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1.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652887

RESUMO

Although several natural plants and mixtures have been known and used over the centuries for their antibacterial activity, few have been thoroughly explored in the field of dentistry. Thus, the aim of this study was to enhance the antimicrobial activity of a conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) with natural plant extracts. The effect of this alteration on the bond strength and film thickness of glass ionomer cement was evaluated and related to an 0.5% chlorohexidine modified GIC. Olive leaves (Olea europaea), Fig tree (Ficus carica), and the leaves and roots of Miswak (Salvadora persica) were used to prepare an alcoholic extract mixture. The prepared extract mixture after the evaporation of the solvent was used to modify a freeze-dried glass ionomer cement at three different extracts: water mass ratios 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1. An 0.5% chlorhexidine diacetate powder was added to a conventional GIC for the preparation of a positive control group (CHX-GIC) for comparison. The bond strength to dentine was assessed using a material-testing machine at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was analyzed using a stereomicroscope at 12× magnification. The cement film thickness was evaluated in accordance with ISO standard 9917-1. The minimum number of samples in each group was n = 10. Statistical analysis was performed using a Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's post hoc test for pairwise comparison. There was a statistically insignificant difference between the median shear bond strength (p = 0.046) of the control group (M = 3.4 MPa), and each of the CHX-GIC (M = 1.7 MPa), and the three plant modified groups of 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 (M = 5.1, 3.2, and 4.3 MPa, respectively). The CHX-GIC group showed statistically significant lower median values compared to the three plant-modified groups. Mixed and cohesive failure modes were predominant among all the tested groups. All the tested groups (p < 0.001) met the ISO standard of having less than 25 µm film thickness, with the 2:1 group (M = 24 µm) being statistically the highest among all the other groups. The plant extracts did not alter either the shear bond strength or the film thickness of the GIC and thus might represent a promising additive to GICs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Cimentos Dentários/química , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/química , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cimentos Dentários/farmacologia , Dentina/química , Dentina/microbiologia , Ficus/química , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/farmacologia , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Salvadoraceae/química , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Propriedades de Superfície
2.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 48: e20202633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the use of 0.5% alcoholic chlorhexidine and 70% alcohol in skin antisepsis for neuraxial blocks. METHOD: this is a non-inferiority randomized clinical trial, with two parallel arms. Seventy patients who were candidates for neuraxial block were randomly allocated to group A (n = 35), in whom antisepsis was performed with 0.5% alcoholic chlorhexidine, or to group B (n = 35), in whom we used 70% hydrated ethyl alcohol. Swabs were harvested for culture at three times: before antisepsis, two minutes after application of the antiseptic, and immediately after puncture. The samples were sown in three culture media and the number of colony forming units (CFU) per cm² was counted. RESULTS: there was no difference between the groups regarding age, sex, body mass index, time to perform the block or type of block. There were no differences between groups in the CFU/cm² counts before antisepsis. There was less bacterial growth in group B two minutes after application of the antiseptic (p = 0.048), but there was no difference between the groups regarding the number of CFU/cm² at the end of the puncture. CONCLUSION: 70% alcohol was more effective in reducing the number of CFU/cm² after two minutes, and there was no difference between the two groups regarding skin colonization at the end of the procedure. These results suggest that 70% alcohol may be an option for skin antisepsis before neuraxial blocks. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02833376.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Antissepsia/métodos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Pele/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Anestesia Epidural , Raquianestesia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Humanos
3.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 981-990, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze in vitro new formulations with Citrox and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) regarding their antibacterial activity against planktonic bacteria and their potential to inhibit biofilm formation or to act on existing biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five oral health care products with 0.05%-0.5% CHX formulations (four rinses and one gel) were compared with Citrox preparations and additive-free CHX solutions. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined against 13 oral bacteria associated with caries or periodontitis. Further, the activity on retarding biofilm formation and on existing biofilms was analyzed; both a 'cariogenic' (5 species) and a 'periodontal' (12 species) biofilm were included. RESULTS: The MIC values did not differ between the CHX mouthrinse/gel formulations and the respective additive-free CHX solutions. Citrox was active against selected periodontopathogens (e.g. Porphyromonas gingivalis). The CHX formulations more effectively retarded biofilm formation than did solutions with the same concentration of CHX but without additives. The anti-biofilm activities depended on the CHX concentration in the formulations. Both CHX solutions and formulations (rinse and gel) were only slightly active on an already formed biofilm. Citrox did not exert any anti-biofilm effect. CONCLUSION: The present in vitro data support the anti-biofilm activity of the novel CHX, Citrox, poly-L-lysine and xylitol oral health-care formulations. Further studies are warranted to confirm the present findings in various clinical settings.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Saúde Bucal , Biofilmes , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(11): 1507-1513, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221773

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of different antiseptic mouthwash on microbiota around the mini-screw applied to patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: From patients who have been undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment and who have mini-screws in their mouth, a total of 38 patients were selected for the study consisting of 4 groups, each of which has 15 mini-screws. The patients were selected from the following groups: no use of mouthwash (Group 1), use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash (Group 2), use of essential oils-containing mouthwash (Group 3), and use of 7.5% povidone-iodine-containing mouthwash (Group 4). Plaque indices and gingival indices of the patients were measured at the beginning (T0) and at their appointments 3 weeks later (T1). In addition, biological samples were collected from the sulcus around the mini-screw with the help of sterile paper point. Results: The total number of microorganisms around the mini-screw in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 decreased significantly compared to Group 1. A significant decrease in Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Candida parapsilosis, total bacteria, plaque index, and gingival index count was observed in T1compared to T0. Conclusion: Antiseptic mouthwash in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 can be used to reduce the number of microbial microbiota around the mini-screw and to improve oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Parafusos Ósseos/microbiologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Adolescente , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Boca , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Índice Periodontal
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6935-6944, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061360

RESUMO

Introduction: Nanoparticle solutions have been studied to improve antimicrobial effect. The aim of this study was to develop, characterize, and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antiseptic efficacy of 0.25% aqueous-based chlorhexidine nanoemulsion (NM-Cl 0.25% w/v). Methods: The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v (2.5mg/mL) and free chlorhexidine nanoemulsion (FCN; same composition of NM-Cl without the molecule of chlorhexidine) were synthetized by the spontaneous emulsification method. Characterization analyses of physical and chemical properties were performed. The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v was compared with chlorhexidine 0.5% alcohol base (CS-Cl 0.5%) in vitro studies (microdilution study and kill curve study), and in vivo study (antisepsis of rats dorsum). Kruskal-Wallis test was used between groups and inside the same group, at different sample times and the Mann-Whitney test was performed when difference was detected. Results: The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v presented adequate physicochemical characteristics for a nanoemulsion, revealing a more basic pH than FCN and difference between zeta potential of NM-Cl 0.25% w/v and FCN. The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v and CS-Cl 0.5% solutions were more effective on Gram-positive than on Gram-negative bacteria (p≤0.05). NM-Cl 0.25% w/v presented upper antiseptic effect in the microdilution study and residual antiseptic effect was maintained for a longer time when compared to CS-Cl 0.5% (kill curve study). The four-fold (minimal inhibitory concentration) of NM-Cl 0.25% were the formulations with most durable effect within those tested, presenting residual effect until T6 for both bacteria. In the in vivo study, both formulations (NM-Cl 0.25% w/v and CS-Cl 0.5%) had a reduction of the microorganisms in the skin of the rats (p<0.0001) not revealing any difference between the formulations at different times, showing the antiseptic effect of NM-Cl (p≤0.05). Conclusion: Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that NM-Cl showed promising future as an antiseptic for cutaneous microbiota.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Emulsões/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/química , Clorexidina/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Etanol/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/microbiologia
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 108008, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979343

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba sp. is a free living amoeba that causes severe, painful and fatal infections, viz. Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis among humans. Antimicrobial chemotherapy used against Acanthamoeba is toxic to human cells and show side effects as well. Infections due to Acanthamoeba also pose challenges towards currently used antimicrobial treatment including resistance and transformation of trophozoites to resistant cyst forms that can lead to recurrence of infection. Therapeutic agents targeting central nervous system infections caused by Acanthamoeba should be able to cross blood-brain barrier. Nanoparticles based drug delivery put forth an effective therapeutic method to overcome the limitations of currently used antimicrobial chemotherapy. In recent years, various researchers investigated the effectiveness of nanoparticles conjugated drug and/or naturally occurring plant compounds against both trophozoites and cyst form of Acanthamoeba. In the current review, a reasonable effort has been made to provide a comprehensive overview of various nanoparticles tested for their efficacy against Acanthamoeba. This review summarizes the noteworthy details of research performed to elucidate the effect of nanoparticles conjugated drugs against Acanthamoeba.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Acanthamoeba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/parasitologia , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/mortalidade , Amebíase/parasitologia , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Amebicidas/uso terapêutico , Biguanidas/administração & dosagem , Biguanidas/farmacologia , Biguanidas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Imunocompetência , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Encefalite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite Infecciosa/mortalidade , Encefalite Infecciosa/parasitologia , Nanopartículas/classificação , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22218, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine coated central venous catheters (CSS-CVC) may cause loss of antimicrobial efficacy due to friction between the CVC surface and sheer stress caused by the blood flow. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of CSS-CVC at various flow rates using a bloodstream model. METHODS: Each CVC was subjected to various flow rates (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 L/min) and wear-out times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours), and the optical density (OD) 600 after a Staphylococcus aureus incubation test was used to determine the antibacterial effect of CSS-CVC. RESULTS: In the 0.5 L/min group, there was no significant change in the OD600 value up to 120 hours compared with the baseline OD600 value for CSS-CVC (P > .467). However, the OD600 values of CSS-CVC in the 1 L/min (P < .001) and 2 L/min (P < .001) groups were significantly reduced up to 72 hours, while that in the 4 L/min (p < 0.001) group decreased rapidly up to 48 hours. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that there is a doubt whether sufficient antibacterial function can be maintained with prolonged duration of catheter placement.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Sulfadiazina de Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/normas , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Projetos Piloto , Sulfadiazina de Prata/administração & dosagem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238428, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) causes significant morbidity. Candida albicans is the main pathogen associated with both sporadic and recurrent candidiasis. Due to unsatisfactory treatment effect, the impact of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole alone or in combination on C. albicans and biofilm was investigated. METHODS: Vaginal C. albicans isolates from 18 patients with recurrent candidiasis and commensals from 19 asymptomatic women were isolated by culture. Crystal violet, XTT and colony forming unit assay were used to analyze the effect of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole on growth of C. albicans, formation of new and already established, mature, biofilm. RESULTS: Fluconazole reduced the growth of planktonic C. albicans. However, in established biofilm, fluconazole had no effect on the candida cells and was not able to disperse and reduce the biofilm. By contrast, chlorhexidine digluconate had a direct killing effect on C. albicans grown both planktonically and in biofilm. Chlorhexidine digluconate also dispersed mature biofilm and inhibited formation of new biofilm. No major differences were observed between commensal isolates and candida causing recurrent vulvovaginitis with respect to biofilm or growth after chlorhexidine digluconate treatment. CONCLUSION: Biofilm is a problem in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis reducing the effect of antifungal treatment. Development of new treatment strategies are urgently needed to decrease the recurrences. In already established biofilm, chlorhexidine digluconate dispersed the biofilm and was more effective in eradicating candida compared to fluconazole. Future treatment strategy may thus be a combination of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole and prophylactic use of chlorhexidine digluconate to prevent biofilm formation and restrict infections.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Clorexidina/metabolismo , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Vagina/microbiologia
9.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 124-129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965370

RESUMO

An alarming fact was revealed by recent publications concerning disinfectants: chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for disinfecting surfaces contaminated by the new coronavirus. This is a finding that requires immediate disclosure since this substance is widely used for the disinfection of hands and forearms of surgeons and auxiliaries and in the antisepsis of patients in minimally invasive procedures commonly performed in hospital environments. The objective of this study is to compare the different disinfectants used for disinfection on several surfaces, in a review of worldwide works. Scientific studies were researched in the BVS (Virtual Health Library), PubMed, Medline, and ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency) databases. The following agents were studied: alcohol 62-71%, hydrogen peroxide 0.5%, sodium hypochlorite 0.1%, benzalkonium chloride 0.05-0.2%, povidone-iodine 10%, and chlorhexidine digluconate 0.02%, on metal, aluminum, wood, paper, glass, plastic, PVC, silicone, latex (gloves), disposable gowns, ceramic, and Teflon surfaces. Studies have shown that chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for inactivating some coronavirus subtypes, suggesting that it is also ineffective to the new coronavirus.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Desinfecção , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 2116-2126, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959761

RESUMO

Observational data suggest maternal handwashing with soap prevents neonatal mortality. We tested the impact of a chlorhexidine-based waterless hand cleansing promotion on the behavior of mothers and other household members. In rural Bangladesh in 2014, we randomized consenting pregnant women to chlorhexidine provision and hand cleansing promotion or standard practices. We compared hand cleansing with chlorhexidine or handwashing with soap before baby care, among mothers and household members in the two groups, and measured chlorhexidine use in the intervention arm. Chlorhexidine was observed in the baby's sleep space in 97% of 130 intervention homes, versus soap in 59% of 128 control homes. Hand cleansing before baby care was observed 5.6 times more frequently among mothers in the intervention arm than in the controls (95% CI = 4.0-7.7). Hand cleansing was significantly more frequently observed in the intervention arm among women other than the mother (RR = 10.9) and girls (RR = 37.0). Men and boys in the intervention arm cleansed hands before 29% and 44% of baby care events, respectively, compared with 0% in the control arm. The median number of grams consumed during the neonatal period was 176 (IQR = 95-305 g), about 7.8 g/day (IQR = 4.2-13.8 g). Promotion of waterless chlorhexidine increased hand cleansing behavior among mothers and other household members. Discrepancy between observed use and measured chlorhexidine consumption suggested courtesy bias in structured observations. A waterless hand cleanser may represent one component of the multimodal strategies to prevent neonatal infections in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Bangladesh , Demografia , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Sabões
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4755-4762, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753864

RESUMO

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three nanoparticle solutions used as dentin pretreatments on the microshear bond strength (µSBS) of a conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) to dentin. Materials and Methods: Ninety intact human molars were used after sectioning their occlusal surfaces to expose flat dentin surfaces. The specimens were randomly assigned to nine groups (n = 10). Group A was the control group (without using the cavity disinfectant). In groups B, C, D, and E, the prepared dentin surfaces were treated with 1 cc 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), 0.1% silver nanoparticle (SNP), 0.1% titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TNP), and 0.1% zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZNP) solutions for 1 minute, respectively, before applying the conditioner. CHX, SNPs, TNPs, and ZNPs were applied for 1 minute after applying the conditioner in groups F, G, H, and I, respectively. The specimens were restored with a conventional GIC and underwent µSBS testing after 24 hours. The data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p=0.05). Results: The applications of the nanoparticles (SNP, TNP, and ZNP) after the conditioner were associated with significantly greater µSBS values compared to that of the control group (p values < 0.05). Significantly higher µSBS values were observed when TNP or ZNP was applied after the conditioner compared to their applications before the conditioner (p values < 0.05). The highest µSBS values were observed when TNP was applied after the conditioner. Conclusion: Dentin pretreatment with the nanoparticles after applying the conditioner enhanced the bond strength of the GIC to dentin compared with the control group. The best results were obtained for the TNPs applied after the conditioner.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Titânio/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/química , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 900-905, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620717

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of various mouthwashes on bacteremia development following a debonding process, which is performed after orthodontic treatment. Subjects and Methods: The study included patients who received fixed orthodontic treatment and were indicated for debonding. A total of 40 patients in four groups were selected for the study; no mouthwash (Group 1), mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate (Group 2), mouthwash containing essential-oils (Group 3), and mouthwash containing 7.5% povidone-iodine (Group 4). Before (T0) and following (T1) the debonding procedure, blood samples were obtained from the patients. Then, the blood samples were placed in blood culture bottles to investigate bacterial growth. Results: Based on the results of the study, it was determined that the blood samples obtained at T0did not indicate any bacterial growth. Furthermore, it was observed that the blood samples obtained at T1included Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aereus growth, respectively, in 4 patients from Group 1 while Streptococcus salivarius growth was observed in 1 patient from Group 3 in addition to Streptococcus mitis growth in 1 patient from Group 4. No bacterial growth was observed in Group 2. While the results obtained between Group 1 and Group 2 were statistically significant, no statistically significant difference was observed between other groups. Conclusions: Finally, it was determined that the mouthwash 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate was statistically significant in comparison to the control group. It can be concluded that this mouthwash can be used to decrease bacterial density in oral flora before debonding procedures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Descolagem Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(1): 45-49, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621599

RESUMO

The gutta-percha cones used in endodontic treatment are produced in aseptic conditions and their composition includes zinc oxide, which is responsible for antibacterial activity. However, there is the possibility of microbial contamination by manipulation, aerosol or during storage. Although several chemical agents have been tested for their decontamination, there is no consensus on the best disinfection protocol to be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the decontamination of gutta-percha cones contaminated with the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, by using chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different concentrations for short exposure times. For this purpose, gutta-percha cones (size 40) were selected at random from a sealed box and immersed for 1 min in a microbial suspension. Then they were immersed in specific Petri dishes for different groups containing: CHX 2%, NaClO 1% or NaClO 2.5% for 30 s or 1 min, and subsequently placed in tubes containing BHI broth. After incubating the tubes for 48 h, it was observed that 1% and 2.5% NaClO and 2% CHX were effective for decontaminating the cones at those exposure time intervals. Microbial growth was detected in one of the replicates of the group with CHX applied for 30 s. To prevent the possibility of failures at this stage, the exposure time of gutta-percha cones to the decontaminating agent should not be reduced.


Assuntos
Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Guta-Percha , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Esterilização/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(6): 783-791, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525112

RESUMO

Background: Microorganisms in the mouth are protected from negative environmental conditions by forming biofilms; however, the use of anti-plaque agents in children is not preferred due to toxic side effects. Green tea has been reported to have anti-microbial and anti-dental caries properties. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of green tea extract to prevent the formation of biofilm on the teeth of children using space maintainers. Methods: Bacteria were isolated from samples obtained from children aged between 8 and 10 years. The micro-titer plate method and Congo red agar were used to assay biofilm formation. Green tea leaves were obtained from Rize, Turkey. Methanol, hexane and distilled water were used for preparing the extracts. The effects of green tea extract and chlorhexidine on biofilm formation were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Results: Presence of S. mutans 3,3, S. anginosus 2.1.b, S. dysgalactie 6.1.4.1, and E. faecium 10.2. was measured in the biofilm samples. The extracts showed a bacteriostatic effect on the test bacteria, and among the green tea extracts, the methanol extract was found to exhibit the highest efficacy against biofilm formation by S. mutans 3.3. Conclusion: Green tea extract showed good efficacy in controlling bacterial growth, and is recommended as a better-tasting alternative for daily oral hygiene due to a lack of known side effects.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Braquetes Ortodônticos/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Chá/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Boca , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Turquia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1943-1954, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385711

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba causes diseases such as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) which leads to permanent blindness and granulomatous Acanthamoeba encephalitis (GAE) where there is formation of granulomas in the brain. Current treatments such as chlorhexidine, diamidines, and azoles either exhibit undesirable side effects or require immediate and prolonged treatment for the drug to be effective or prevent relapse. Previously, antifungal drugs amphotericin B, nystatin, and fluconazole-conjugated silver with nanoparticles have shown significantly increased activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii. In this study, two functionally diverse tetrazoles were synthesized, namely 5-(3-4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-tetrazole and 1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-5-phenoxy-1H-tetrazole, denoted by T1 and T2 respectively. These compounds were evaluated for anti-Acanthamoeba effects at different concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 µM. Furthermore, these compounds were conjugated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to enhance their efficacy. Particle size analysis showed that T1-AgNPs and T2-AgNPs had an average size of 52 and 70 nm respectively. After the successful synthesis and characterization of tetrazoles and tetrazole-conjugated AgNPs, they were subjected to anti-Acanthamoeba studies. Amoebicidal assay showed that at concentration 10 µM and above, T2 showed promising antiamoebic activities between the two compounds while encystation and excystation assays reveal that both T1 and T2 have inhibited differentiation activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii. Conjugation of T1 and T2 to AgNP also increased efficacy of tetrazoles as anti-Acanthamoeba agents. This may be due to the increased bioavailability as AgNP allows better delivery of treatment compounds to A. castellanii. Human cell cytotoxicity assay revealed that tetrazoles and AgNPs are significantly less toxic towards human cells compared with chlorhexidine which is known to cause undesirable side effects. Cytopathogenicity assay also revealed that T2 conjugated with AgNPs significantly reduced cytopathogenicity of A. castellanii compared with T2 alone, suggesting that T2-conjugated AgNP is an effective and safe anti-Acanthamoeba agent. The use of a synthetic azole compound conjugated with AgNPs can be an alternative strategy for drug development against A. castellanii. However, mechanistic and in vivo studies are needed to explore further translational values.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata/farmacologia , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/parasitologia , Acanthamoeba castellanii/genética , Acanthamoeba castellanii/isolamento & purificação , Amebicidas/síntese química , Amebicidas/toxicidade , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Genótipo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Tetrazóis/síntese química , Tetrazóis/toxicidade
16.
Arch Oral Biol ; 116: 104734, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate three licorice-derived polyphenols (glabridin, licochalcone A, licoricidin) as well as cinnamon oil for their antimicrobial activities against major endodontic pathogens: Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces israelii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Candida albicans. The synergistic interactions between the four compounds and chlorhexidine were assessed on E. faecalis. Lastly, the biocompatibility of the tested compounds was assessed using human gingival fibroblasts. DESIGN: Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal microbicidal concentrations (MMC) were determined using a microplate dilution assay. A luminescence assay monitoring adenosine triphosphate was used to assess the antimicrobial activity of the tested compounds against E. faecalis biofilm. The synergistic effects of the tested compounds in association with chlorhexidine were evaluated using the checkerboard technique. Cytotoxicity toward human gingival fibroblasts was assessed by determination of cell metabolic activity using a colorimetric assay. RESULTS: Cinnamon oil showed the strongest microbicidal activity. Licochalcone A, licoricidin, and glabridin had MIC values ranging from 1.56 to 25 µg/mL against the six endodontic bacterial pathogens. The natural plant compounds were active to various extents against E. faecalis embedded in a biofilm. Synergistic antibacterial effects between chlorhexidine and the compounds, mainly glabridin, were observed against E. faecalis. Following a 2-h exposure, licochalcone A, licoricidin, and glabridin demonstrated no cytotoxicity toward gingival fibroblasts at concentrations up to 50 µg/mL, while cinnamon oil and, to a lesser extent, chlorhexidine displayed some cytotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides evidence that the natural plant compounds tested show promise as root canal disinfection agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Clorexidina , Fibroblastos , Extratos Vegetais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prevotella intermedia
17.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107915, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461112

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba castellanii is an opportunistic protozoan responsible for serious human infections including Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Despite advances in antimicrobial therapy and supportive care, infections due to Acanthamoeba are a major public concern. Current methods of treatment are not fully effective against both the trophozoite and cyst forms of A. castellanii and are often associated with severe adverse effects, host cell cytotoxicity and recurrence of infection. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches for the treatment and management of Acanthamoebic infections. Repurposing of clinically approved drugs is a viable avenue for exploration and is particularly useful for neglected and rare diseases where there is limited interest by pharmaceutical companies. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems offer promising approaches in the biomedical field, particularly in diagnosis and drug delivery. Herein, we conjugated an antihyperglycemic drug, metformin with silver nanoparticles and assessed its anti-acanthamoebic properties. Characterization by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and atomic force microscopy showed successful formation of metformin-coated silver nanoparticles. Amoebicidal and amoebistatic assays revealed that metformin-coated silver nanoparticles reduced the viability and inhibited the growth of A. castellanii significantly more than metformin and silver nanoparticles alone at both 5 and 10 µM after 24 h incubation. Metformin-coated silver nanoparticles also blocked encystation and inhibited the excystation in Acanthamoeba after 72 h incubation. Overall, the conjugation of metformin with silver nanoparticles was found to enhance its antiamoebic effects against A. castellanii. Furthermore, the pretreatment of A. castellanii with metformin and metformin-coated silver nanoparticles for 2 h also reduced the amoebae-mediated host cell cytotoxicity after 24 h incubation from 73% to 10% at 10 µM, indicating that the drug-conjugated silver nanoparticles confer protection to human cells. These findings suggest that metformin-coated silver nanoparticles hold promise in the improved treatment and management of Acanthamoeba infections.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/parasitologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Encefalite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite Infecciosa/parasitologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Encistamento de Parasitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 104, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peri-implant inflammation resulting from the presence of Candida biofilms may compromise the longevity of implant-supported dentures. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of Brazilian red propolis on mono-species biofilms of C. albicans (ATCC 90028) and co-culture biofilms of C. albicans (ATCC 90028) and C. glabrata (ATCC 2001), developed on titanium surfaces. METHODS: Titanium specimens were pre-conditioned with artificial saliva and submitted to biofilm formation (1 × 106 CFU/mL). After 24 h (under microaerophilic conditions at 37 °C) biofilms were submitted to treatment for 10 min, according to the groups: sterile saline solution (growth control), 0.12% chlorhexidine and 3% red propolis extract. Treatments were performed every 24 h for 3 days and analyses were conducted 96 h after initial adhesion. After that, the metabolic activity (MTT assay) (n = 12/group), cell viability (CFU counts) (n = 12/group) and surface roughness (optical profilometry) (n = 6/group) were evaluated. Data from viability and metabolic activity assays were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey tests. Surface roughness analysis was determined by Kruskal Wallis e Mann Whitney tests. RESULTS: Regarding the mono-species biofilm, the cell viability and the metabolic activity showed that both chlorhexidine and red propolis had inhibitory effects and reduced the metabolism of biofilms, differing statistically from the growth control (p < 0.05). With regards the co-culture biofilms, chlorhexidine had the highest inhibitory effect (p < 0.05). The metabolic activity was reduced by the exposure to chlorhexidine and to red propolis, different from the growth control group (p < 0.05). The surface roughness (Sa parameter) within the mono-species and the co-culture biofilms statistically differed among groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian red propolis demonstrated potential antifungal activity against Candida biofilms, suggesting it is a feasible alternative for the treatment of peri-implantitis.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida glabrata/efeitos dos fármacos , Própole/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Brasil , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio
19.
Biofouling ; 36(2): 146-158, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182151

RESUMO

Following antimicrobial administrations in oral environments, bacteria become exposed to a sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC), which can induce in vitro single-species biofilms. This study explored the effects of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) at a sub-MIC on in vitro multi-species biofilms comprising Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces naeslundii. CHG at a sub-MIC was found to induce in vitro biofilm growth, although the bacterial growth was not significantly different from that in the control. The gene transcription related to S. mutans multi-species biofilm formation with CHG at a sub-MIC was significantly higher than that of the control, but this was not found in S. mutans single-species biofilms. The bio-volume of extracellular polysaccharides with CHG at a sub-MIC was significantly higher than that of the control. This suggests that CHG at a sub-MIC may promote the development of multi-species biofilms by affecting the gene transcription related to S. mutans biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Actinomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus oralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinomyces/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus oralis/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Vet Surg ; 49(5): 971-976, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) (resistance genes, qac A/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ, in clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) and methicillin-resistant S pseudintermedius (MRSP) from dogs and the impact on in vitro chlorhexidine susceptibility. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Seventy isolates from dogs colonized or infected with MRSP (n = 50) or MSSP (n = 20). METHODS: Agar dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chlorhexidine digluconate. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of QAC resistance genes, qacA/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ genes. RESULTS: One or more qac genes were identified in 52 of 70 (74%) isolates. Overall, there was no association between chlorhexidine MIC and the presence of one or more qac genes (P = .85) or the presence of qacA/B (P = .31), smr (P = .72) or qacJ (P = .93) individually. There was an association between qacG and MIC (P = .012), with a median MIC of 1.5 µg/mL for isolates possessing this gene and 1 µg/mL for those not possessing it. CONCLUSION: Quaternary ammonium compound resistance genes were present in MRSP and MSSP isolates. With the exception of qacG, the presence of these genes was not associated with increased MIC. All isolates exhibited MIC 5000 to 80 000 times lower than the concentration recommended for use. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the presence of QAC genes, chlorhexidine digluconate should be effective against MRSP and MSSP if used correctly.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cães , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária
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