (SWT). The conventional Macroduct sweat test (ST) was performed simultaneously. SWT samples of 114 CF patients, 76 healthy carriers, and 58 controls were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection and Cl- /K+ and (Cl- + Na+ )/K+ ion ratios were evaluated. Chloride concentrations from Macroduct ST were analyzed coulometrically. RESULTS: Analysis of 248 SWT samples and simultaneous Macroduct ST samples showed comparable method performance. Two ion ratios, Cl- /K+ and (Cl- + Na+ )/K+ , from the SWT samples and Cl- values from the ST samples were evaluated to diagnose CF. Sensitivity of the SWT method using the Cl- /K+ ratio (cutoff value 3.9) was 93.9%, compared to 99.1% when using the (Cl- + Na+ )/K+ ratio (cutoff value 5.0) and 98.3% in using Macroduct Cl- (cutoff value higher or equal to 60 mmol/L). The methods' specificities were 97.8%, 94.0%, and 100.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The developed SWT method with capillary electrophoretic analysis for CF diagnosis performs comparably to the conventional Macroduct ST. The SWT method is simple, fast, inexpensive, and completely noninvasive. Use of an ion ratio in obtained SWT samples is proposed as a new diagnostic parameter that shows significant promise in CF diagnostics.


Assuntos
Cloretos/análise , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Potássio/análise , Sódio/análise , Suor/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletroforese Capilar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110339, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143103

RESUMO

Serum and breast milk are both important biological samples to evaluate body burden of dioxin-like compounds which include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We collected maternal serum at early pregnancy, and breast milk at 3-8 weeks after delivery from 55 mothers living in Beijing, China, and measured 29 dioxin-like compounds in these samples. The sampling intervals in this study were extended up to 10 months to analyze differences of contents between serum and breast milk under long sampling intervals. The results showed that mean TEq level of PCDD/Fs in serum (9.8 pg TEq g-1 lipid) was 1.7 times higher than that in milk (4.5 pg TEq g-1 lipid), while the TEq concentrations of dl-PCBs in serum (1.2 pg TEq g-1 lipid) was significantly lower than that in milk (2.0 pg TEq g-1 lipid). There were only two congeners, OCDD (r = 0.32) and PCB105 (r = 0.33), the correlations of which between serum and milk were significant. The differences in distributions of congeners in serum and milk might be influenced by number of chlorine substituents and structures of congeners. In addition, maternal age and BMI were positively and negatively correlated with mass concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in milk and serum respectively. These results suggest that, compared with serum, it is limited to use breast milk to assess long-term exposure for the wider population.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Pequim , Benzofuranos/análise , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Cloretos/análise , Cloro/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Dioxinas/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/química , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Gravidez
11.
Talanta ; 211: 120734, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070599

RESUMO

The real-time detection and monitoring of chloride ion concentrations play important roles in broad industrial applications, including wearable health care device, environmental pollutant control and infrastructure corrosion monitoring. The development of all-solid-state micro-fabricated electrochemical sensors has enabled the miniaturisation of these testing devices. This study reviewed the micro-fabricated electrochemical chloride sensors developed since 1970s, together with a brief summary regarding the progression of miniaturised electrochemical sensors in the past half century. Three major types of electrochemical chloride sensors with specific ion-selectivity have been discussed, the potentiometric sensors (including both ion-selective electrodes and chemical FETs), the chronopotentiometric sensors and the voltammetric sensors. In addition, colorimetric sensors, an emerging low-cost, portable, fast diagnose sensor technique has been included in this review. Four critical sensor performances have been reviewed and compared systematically, the sensibility (chloride concentration range), selectivity, lifetime and applicable pH ranges. The future perspectives for engineering applications proposed in this review will benefit the further development of integrated multi-functional sensors, as well as new instrumental testing methods.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cloretos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/normas , Humanos , Potenciometria
12.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(1): 93-107, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108587

RESUMO

The measurement performance of 13 biochemistry parameters (CEA, CA 19-9, amylase, lipase, sodium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, glucose, protein, albumin, LDH, triglycerides) was tested in a panel of biological fluids other than blood and urine (peritoneal, pleural, pancreatic fluids ...). Our protocol, based on a risk analysis, allowed us to justify our choices and compare the performance obtained with those of the serum or plasma matrix already validated. Thus, the coefficients of variation obtained in body fluids are comparable. The assessment of accuracy (spiking and dilution tests) shows the absence of bias, which is consistent with the absence of matrix effect. The linearity studied by dilution tests shows that the upper limits of the measurement interval communicated by the supplier are applicable to body fluids. The absence of contamination and stability have been also confirmed. All analytes are stable for 3 days at room temperature, 7 days between 2 and 8̊C, and 6 months at -20̊C; except LDH and lipase. For most analytes, at least one interference (hemolysis, icterus, lipemia) was found. Finally, a bibliographical study, confronted with the experience of prescribers, led us to define optimal thresholds to help interpret patients' results. In conclusion, this work has allowed us to validate analytical methods for body fluids testing after relying on their comparability to the blood matrix. We have also been able to adapt our practices and finally be accredited according to the standard NF IN ISO 15189.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Líquidos Corporais/química , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Albuminas/análise , Albuminas/metabolismo , Amilases/análise , Amilases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Antígeno CA-19-9/análise , Antígeno CA-19-9/metabolismo , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/análise , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Creatinina/análise , Creatinina/metabolismo , Glucose/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/análise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Lipase/análise , Lipase/metabolismo , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sódio/análise , Sódio/metabolismo , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(4): 918-928, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the phenotypic expression of children with conductance regulator-related metabolic syndrome (CRMS)/cystic fibrosis screen positive inconclusive diagnosis (CFSPID) designation after positive newborn screening, reassign labeling if applicable and better define these children's prognosis. METHODS: A multicenter cohort with CRMS/CFSPID designation was matched with cystic fibrosis (CF)-diagnosed cohort. Cohorts were prospectively compared on baseline characteristics, cumulative data and when they reached 6 to 7 years at endpoint assessment. RESULTS: Compared to infants with CF (n = 63), the CRMS/CFSPID cohort (n = 63) had initially lower immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) and sweat chloride (SC) values, delayed visits, less symptoms, and better nutritional status; during follow-up, they had fewer hospitalizations, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus identification, CF comorbidities, and treatment burden. At endpoint assessment, they presented a milder pulmonary phenotype on Brody computed tomography scores (0.0[0.0; 2.0] vs 13[2.0; 31.0]; P < .0001, respectively), Wisconsin and Brasfield chest radiograph scores, pulmonary function tests, and improved nutritional status. Among the inconclusive CF diagnosis cohort, 28 cases (44%) converted to CF diagnosis based on genotype (44%), SC (28%) or both (28%); yet, comparing those with or without final CF diagnosis, we found no differences, possibly related to their young age and mild degree of lung disease. In the total cohort, we found significant associations between Brody scores and IRT, SC values, genotype, Wisconsin and Brasfield score and spirometry. CONCLUSIONS: The matched CRMS/CFSPID and CF cohorts showed differences in outcomes. By a mean age of 7.6 years, a high proportion of the CRMS/CFSPID cohort converted to CF. Our results highlight that monitoring at CF clinics until at least 6 years is needed as well as further studies.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal , Criança , Cloretos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Suor/química , Tripsinogênio/análise
14.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(2): 273-280, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388894

RESUMO

The aim of this observational retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between hyperchloremia and serum chloride variation with in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in a general, no-ICU hospitalized population. We performed a retrospective study on inpatient population admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS between January 2010 and December 2014 with inclusion of adult patients with at least two values available for chloride, sodium and creatinine. Hyperchloremia was defined as serum chloride concentration ≥ 108 mmol/L (moderate hyperchloremia: chloremia between 108-110 mmol/L, severe hyperchloremia: chloremia > 110 mmol/L). According to the time of onset of the electrolyte disturbance, hyperchloremia was then classified as hospital acquired (HA) and community acquired (CA). In patients with HA-hyperchloremia, chloride variation (ΔCl) was calculated. In-hospital AKI was defined according to creatinine kinetics criteria occurring 48 h after hospital admission. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the exposures of interest and in-hospital AKI and mortality. A total of 24,912 hospital admissions met the inclusion criteria. Regression analyses showed that only severe HA-hyperchloremia was associated with increased risk of in-hospital AKI [odds ratio (OR) 2.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58, 4.30, p value < 0.001] and death (OR 3.89, 95% CI 2.11, 7.18, p value < 0.001). With increasing ΔCl, the OR of in-hospital AKI increased progressively (p value for trend = 0.005). In conclusion, severe hyperchloremia is an independent predictor for in-hospital AKI and mortality; HA-hyperchloremia is more detrimental for patient outcome; higher ΔCl from hospital admission is associated with increased risk of AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Cloretos/análise , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cloretos/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Quartos de Pacientes/organização & administração , Quartos de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/sangue , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/etiologia
15.
Chemosphere ; 241: 124985, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606001

RESUMO

Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash is an environmentally harmful solid waste that cannot be recycled without pre-treatment. The chloride content in bottom ash (BA) is a major obstacle that restricts its application as secondary building materials. Here, the chemical speciation of the chlorides in BA is systematically studied with multiple analytical techniques, i.e., quantitative XRD, microanalysis and XPS. In addition to halite (NaCl), several chloride-rich minerals are present in BA. These phases are hydrous metal oxides, ettringite, decomposed hydration products (C4A3) and incineration slag with a chloride content of 3.2%, 1.4%, 2.1% and 1.3%, respectively. For the first time, the real-time leaching profiles of chloride (up to 80 h) from BA were obtained with a chloride-ion specific electrode to explain the leaching mechanism. In the initial stage of leaching, highly soluble alkali salts (NaCl) and physisorbed chlorides (especially those adsorbed on hydrous metal oxides) are released, which is controlled by diffusion. Later, the leaching is controlled by the solubility/reactivity of the chloride-containing phases, such as ettringite and incineration slag. The results show that the release of chloride is not only a diffusion-controlled process, as reported in the literature, but also a reaction-controlled phenomenon, during which the chloride-rich phases decompose and release chlorides that are associated with them via sorption/incorporation.


Assuntos
Cloretos/análise , Cinza de Carvão/química , Incineração , Resíduos Sólidos , Adsorção , Cloretos/química , Cidades , Materiais de Construção , Reciclagem , Sais , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
16.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113398, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662250

RESUMO

In aquatic environments, organisms such as freshwater mussels are likely exposed to complex contaminant mixtures related to industrial, agricultural, and urban activities. With growing interest in understanding the risk that chemical mixtures pose to mussels, this investigation focused on the effects of various waterborne contaminants (ammonia, chloride, copper, and potassium) and selected binary mixtures of these chemicals following a fixed-ratio design to Villosa iris glochidia and juvenile Lampsilis fasciola. In individual exposures, 48-h EC50 values were determined for V. iris glochidia exposed to ammonia chloride (7.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.6-8.2] mg N/L), ammonia sulfate (8.4 [7.6-9.1] mg N/L), copper sulfate (14.2 [12.9-15.4] µg Cu2+/L), potassium chloride (12.8 [11.9-13.7] mg K+/L), potassium sulfate (10.1 [8.9-11.2] mg K+/L), and sodium chloride (480.5 [435.5-525.5] mg Cl-/L). The 7-d LC50 values for juvenile L. fasciola were determined for potassium sulfate (45.0 [18.8-71.2] mg K+/L), and sodium chloride (1738.2 [1418.6-2057.8] mg Cl-/L). In Ontario these waterborne contaminants have been reported to co-occur, with concentrations exceeding the EC10 for both life stages at some locations. Data from binary mixture exposures for V. iris glochidia (chloride-ammonia, chloride-copper, and copper-ammonia) and juvenile L. fasciola (chloride-potassium) were analyzed using a regression-based, dose-response mixture analysis modeling framework. Results from the mixture analysis were used to determine if an additive model for mixture toxicity [concentration addition (CA) or independent action (IA)] best described the toxicity of each mixture and if deviation towards dose-ratio (DR) or dose-level (DL) synergism/antagonism (S/A) occurred. For all glochidia binary mixture exposures, CA was the best fit model with DL deviation reported for the chloride-copper mixture and DR deviation reported for the copper-ammonia mixture. Using the model deviation ratio (MDR), the observed toxicity in all three glochidia mixture exposures were adequately described by both CA (mean = 0.71) and IA (mean = 0.97) whereas the juvenile mixture exposure was only adequately described by CA (mean = 0.64; IA mean = 0.05).


Assuntos
Unionidae/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Amônia/análise , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloretos/análise , Cloro , Cobre/análise , Cobre/toxicidade , Água Doce/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Minerais/análise , Ontário , Potássio/análise , Potássio/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Unionidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2609-2626, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673916

RESUMO

Karst groundwater, an important water source, is often highly influenced by human impacts, causing environmental damage and threats to human health. However, studies on the anthropogenic influences on the hydrogeochemical evolution of karst groundwater are relatively rare. To assess hydrogeochemical formation and evolution, we focused on a typical karst groundwater system (Jinan, China) which is composed of cold groundwater (av. temperature 13-17 °C), springs and geothermal water (av. temperature > 30 °C) and is significantly affected by human activities. The study was performed by means of water samples collecting and analyzing and isotope analysis (2H, 18O and 14C). The statistical analysis and inverse models were also applied to further understand geochemical processes and anthropogenic influences. The 2H, 18O and 14C results indicate that the cold karst groundwater is easily influenced and contaminated by the local environment, while geothermal water is relatively old with a slow rate of recharge. The hydrochemical types of cold karst groundwater are mainly HCO3-Ca and HCO3·SO4-Ca, while geothermal water hydrochemical types are SO4-Ca·Na and SO4-Ca. Groundwater Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3- and SO42- are mainly controlled by carbonate equilibrium, gypsum dissolution and dedolomitization. Groundwater Na+, K+ and Cl- are mainly derived from halite dissolution, and in geothermal water, they are also affected by incongruent dissolution of albite and K-feldspar. Anthropogenic nitrogen produces ammonium resulting in nitrification and reduction in CO2(g) consumption and HCO3- release from carbonate dissolution. Principal component analysis and inverse models also indicate that nitrification and denitrification have significantly affected water-rock interactions. Our study suggests that karst groundwater quality is dominated by water-rock interactions and elucidates the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen. We believe that this paper will be a good reference point to study anthropogenic influences on the groundwater environment and to protect karst groundwater globally.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono/análise , Carbonatos/análise , China , Cloretos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Hidrologia/métodos , Hidrologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Nascentes Naturais , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Potássio/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Sódio/análise , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
18.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 228: 117729, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740122

RESUMO

As the most abundant and significant anions in biosystem, chloride ions (Cl-) participate in many important physiological processes. Thus, designing and synthesizing of a simple, sensitive, selective and long wavelength turn-on sensor for the detection and imaging of Cl- in vitro and in vivo is very necessary. Herein, we have developed a simple porphyrin turn-on sensor 5, 10, 15, 20-Tetrakis (4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin (THPP) with near infrared emission wavelength (657 nm) for sensing chloride ions with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. The detection of chloride ions was according to metal displacement assay (MDA) under physiological condition with a detection limit of 7.5 µM, and was applied to image Cl- in vitro and in vivo successfully.


Assuntos
Cloretos/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Porfirinas/química , Animais , Cloretos/sangue , Células HeLa , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Camundongos , Imagem Óptica , Soro/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
20.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 27(Pt 1): 60-66, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868737

RESUMO

A new Rococo 2 X-ray fluorescence detector was implemented into the cryogenic sample environment at the Hard X-ray Micro/Nano-Probe beamline P06 at PETRA III, DESY, Hamburg, Germany. A four sensor-field cloverleaf design is optimized for the investigation of planar samples and operates in a backscattering geometry resulting in a large solid angle of up to 1.1 steradian. The detector, coupled with the Xspress 3 pulse processor, enables measurements at high count rates of up to 106 counts per second per sensor. The measured energy resolution of ∼129 eV (Mn Kα at 10000 counts s-1) is only minimally impaired at the highest count rates. The resulting high detection sensitivity allows for an accurate determination of trace element distributions such as in thin frozen hydrated biological specimens. First proof-of-principle measurements using continuous-movement 2D scans of frozen hydrated HeLa cells as a model system are reported to demonstrate the potential of the new detection system.


Assuntos
Espectrometria por Raios X/instrumentação , Síncrotrons , Cálcio/análise , Cloretos/análise , Criopreservação , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Células HeLa/química , Humanos , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Compostos de Silício , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Enxofre/análise , Raios X
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