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1.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(2): 104-110, 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074671

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the antibacterial properties and the osteoblast-compatibility of chlorhexidine (CHX)-modified porous titanium. Methods: Smooth pure titanium specimen with diameter of 10.0 mm and thickness of 1.5 mm treated with alkali heat method were set as control group. Those with covalent conjugation of aminosilane were set as silane group, and those with CHX grafted by glutaraldehyde were set as CHX group. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology and element compositions were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hydrophilicity was analyzed by surface water contact angle test (n=6), while surface amino/imine groups quantification were performed through acid orangeⅡ(n=5) and the CHX was quantified by optical densitometric method (n=5). Live/dead bacterial staining, the morphology of adherent bacteria by SEM, plate counting method and inhibition zone method were executed to evaluate the antibacterial property of the samples. Osteoblast compatibility was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium. Cell-bacterial co-culture was conducted to evaluated the cell viability on the samples under the circumstance with bacteria. Results: After CHX grafting, pores on the titanium surface were decreased, while the atom ratio of C, N, Cl increased and the water contact angle decreased to 37.5°±4.0°. The density of CHX on the surface was (5.07±0.39) µg/cm(2). The results of live/dead bacterial staining and the morphology of adherent bacteria showed that only little dead bacterial (bacterial wall rupture) adherent on the surface of CHX group, which proved that the modified surface could inhibit bacteria adhesion and even destroyed bacteria; the plate counting displayed sporadic colonies and a transparent inhibition zone could be observed, which demonstrated that CHX group could suppress bacteria multiplication from surrounding environment. When incubating for 1 and 3 days, the cell viability of CHX group showed no significant difference from that of control group (P>0.05) ; when incubating for 5 days, the value of cell viability of CHX group was 0.547±0.087, and this was significantly lower than that of the control group (0.751±0.056) (P<0.05), demonstrating a slight inhibition of cell proliferation by CHX. The results of bacteria-cell co-culture for 3 days showed that a mass of bacteria adhered on the surface of the control group while considerable cells adhered on the surface of CHX group and exhibited a good shape. Conclusions: Porous titanium surface grafted by CHX showed an excellent antibacterial properties and allowed cell adhesion in bacterial circumstance, providing immediate implantation options for patients with bad oral health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Nanoporos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
2.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and antifungal activities of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resins after the incorporation of chlorhexidine diacetate salt (CDA). METHODOLOGY: First, acrylic resin specimens were fabricated with Vipi Cor® and DuraLay® resins with and without the incorporation of 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0% CDA. The residual monomer and CDA release were measured at intervals ranging from 2 hours to 28 days using ultraviolet spectrometry combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity against C. albicans was evaluated with the agar diffusion method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze the degree of resin conversion. Finally, the water sorption values of the resins were also measured. RESULTS: The incorporated CDA concentration significantly changed the rate of CDA release (p<0.0001); however, the brand of the material appeared to have no significant influence on drug release. Subsequently, the inhibition zones were compared between the tested groups and within the same brand, and only the comparisons between the CDA 2% and CDA 1% groups and between the CDA 1% and CDA 0.5% groups failed to yield significant differences. Regarding the degrees of conversion, the differences were not significant and were lower only in the CDA 2% groups. Water sorption was significantly increased at the 1.0% and 2.0% concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the incorporation of CDA into PMMA-based resins enabled the inhibition of C. albicans growth rate, did not alter the degrees of conversion of the tested resins and did not change the release of residual monomers.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/química , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Teste de Materiais , Polimetil Metacrilato/farmacologia , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 291, 2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR), barrier membranes are used to allow selective cell populations to multiply and to promote periodontal regeneration. A frequent complication is membrane exposure to the oral cavity followed by bacterial colonization. The purpose of this in-vitro-study was to elucidate, if rinsing with a chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX) prevents bacterial adhesion, and whether it interferes with attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts and epithelial cells to membrane surfaces. METHODS: Firstly, two bioresorbable membranes (polylactide-based and collagen-based) were dipped into 0.06% CHX and 0.12% CHX, before biofilms (2-species representing periodontal health, 6-species representing a periodontitis) were formed for 2 h and 8 h. Subsequently, colony forming units (cfu) were counted. Secondly, the membranes were treated with CHX and inoculated in bacteria suspension two-time per day for 3 d before cfu were determined. In additional series, the influence of CHX and bacterial lysates on attachment of epithelial cells and PDL fibroblasts was determined. Parameter-free tests were applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Cfu in "healthy" biofilms did not differ between the two membranes, more cfu were counted in "periodontitis" biofilm on collagen than on polylactide membranes. One-time dipping of membranes into CHX solutions did not markedly influence the cfu counts of both biofilms on polylactide membrane; those on collagen-based membrane were significantly reduced with being 0.12% CHX more active than 0.06% CHX. More-fold CHX dipping of membranes reduced concentration-dependent the cfu counts of both biofilms on both membranes. In general, the number of attached gingival epithelial cells and PDL fibroblasts was higher on collagen than on polylactide membrane. Lysates of the periodontopathogenic bacteria inhibited attachment of PDL fibroblasts to membranes. CHX decreased in a concentration-dependend manner the number of attached gingival epithelial cells and PDL fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: The present in-vitro results appear to indicate that membranes in GTR should only be used when bacteria being associated with periodontal disease have been eliminated. An exposure of the membrane should be avoided. Rinsing with CHX may prevent or at least retard bacterial colonization on membrane exposed to the oral activity. However, a certain negative effect on wound healing cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Colágeno , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Poliésteres
4.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e062, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859706

RESUMO

Laboratory evidence has demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of Melaleuca alternifolia (MEL) against oral microorganisms. This randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial, compared the anti-biofilm and anti-inflammatory effects of MEL nanoparticles with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on biofilm-free (BF) and biofilm-covered (BC) surfaces. Before each experimental period, the participants refrained from all oral hygiene practices for 72 hours. The 60 participants were randomly assigned to professional prophylaxis in two quadrants (Q1-Q3 or Q2-Q4), and rinsed with MEL or CHX for four days. The Quigley & Hein plaque index (QHPI), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume, and participants' perceptions were assessed. CHX showed significantly lower mean QHPI on BF (2.65 ± 0.34 vs. 3.34 ± 0.33, p < 0.05) and BC surfaces (2.84 ± 0.37 vs. 3.37 ± 0.33, p < 0.05). Intragroup comparisons indicated reductions in GCF in all the groups, with significant differences only for CHX on BF surfaces (p < 0.05). Intergroup comparisons revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). Based on individual perceptions, CHX had better taste and biofilm control, but resulted in a greater change in taste. Nevertheless, MEL demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects similar to those of CHX. Further clinical trials testing different protocols, concentrations and follow-up periods are required to establish its clinical application.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Melaleuca/química , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 327, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The control of biofilm adherence on tooth surface has always been the keystone of periodontal therapeutic systems. However, prevalence of gingivitis suggest inadequacy of self-performed oral hygiene measures and need for adjunctive aid for mechanical plaque control. Oral rinses containing chlorhexidine, has been widely used however, with certain limitations. Herbal products have been used widely reflecting its action as alternative and complementary remedy. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of a Guava leaf extract based mouthrinse in patients with chronic generalized gingivitis as an adjunct to oral prophylaxis. METHODS: Sixty subjects (n = 20) in compliance with the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to one of the 3 study groups i.e. Group A- 0.15%Guava mouth rinse, Group B- 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) mouth rinse, Group C- Distilled water (placebo). All the participants received professional oral prophylaxis and were dispensed with experimental mouth rinses and instructed to use for period of 30 days. Clinical parameters such as gingival index, plaque index along with microbial colony forming units using plaque samples and antioxidant levels in saliva were estimated at baseline, 30 and 90 days' time intervals. RESULTS: All 3 groups showed gradual reduction in GI, PI and microbial counts. Considering the mean scores of recorded parameters at the scheduled time intervals, notable changes were observed between chlorhexidine and guava mouth rinse compared to placebo group. Although there was improvement in the antioxidant status in all study participants, yet there was no statistically significant difference observed. CONCLUSION: Guava mouth rinse can be used as an empirical adjunct to professional oral prophylaxis owing to its multifactorial properties and favourable acceptance. However, long term studies need to be conducted to validate its use for an extended period of time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The clinical trial has been prospectively registered on 17th February 2017 by the Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI/2017/02/007898).


Assuntos
Antissépticos Bucais , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Extratos Vegetais , Psidium , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/análise , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Saliva/química , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Biofouling ; 35(7): 796-804, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514534

RESUMO

This work evaluated the effects of commercial toothpastes and mouth rinses containing natural/herbal agents on biofilm viability, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and on enamel demineralization in vitro. Microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel for 5 days and treated daily with: Orgânico natural® (toothpaste/mouth rinse), Boni Natural Menta & Malaleuca® (toothpaste/mouth rinse), Propolis & Myrrh® (toothpaste), Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint® (toothpaste, positive control), Malvatricin® Plus (mouth rinse), PerioGard® (mouth rinse, positive control) or PBS (negative control). Tom's Propolis & Myrrh® and Colgate Total 12® toothpastes and Malvatricin® Plus and PerioGard® mouth rinses significantly reduced biofilm viability (p < 0.05). Only PerioGard® had significant effects on biofilm thickness and EPS. Despite the indication that Tom's Propolis & Myrrh® significantly reduced lesion depth, only Colgate Total 12® significantly reduced mineral loss. Malvatricin® Plus significantly reduced mineral loss and lesion depth, as did PerioGard®. Some herbal products, Malvatricin® Plus and Tom's Propolis & Myrrh®, showed anticaries effects.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Cremes Dentais , Animais , Bovinos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio
7.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 39(5): 337-349, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435968

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The presence of biofilm in the lens case has been shown to be a risk factor for contamination of lenses and consequently microbial keratitis. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of solutions for rigid contact lenses in prevention and disruption of biofilm in lens cases and methods for biofilm detection. METHOD: This study adopted a stepwise approach to evaluate effectiveness of four rigid lens disinfecting solutions against biofilm. These included two polyhexamethylene bigiuanide (PHMB) solutions and a chlorhexidine/PHMB-based solution, as well as a novel povidone-iodine formulation. The presence of biofilm following exposure to the solutions was assessed using both crystal violet (CV) staining and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) viability assay, taking into account the effect of lens case design. Three lens case designs, conventional flat, large bucket type, and cylindrical cases, were investigated for the ability to trap stain and allow biofilm formation. RESULTS: Considerable differences were noted between solutions in their ability to prevent and disrupt biofilm (p < 0.001). Lens case design greatly influenced optical density (OD) measurements even in negative controls, as cylindrical cases trapped more stain, increasing OD readings. Correcting for this factor reduced variations, but could not differentiate between residues and biofilm. MTT assay revealed that both povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-containing solutions could effectively kill > 95% of organisms, whilst PHMB-based solutions were less effective with up to 55% of staphylococci and 41% of Pseudomonas surviving at 24 h. CONCLUSION: Biofilm can rapidly form in lens cases and may not be killed by disinfecting solutions. Of the solutions tested, none were able to prevent biofilm formation or disrupt established biofilm, but those containing chlorhexidine or povidone iodine were able to penetrate the biofilm and kill organisms. Assessment of biofilm by CV assay may be confounded by lens case design. Whilst CV assay can demonstrate presence of biofilm, this technique should be accompanied by viability assay to determine bactericidal activity.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Soluções para Lentes de Contato/farmacologia , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Biguanidas/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Biofouling ; 35(5): 561-572, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282200

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic activity and inhibitory effect of terpinen-4-ol (T4ol) and carvacrol against single- and multi-species biofilms. The toxicity of each compound was tested on oral keratinocytes and evaluated by XTT assay. Inhibition and eradication of single-species biofilms were analyzed by crystal violet assay and the effect on multi-species biofilm composition was evaluated by qPCR. T4ol and carvacrol did not affect the epithelial cell viability, in contrast to chlorhexidine, which showed a high cytotoxic effect. Inhibition and eradication of single-species biofilms treated with T4ol and carvacrol were observed. The same inhibitory effect was observed for multi-species biofilms, especially on periodontal pathogens. In conclusion, specific concentrations of T4ol and carvacrol without toxicity towards the epithelial cells reduced the numbers of periodontal pathogens in single- and multi-species biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Humanos
10.
J Hosp Infect ; 103(3): 276-279, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319094

RESUMO

Since 2011, 2% chlorhexidine in 70% isopropyl alcohol (2% chlorhexidine tincture) has been widely used in Korea. To investigate changes in chlorhexidine sensitivity of staphylococci causing central line-associated bloodstream infections, 264 blood culture isolates from adult patients treated in intensive care units of five university hospitals between 2008 and 2016 were analysed. We observed no significant changes in chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations, or in the prevalence of resistance-associated genes before and after introduction of 2% chlorhexidine tincture. Thus, there was no evidence of increased resistance to chlorhexidine in staphylococci causing central line-associated bloodstream infections.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Coreia (Geográfico) , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
11.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220000, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are a frequent complication of Diabetes mellitus and a major cause of nontraumatic limb amputations. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, known for its resilient biofilms and antibiotic resistant profile, is the most frequent DFI pathogen. It is urgent to develop innovative treatments for these infections, being the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) nisin a potential candidate. We have previously proposed the use of a guar gum biogel as a delivery system for nisin. Here, we evaluated the potential of the nisin-biogel to enhance the efficacy of conventional antibiotics and antiseptics against DFIs S. aureus clinical isolates. METHODS: A collection of 23 S. aureus strains isolated from DFI patients, including multidrug- and methicillin-resistant strains, was used. The antimicrobial activity of the nisin-biogel was tested alone and in different combinations with the antiseptic chlorhexidine and the antibiotics clindamycin, gentamicin and vancomycin. Isolates' in vitro susceptibility to the different protocols was assessed using broth microdilution methods in order to determine their ability to inhibit and/or eradicate established S. aureus biofilms. Antimicrobials were added to the 96-well plates every 8 h to simulate a typical DFI treatment protocol. Statistical analysis was conducted using RCBD ANOVA in SPSS. RESULTS: The nisin-biogel showed a high antibacterial activity against biofilms formed by DFI S. aureus. The combined protocol using nisin-biogel and chlorhexidine presented the highest efficacy in biofilm formation inhibition, significantly higher (p<0.05) than the ones presented by the antibiotics-based protocols tested. Regarding biofilm eradication, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the activity of the combination nisin-biogel plus chlorhexidine and the conventional antibiotic-based protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide a valuable contribution for the development of complementary strategies to conventional antibiotics protocols. A combined protocol including chlorhexidine and nisin-biogel could be potentially applied in medical centres, contributing for the reduction of antibiotic administration, selection pressure on DFI pathogens and resistance strains dissemination.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Pé Diabético/microbiologia , Hidrogéis/química , Nisina/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Pé Diabético/complicações , Combinação de Medicamentos , Galactanos/química , Humanos , Mananas/química , Nisina/farmacologia , Gomas Vegetais/química , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
12.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(4): 1018-1027, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278820

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the activity and effectiveness of impregnated central venous catheters (CVC) against Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms. METHODS AND RESULTS: The antimicrobial activity and durability of impregnated-CVCs were evaluated over time and the size of zones of inhibition (ZI) was measured. Biofilm formation was observed by quantitative culture and also by scanning electron microscopy. The catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS) reduced bacteria counts by 0·3 log and were most effective (P < 0·01) against Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms N-acetylcysteine/levofloxacin (NAC/LEV) catheters. It was observed that the catheter impregnated with NAC/LEV had initially the largest average ZI size being statistically significant (P < 0·01). The NAC/LEV combination remained active until day 30, whereas the combination of CHX/SS was completely inactivated from day 15 on. CONCLUSIONS: The NAC/LEV combination showed greater durability on the catheters, but it was the CHX/SS combination that had the greater initial efficacy in bacterial inhibition. It was also observed that NAC/LEV-impregnated catheters do not prevent the emergence of resistant subpopulations inside the inhibition halos during antimicrobial susceptibility tests. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Our results highlighted that the in vitro efficacy of antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs is limited by time and that their colonization occurred earlier than expected. Our data also demonstrated that NAC/LEV remained active until day 30 of evaluation and CHX/SS combination was completely inactivated from day 15 on. Our findings suggested that implantable devices should be carefully used by medical community.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cateteres/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Klebsiella pneumoniae/fisiologia , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Sulfadiazina de Prata/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 462-466, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a novel modality suggested for treatment of peri-implantitis. This study aimed to assess the effect of aPDT with toluidine blue (TBO) and indocyanine green (ICG) and 635 nm and 808 nm diode laser on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) biofilm formed on Laser-Lok titanium discs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty sterile Laser-Lok titanium discs were inoculated with A. actinomycetemcomitans to form biofilm and were randomly divided into 8 groups (n = 10) of control, chlorhexidine (CHX), TBO, ICG, 635 nm diode laser with 220 mW power, 808 nm diode laser with 250 mW power, 100 µg/mL TBO+635 nm diode laser and ICG+808 nm diode laser. Number of colony forming units (CFUs) on the surface of each disc was counted after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Significant differences were noted in colony count among the eight groups after the intervention (P = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons with adjusted P value test showed that aPDT with TBO+635 nm laser and ICG+808 nm laser caused significant reduction of bacterial biofilm compared to the control group (P = 0.0001). TBO alone caused significant reduction of biofilm compared to the control group (P = 0.004). No other significant differences were noted (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, the results showed that aPDT is a potential modality for decontamination of implant surface and reduction of A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm in vitro. In this study, aPDT with TBO+635 nm diode laser and ICG+808 nm diode laser decreased the bacterial load on titanium discs.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Lasers Semicondutores , Células-Tronco , Titânio , Cloreto de Tolônio/farmacologia
14.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 65: 226-233, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300118

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to verify the action of the aqueous leaf extract Ziziphus joazeiro in the eradication of bacterial and fungal biofilms, and to compare these effects with the stem bark extracts, as well as with conventional standard drugs. The presence of secondary metabolites was observed through phytochemical prospection assays. The effect of the aqueous extract on microbial biofilm formation was observed by OD600 nm absorbance and the crystal violet assay. For bacterial and fungal biofilms, chlorhexidine gluconate and fluconazole, respectively, were used as positive controls. Phytochemical characterization showed the presence of secondary metabolite classes common to both extracts such as flavonoids, steroids and saponins. In particular, in the aqueous leaf extract phenols, condensed tannins and alkaloids were observed. Eradication results using the aqueous leaf extract showed an inhibition of the microbial biofilm mass, moreover the biofilms were more sensitive to the bark extract, which presented a greater inhibition number and an action similar to standard drugs. It is important to highlight the leaf extract showed significant eradication at the lowest concentrations for mature yeast biofilms, thus demonstrating its potential to modify microbial resistance susceptibility. Bacterial and fungal biofilm eradication results using the Ziziphus joazeiro aqueous extracts presented a biofilm inhibition effect for both, moreover the results support the ethnopharmacological knowledge surrounding the use of Ziziphus joazeiro stems in the community. In comparison, the bark extract presented a more effective treatment than the leaf extract against biofilms, presenting inhibition levels similar to the used standard drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ziziphus/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4697-4708, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303754

RESUMO

Introduction and aim: Chlorhexidine Hydrochloride [Chx.HCl] has a broad-spectrum antibacterial effect, sustained action and low toxicity so it has been recommended as a potential root canal irrigant. The aim of this study was to improve the penetration ability, cleansing and antibacterial effect of Chx.HCl using a newly formulated Chx.HCl nanoemulsion and use it as root canal irrigant. Methods: Chx.HCl nanoemulsions were prepared using two different oils; Oleic acid and Labrafil M1944CS, two surfactants; Tween 20 and Tween 80 and co-surfactant; Propylene Glycol. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to designate the optimum systems. The prepared nanoemulsion formulae were evaluated for their drug content, emulsification time, dispersibility, droplet size, in-vitro drug release, thermodynamic stability, In-vitro antibacterial activity and ex-vivo study for the selected formula. Comparisons were made of Chx.HCl nanoemulsion with two different concentrations 0.75% and 1.6% vs Chx.HCl normal particle size as root canal irrigant for their penetration ability, cleansing effect and antibacterial effect. Results: The selected formula was F6 with composition of 2% Labrafil, 12% Tween 80 and 6% Propylene glycol. It has small particle size (12.18 nm), short emulsification time (1.67 seconds), and fast dissolution rate after 2 minutes. It was found to be a thermodynamically/physically stable system. The higher concentration of Chx.HClnanoemulsion1.6% shows the best penetration ability compared to Chx.HCl normal particle size due to the smaller particle size. Chx.HCl nanoemulsion 1.6% has the lowest mean value of the remaining debris surface area (2001.47 µm2) when compared to normal particle size material (2609.56 µm2). Conclusion: Chx.HCl nanoemulsion preparation has better cleansing ability and antibacterial effect with high efficacy on Enterococcus faecalis, where high reduction rate or complete eradication of bacterial cells has been achieved.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Transição de Fase , Termodinâmica
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(6)2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238555

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Teeth decay and plaque are complicated problems created by oral pathogens. Tecoma stans (L.) and Cassia javanica (L.) are two ornamental evergreen plants widely distributed in Egypt. These plants are traditionally used for oral hygienic purposes. This study aims to elucidate the volatile oil constituents obtained from the flowers of these plants and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these volatile oils against specific oral pathogens in comparison to chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: The flowers obtained from both plants were extracted by n-hexane. GC-MS spectrometry was used to identify the constituents. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured using tetrazolium salt (2,3-bis[2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) (XTT). Results: GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 32 and 29 compounds, representing 100% of the volatile constituents of Tecoma stans and Cassia javanica, respectively. The GC-MS analysis showed more than 60% of the volatile oil constituents are represented in both plants with different proportions. Chlorhexidine exerted stronger activity than tested plants against all microorganisms. Cassia javanica flower extract was more active against all tested microorganisms than Tecoma stans. Of note was the effect on Streptococcus mutans, which was inhibited by 100% at 12.5 and 25 µg/mL of Cassia javanica and Tecoma stans, respectively. The growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus was also completely inhibited by 25 µg/mL of the Cassia javanica extract. MIC90 and MIC were also calculated, which revealed the superiority of Cassia javanica over Tecoma stans against all tested oral pathogens. Conclusion: Cassia javanica flower volatile oils showed a potential anti-oral pathogen activity at relatively low concentrations. Also, Cassia javanica and Tecoma stans demonstrated a strong activity against tooth decay's notorious bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Both plants can be potential substituents to chlorhexidine. Formulating the constituents of these plants in toothpastes and mouthwashes as anti-oral pathogen preparations can be an interesting future plan.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Cassia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Egito , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/normas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Saúde Bucal , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
17.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1321-1328, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148957

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis by culture in most resource-limited settings is hampered by high contamination rate varying up to 31%. Reduction of oral microorganism loads by mouth rinse with antiseptic before sputum collection showed a reduction of contamination. Moreover, knowing the characteristic of residual contaminant microorganisms would be an asset to understand contamination issues. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mouth rinsing with chlorhexidine on mycobacteria culture contaminations and to characterize morphologically the residual contaminants. Methods: We consecutively included 158 patients in a TB center. Each of them supplied two sputa: The first before mouth rinse, and the second after 60sec of mouth rinsing with chlorhexidine (0.1%). Petroff method and Lowenstein-Jensen media were used for sputum decontamination and inoculation respectively. The contamination rates were compared, and the type of residual contaminants were characterized and compared. Results: The contamination rate did not differ before and after the mouth rinse (respectively 58/150 (39 %) vs 61/150 (41 %), p=0.7). The major residual contaminants were Gram positive spore forming bacteria (94%). Conclusion: Chlorhexidine mouth rinsing before sputum collection did not reduce mycobacterial culture contamination rate. This is probably due to spore forming bacteria, highlighted as major residual contaminants.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Burkina Faso , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Qualidade , Escarro/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 203-209, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is a bacterium that colonizes in the mouth and is a common cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases. This bacterium comprises 70% of the bacteria in the dental plaque. Although tooth decay is a multifactorial complication, S. mutans biofilms are the main cause of cavitated carious lesions. Considering the importance of this microorganism, we aimed at investigating the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using curcumin (CUR) and methylene blue (MB) photosensitizers on S. mutans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in-vitro experimental study, first, samples of S. mutans were prepared in 110 test tubes and were randomly assigned to 11 groups after colony counting: 1) Positive control group, 2) Negative control group, 3) CUR extract group, 4) 460-nm laser group, 5) 460-nm continuous laser + CUR group, 6) 460-nm discontinues 50% duty cycle (DC) laser + CUR group, 7) 660-nm laser group, 8) 660-nm laser + MB group, 9) MB group, 10) dental light-curing group, and 11) chlorhexidine (CHX) group. After the intervention, cultivation was performed again in blood agar medium, and the bacterial colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) were counted again. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. RESULTS: CHX and 460-nm low-level continuous laser + CUR had the highest and most significant effect on inhibiting the growth of S. mutans bacterial colonies and showed significant differences with other groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: According to the results, MB- and CUR-mediated PDT can significantly eradicate S. mutans colonies.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos
19.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e035, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038569

RESUMO

Eugenia dysenterica is a Brazilian tree investigated for its properties and bioactive compounds, which are believed to have both pharmacological and phytochemical therapeutic effects. The leaves of this tree contain tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, and saponins, with reportedly beneficial effects to the human body. Despite these therapeutic applications, its effects have never been tested on oral tissues. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antioxidant effects and the anti-inflammatory and repair properties of the acetone fraction of E. dysenterica on primary culture of human gingival fibroblasts and on the immortalized murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). For this purpose, a metabolic activity assay, a wound healing assay, a nitric oxide assay, and RT-qPCR were performed. The assays revealed a cytoprotective effect of this plant, suggested by the increase in the expression of SOD1 and NRF2. An antioxidant potential effect was observed in the DPPH• assay. However, the fraction of E. dysenterica did not show anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, Eugenia dysenterica may promote cytoprotection when associated with chlorhexidine digluconate because of its antioxidant effect. However, additional studies are necessary on other human dental tissues using other parts of the plant in order to develop a possible mouthwash to assist patients with oral disorders.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/citologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Células Cultivadas , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Parasitol Res ; 118(6): 1953-1961, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069536

RESUMO

The genus Acanthamoeba can cause Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). The treatment of these illnesses is hampered by the existence of a resistance stage that many times causes infection relapses. In an attempt to add new agents to our chemotherapeutic arsenal against acanthamebiasis, two Acanthamoeba isolates were treated in vitro with newly synthesized biguanide dendrimers. Trophozoite viability analysis and ultrastructural studies showed that dendrimers prevent encystment by lysing the cellular membrane of the amoeba. Moreover, one of the dendrimers showed low toxicity when tested on mammalian cell cultures, which suggest that it might be eventually used as an amoebicidal drug or as a disinfection compound in contact lens solutions.


Assuntos
Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Acanthamoeba/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Biguanidas/farmacologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Encefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Acanthamoeba/classificação , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Soluções para Lentes de Contato , Encefalite/parasitologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
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