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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD008367, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, swab, toothbrush, or combination, together with suction of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral hygiene care (OHC) on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs). SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 25 February 2020), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2020, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 25 February 2020), Embase Ovid (1980 to 25 February 2020), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (1982 to 25 February 2020) and CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 25 February 2020). We also searched the VIP Database (January 2012 to 8 March 2020). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of OHC (mouthrinse, gel, swab, toothbrush or combination) in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information. We reported risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, using the random-effects model of meta-analysis when data from four or more trials were combined. MAIN RESULTS: We included 40 RCTs (5675 participants), which were conducted in various countries including China, USA, Brazil and Iran. We categorised these RCTs into five main comparisons: chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthrinse or gel versus placebo/usual care; CHX mouthrinse versus other oral care agents; toothbrushing (± antiseptics) versus no toothbrushing (± antiseptics); powered versus manual toothbrushing; and comparisons of other oral care agents used in OHC (other oral care agents versus placebo/usual care, or head-to-head comparisons between other oral care agents). We assessed the overall risk of bias as high in 31 trials and low in two, with the rest being unclear. Moderate-certainty evidence from 13 RCTs (1206 participants, 92% adults) shows that CHX mouthrinse or gel, as part of OHC, probably reduces the incidence of VAP compared to placebo or usual care from 26% to about 18% (RR 0.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.47 to 0.97; P = 0.03; I2 = 66%). This is equivalent to a number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) of 12 (95% CI 7 to 128), i.e. providing OHC including CHX for 12 ventilated patients in intensive care would prevent one patient developing VAP. There was no evidence of a difference between interventions for the outcomes of mortality (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.33; P = 0.86, I2 = 0%; 9 RCTs, 944 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -1.10 days, 95% CI -3.20 to 1.00 days; P = 0.30, I2 = 74%; 4 RCTs, 594 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (MD -0.89 days, 95% CI -3.59 to 1.82 days; P = 0.52, I2 = 69%; 5 RCTs, 627 participants; low-certainty evidence). Most studies did not mention adverse effects. One study reported adverse effects, which were mild, with similar frequency in CHX and control groups and one study reported there were no adverse effects. Toothbrushing (± antiseptics) may reduce the incidence of VAP (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.91; P = 0.01, I2 = 40%; 5 RCTs, 910 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to OHC without toothbrushing (± antiseptics). There is also some evidence that toothbrushing may reduce the duration of ICU stay (MD -1.89 days, 95% CI -3.52 to -0.27 days; P = 0.02, I2 = 0%; 3 RCTs, 749 participants), but this is very low certainty. Low-certainty evidence did not show a reduction in mortality (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; P = 0.12, I2 = 0%; 5 RCTs, 910 participants) or duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -0.43, 95% CI -1.17 to 0.30; P = 0.25, I2 = 46%; 4 RCTs, 810 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Chlorhexidine mouthwash or gel, as part of OHC, probably reduces the incidence of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill patients from 26% to about 18%, when compared to placebo or usual care. We did not find a difference in mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation or duration of stay in the intensive care unit, although the evidence was low certainty. OHC including both antiseptics and toothbrushing may be more effective than OHC with antiseptics alone to reduce the incidence of VAP and the length of ICU stay, but, again, the evidence is low certainty. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether any of the interventions evaluated in the studies are associated with adverse effects.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Criança , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Escovação Dentária/métodos
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(11): 1507-1513, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221773

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of different antiseptic mouthwash on microbiota around the mini-screw applied to patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: From patients who have been undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment and who have mini-screws in their mouth, a total of 38 patients were selected for the study consisting of 4 groups, each of which has 15 mini-screws. The patients were selected from the following groups: no use of mouthwash (Group 1), use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash (Group 2), use of essential oils-containing mouthwash (Group 3), and use of 7.5% povidone-iodine-containing mouthwash (Group 4). Plaque indices and gingival indices of the patients were measured at the beginning (T0) and at their appointments 3 weeks later (T1). In addition, biological samples were collected from the sulcus around the mini-screw with the help of sterile paper point. Results: The total number of microorganisms around the mini-screw in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 decreased significantly compared to Group 1. A significant decrease in Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Candida parapsilosis, total bacteria, plaque index, and gingival index count was observed in T1compared to T0. Conclusion: Antiseptic mouthwash in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 can be used to reduce the number of microbial microbiota around the mini-screw and to improve oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Parafusos Ósseos/microbiologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Adolescente , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Boca , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Índice Periodontal
3.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(4): 400-404, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089290

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the effect of chlorhexidine combined with mechanical debridement on peri-implant inflammation and the influence on SF-36 score of patients. METHODS: One hundred patients with peri-implantitis admitted to Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital from January 2015 to January 2019 were selected and randomly divided into control group and combined group with 50 cases in each group according to random number table method.Patients in both groups were treated with mechanical debridement, and patients in the combined group were gargled with chlorhexidine gargle apart from mechanical debridement. Plaque biofilm average activity and modified plaque index (mPLI), bleeding on probing (BOP), modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI), probing the depth (PPD), clinical attachment level(AL) were measured before and after treatment. Sf-36 scale and VAS visual pain score were used to evaluate the quality of life and pain degree of patients, and the therapeutic effect and incidence of complications were assessed. The data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software package. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in average activity, mPLI, mSBI, AL, PPD, BOP, VAS and SF-36 scores between the two groups before treatment(P>0.05); after treatment, the average activity, mPLI, mSBI, AL, PPD, BOP and VAS scores of plaque biofilm in the combined group were significantly lower than those of the control group, and the total effective rate of SF-36 score was significantly higher than that of the control group. The total effective rate of the combined group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the combined group was significantly lower than that in the control group(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Chlorhexidine combined with mechanical debridement is an effective treatment of peri-implantitis, which can effectively inhibit plaque biofilm activity and plaque formation, alleviate pain and improve the quality of life of patients.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Peri-Implantite , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Desbridamento , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Peri-Implantite/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida
4.
Ann. intensive care ; 118: 1-26, Sept. 07, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1128263

RESUMO

The French Society of Intensive Care Medicine (SRLF), jointly with the French-Speaking Group of Paediatric Emer­ gency Rooms and Intensive Care Units (GFRUP) and the French-Speaking Association of Paediatric Surgical Inten­ sivists (ADARPEF), worked out guidelines for the management of central venous catheters (CVC), arterial catheters and dialysis catheters in intensive care unit. For adult patients: Using GRADE methodology, 36 recommendations for an improved catheter management were produced by the 22 experts. Recommendations regarding catheterrelated infections' prevention included the preferential use of subclavian central vein (GRADE 1), a one-step skin disinfection(GRADE 1) using 2% chlorhexidine (CHG)-alcohol (GRADE 1), and the implementation of a quality of care improvement program. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated CVC should likely not be used (GRADE 2, for children and adults). Catheter dressings should likely not be changed before the 7th day, except when the dressing gets detached, soiled or impregnated with blood (GRADE 2− adults). CHG dressings should likely be used (GRADE 2+). For adults and children, ultrasound guidance should be used to reduce mechanical complications in case of internal jugular access (GRADE 1), subclavian access (Grade 2) and femoral venous, arterial radial and femoral access (Expert opinion). For children, an ultrasound-guided supraclavicular approach of the brachiocephalic vein was recommended to reduce the number of attempts for cannulation and mechanical complications. Based on scarce publications on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and on their experience (expert opinion), the panel proposed defnitions, and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/transmissão , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas
5.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 25(5): e608-e615, sept. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With greater number of implants being placed in clinical practice, incidence of peri-implant diseases are on the rise. It is not known whether chlorhexidine (CHX) improves outcomes in the management of peri-implant diseases. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the role of CHX in improving outcomes with non-surgical management of peri-implant mucositis and periimplantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) databases up to 1st August 2019 was carried out to search for studies evaluating the efficacy of CHX for non-surgical management of peri-implant diseases. RESULTS: Seven studies were included. Four studies evaluated the role of CHX in peri-implant mucositis and three in peri-implantitis. Oral prophylaxis with mechanical cleansing of implant surface prior to CHX use was carried out in all seven studies. Meta-analysis indicated that use of CHX did not improve probing depths in peri-implant mucositis (SMD = 0.11; 95% CI: -0.16 to 0.38; p = 0.42, I2= 0%). Similarly, CHX did not significantly reduce probing depths in patients with peri-implantitis (MD= 1.57; 95% CI: -0.88 to 4.0; p = 0.21, I2 = 98%). Results on the efficacy of CHX in reducing BOP in peri-implantitis are conflicting. CONCLUSIONS: Results of our study indicate that adjunctive therapy with CHX may not improve outcomes with non-surgical management of periimplant mucositis. Conclusions with regards to its role in non-surgical management of periimplantitis cannot be drawn. There is a need for more homogenous RCTs with large sample size to define the role of CHX in non-surgical management of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Peri-Implantite/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Higiene Bucal/métodos
6.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 25(5): e644-e651, sept. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the postoperative effect of a topic gel containing chlorhexidine, chitosan, allantoine and dexpanthenol versus a placebo for pain and inflammation control after third molar surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A gel combining 0.2% chlorhexdine, 0.5% chitosan, 5% dexpanthenol, 0.15% allantoin and 0.01% sodium saccharin was selected for this split mouth randomized controlled and double-blind trial including 36 patients with bilaterally and symmetrically impacted lower third molars. The teeth (n = 72) were randomly divided into two groups before surgical removal: control group (CG; in which a placebo was given) and experimental group (EG). Swelling, trismus, postoperative pain, wound healing and complications were measured and recorded in order to evaluate differences between the placebo and experimental product. RESULTS: Five patients suffered from an alveolitis in the CG (13.9%), and none in the study group (0%), but no statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.063). From day 0 to day 7, trismus and swelling were significantly less pronounced in the EG, and wound healing was considered 'good' in 22.2% for the CG and 97.2% for the EG (p < 0.001). Mean VAS scores during the seven postoperative days were statistically lower in the study (2.56 ± 1,19) compared to the placebo group (3.25 ± 1.6) (p = 0.002). The mean consumption of analgesic pills during the first 92 hours was also statistically lower in the EG (0.26 ± 0.51) in comparison to the CG (0.56 ± 0.67) (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The use of an experimental gel containing chlorhexidine, chitosan, allantoine and dexpanthenol seems to significantly reduce postoperative pain, trismus and signs of inflammation. Future studies should further evaluate, if the gel is effective in dry socket preventing after third molar removal


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Dente Serotino/cirurgia , Extração Dentária/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Alantoína/uso terapêutico , Ácido Pantotênico/análogos & derivados , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Géis/uso terapêutico , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento , Medição da Dor , Fatores de Tempo , Trismo/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 108008, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979343

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba sp. is a free living amoeba that causes severe, painful and fatal infections, viz. Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis among humans. Antimicrobial chemotherapy used against Acanthamoeba is toxic to human cells and show side effects as well. Infections due to Acanthamoeba also pose challenges towards currently used antimicrobial treatment including resistance and transformation of trophozoites to resistant cyst forms that can lead to recurrence of infection. Therapeutic agents targeting central nervous system infections caused by Acanthamoeba should be able to cross blood-brain barrier. Nanoparticles based drug delivery put forth an effective therapeutic method to overcome the limitations of currently used antimicrobial chemotherapy. In recent years, various researchers investigated the effectiveness of nanoparticles conjugated drug and/or naturally occurring plant compounds against both trophozoites and cyst form of Acanthamoeba. In the current review, a reasonable effort has been made to provide a comprehensive overview of various nanoparticles tested for their efficacy against Acanthamoeba. This review summarizes the noteworthy details of research performed to elucidate the effect of nanoparticles conjugated drugs against Acanthamoeba.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Acanthamoeba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/parasitologia , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/mortalidade , Amebíase/parasitologia , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Amebicidas/uso terapêutico , Biguanidas/administração & dosagem , Biguanidas/farmacologia , Biguanidas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Imunocompetência , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Encefalite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite Infecciosa/mortalidade , Encefalite Infecciosa/parasitologia , Nanopartículas/classificação , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20200217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pulp revascularization is an effective treatment for immature necrotic teeth. Calcium hydroxide has been used in pulp revascularization as an intracanal medication due to its antimicrobial action and the non-exhibition of crown discoloration and cytotoxicity for stem cells from the apical papilla. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical success and quantitative radiographic changes of root development in immature traumatized teeth using calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel as intracanal medication. METHODOLOGY: In this retrospective study, 16 patients were treated with a standardized pulp revascularization protocol. Calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel were manipulated in a 1:1 (v/v) ratio and inserted into root canals with Lentulo spirals (Dentsply Maillefer, Baillaigues, Switzerland). Patients were followed up for a period from 9 to 36 months for the evaluation of clinical and radiological data. Radiographic measurements of root length, root width, apical diameter, and MTA placement from the apex were quantified using software ImageJ. Wilcoxon test and t-test were used, according to nonparametric or parametric data, respectively, for changes over time in root length, root width, and apical diameter. RESULTS: Fifteen teeth survived during the follow-up period (93.75%) and met the criteria for clinical success. Although the changes seem to be very small in many cases, significant increases in the average root length (14.28%, p<0.0001), root width (8.12%, p=0.0196), and decrease in apical diameter (48.37%, p=0.0007) were observed. MTA placement from the apex and age at the time of treatment was not significantly associated with the quantitative radiographic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Pulp revascularization in traumatized immature teeth treated with calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel as intracanal medication had high success and survival rates, showing periodontal healing and resolution of signs and symptoms. However, concerning the continued root development, the outcomes can still be considered unpredictable.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio , Clorexidina , Polpa Dentária/irrigação sanguínea , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Hidróxido de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Criança , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Necrose da Polpa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ápice Dentário , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Int Acad Periodontol ; 22(3): 166-173, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980829

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of a new mouth wash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine and chitosan on dental plaque and its reduction to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a single-blind randomized clinical trial with a parallel group design of 3 months duration. Patients (20-40 years) who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned equally to group 1: chlorhexidine (0.2%), group 2: chitosan (0.5%) or group 3: chlorhexidine - chitosan combination group. The clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, 6weeks and at 3months. All patients received thorough oral prophylaxis and were instructed to rinse with 10ml of mouthwash twice daily for 1 minute. RESULTS: The combination of chitosan and chlorhexidine showed a statistically significant reduction (p less than0.05) in plaque indices from baseline at all time intervals when compared to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that by unifying the properties of chitosan and chlorhexidine may result in a superior antiplaque effect than that of chlorhexidine alone.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Quitosana , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Método Simples-Cego
10.
Av. odontoestomatol ; 36(2): 81-88, mayo-ago. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194689

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La implantología oral puede constituir una modalidad terapéutica en el tratamiento prostodóncico de los pacientes con compromiso médico. El estudio muestra la evaluación del tratamiento con implantes en pacientes con diabetes comparados con pacientes sin diabetes. MÉTODOS: 48 pacientes edéntulos totales (24 pacientes diabéticos y 24 no diabéticos) fueron tratados con 96 implantes con superficie arenada y grabada Galimplant ® en la mandíbula para su rehabilitación prostodóncica con sobredentaduras mandibulares. 2 implantes fueron insertados en cada paciente. Los implantes fueron cargados funcionalmente tras un periodo de tiempo de 6 semanas con retenedores de fricción. Los hallazgos clínicos (implantológicos y prostodóncicos) se han seguido durante 7 años. RESULTADOS: Los resultados indican una supervivencia de los implantes del 95,8%. Durante el periodo de seguimeinto clínico se perdieron 4 implantes (dos implantes en cada grupo). La pérdida de hueso marginal media fué de 0,7 mm en ambos grupos. El 100% de los pacientes fueron tratados mediante una sobredentadura implantorretenida con anclajes de fricción. En 14 pacientes se realizaron cambios en los componentes plásticos de los ataches. El seguimiento clínico medio fue de 82,5 meses (60-102 meses). CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados del presente estudio indican que el tratamiento con implantes dentales en pacientes diabéticos es una terapéutica exitosa sin diferencias entre los pacientes diabéticos y no diabéticos


INTRODUCTION: Implant dentistry can to constitute a therapeutic modality in the prosthodontic treatment of medically compromised patients. This study reports the evaluation of treatment with implants in patients with diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. METHODS: 48 edentulous patients (24 diabetic patients and 24 non-diabetic patients) were treated with 96 Galimplant ® sand-blasted and acid-etched surface implants for prosthodontic rehabilitation with mandibular overdentures. Two implants were inserted in each patient. Implants were loaded after a healing free-loading period between 6 weeks with locator attaches. Clinical findings (implant and prosthodontics) were followed during at 7 years. RESULTS: Clinical results indicate a survival rate of implants of 95.8% in both groups. Four implant was lost during the follow-up period (two implants in each group). Media marginal bone loss was 0.7 mm in both groups. 100% of patients were treated with overdentures retained with 2 implants with locator attaches. Changes in plastic components of attaches were reported in 14 patients. The media follow-up was of 82.5 months (60-102 months). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical results of this study indicate that treatment with dental implants in diabetic patients is a successful implant treatment without differences with nondiabetic patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Implantes Dentários , Arcada Edêntula/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus , Revestimento de Dentadura , Prostodontia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Tecido Periapical/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Periapical/patologia , Análise de Variância
11.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 25(4): e488-e494, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that radiotherapy of the head and neck region can cause direct changes in dental structure. This study evaluated the effect of different solutions on the dentin chemical composition and collagen structure of irradiated dentin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty maxillary canines were distributed in 2 groups (n = 30): non-irradiated and irradiated (radiotherapy: X-rays of 6 MV in 30 cycles of 2 Gy to 60 Gy). The teeth were sectioned, sanded, and polished to obtain 3x3x2 mm fragments, which were redistributed in 3 subgroups (n = 10) according to the treatment employed: chlorhexidine 2% (CL), chitosan 0.2% (QT), and 0.5 M carbodiimide (EDC). The samples were analyzed in FTIR at time zero (T0-control) and after 1 (T1), 3 (T3), and 5 (T5) minutes of immersion in the tested solutions. The data for the areas of the carbonate (C), amide I (AI) bands, and the ratio between the areas of the amide III/proline and hydroxyproline (AIII/PH) bands were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test (alpha = 5%).RESULTS: QT showed lower C values at T1, T3, and T5 (P < 0.0001), presenting lower values when compared to CL and EDC subgroups (P < 0.05). AI values at T3 and T5 were higher than T0-control and T1, independently of the radiotherapy and dentin treatment factors (P < 0.05). At T0-control, the AIII/PH ratio was lower in the irradiated group (P < 0.05), whereas the EDC treatment at T1, T3, and T5 and QT at T3 and T5 increased these values (P < 0.05), making them similar to non-irradiated subgroups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy changes the secondary structure of collagen, and EDC was able to restore collagen integrity after 1 minute of immersion, without changing dentin inorganic composition


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Dentina/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Carbodi-Imidas/uso terapêutico , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Análise de Variância , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Propriedades de Superfície , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Imersão
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 198, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review of randomized clinical trials aimed to evaluate the available evidence regarding the efficacy of propolis-based mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched up to November 2019. Clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of propolis mouthwashes compared with chlorhexidine (CHX) were included. The primary outcomes comprised dental plaque and/or gingival inflammation. Two authors assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane tool. Due to marked heterogeneity of the available data, studies were assessed qualitatively, and no metaanalysis was performed. RESULTS: Nine clinical trials, comprising 333 subjects, fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Most of the included studies showed high risk of bias. Overall, propolis mouthwashes showed good efficacy on plaque and gingivitis in all of the included studies. Out of the eight studies that reported on plaque index, 5 studies found equal efficacy of propolis and CHX in reducing plaque, two studies found superior efficacy in favor of CHX, while one study found superior efficacy in favor of propolis. Six studies assessed gingival inflammation outcome, four of which reported better results with propolis, while two studies reported comparable results. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that propolis-based mouthwashes have potential benefits in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation. However, methodological limitations along with small sample sizes in some of the included studies weaken the strength of the evidence. Therefore, further well-designed clinical trials with large sample sizes and adequate follow-up period are recommended to discern the efficacy of propolis mouthwash on plaque and gingivitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Própole/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Cross-Over , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Método Simples-Cego
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD007462, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of maternal mortality and morbidity is higher after caesarean section than for vaginal birth. With increasing rates of caesarean section, it is important to minimise risks to the mother as much as possible. This review focused on different skin preparations to prevent infection. This is an update of a review last published in 2018. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of different antiseptic agents, different methods of application, or different forms of antiseptic used for preoperative skin preparation for preventing postcaesarean infection. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (9 July 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials, evaluating any type of preoperative skin preparation (agents, methods or forms). We included studies presented only as abstracts, if there was enough information to assess risk of bias. Comparisons of interest in this review were between: different antiseptic agents (e.g. alcohol, povidone iodine), different methods of antiseptic application (e.g. scrub, paint, drape), different forms of antiseptic (e.g. powder, liquid), and also between different packages of skin preparation including a mix of agents and methods, such as a plastic incisional drape, which may or may not be impregnated with antiseptic agents. We mainly focused on the comparison between different agents, with and without the use of drapes. Only studies involving the preparation of the incision area were included. This review did not cover studies of preoperative handwashing by the surgical team or preoperative bathing. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed all potential studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias, extracted the data and checked data for accuracy. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 individually-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with a total of 6938 women who were undergoing caesarean section. Twelve trials (6916 women) contributed data to this review. The trial dates ranged from 1983 to 2016. Six trials were conducted in the USA, and the remainder in India, Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa, France, Denmark, and Indonesia. The included studies were broadly at low risk of bias for most domains, although high risk of detection bias raised some specific concerns in a number of studies. Length of stay was only reported in one comparison. Antiseptic agents Parachlorometaxylenol with iodine versus iodine alone We are uncertain whether parachlorometaxylenol with iodine made any difference to the incidence of surgical site infection (risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04 to 2.99; 1 trial, 50 women), or endometritis (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.38; 1 trial, 50 women) when compared with iodine alone, because the certainty of the evidence was very low. Adverse events (maternal or neonatal) were not reported. Chlorhexidine gluconate versus povidone iodine Moderate-certainty evidence suggested that chlorhexidine gluconate, when compared with povidone iodine, probably slightly reduces the incidence of surgical site infection (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.91; 8 trials, 4323 women). This effect was still present in a sensitivity analysis after removing four trials at high risk of bias for outcome assessment (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.23; 4 trials, 2037 women). Low-certainty evidence indicated that chlorhexidine gluconate, when compared with povidone iodine, may make little or no difference to the incidence of endometritis (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.86; 3 trials, 2484 women). It is uncertain whether chlorhexidine gluconate reduces maternal skin irritation or allergic skin reaction (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.46; 3 trials, 1926 women; very low certainty evidence). One small study (60 women) reported reduced bacterial growth at 18 hours after caesarean section for women who had chlorhexidine gluconate preparation compared with women who had povidone iodine preparation (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.70). Methods Drape versus no drape This comparison investigated the use of drape versus no drape, following preparation of the skin with antiseptics. Low-certainty evidence suggested that using a drape before surgery compared with no drape, may make little or no difference to the incidence of surgical site infection (RR 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.71; 3 trials, 1373 women), and probably makes little or no difference to the length of stay in the hospital (mean difference (MD) 0.10 days, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.46; 1 trial, 603 women; moderate-certainty evidence). One trial compared an alcohol scrub and iodophor drape with a five-minute iodophor scrub only, and reported no surgical site infection in either group (79 women, very-low certainty evidence). We were uncertain whether the combination of a one-minute alcohol scrub and a drape reduced the incidence of metritis when compared with a five-minute scrub, because the certainty of the evidence was very low (RR 1.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 9.16; 1 trial, 79 women). The studies did not report on adverse events (maternal or neonatal). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence suggests that preparing the skin with chlorhexidine gluconate before caesarean section is probably slightly more effective at reducing the incidence of surgical site infection in comparison to povidone iodine. For other outcomes examined there was insufficient evidence available from the included RCTs. Most of the evidence in this review was deemed to be very low or low certainty. This means that for most findings, our confidence in any evidence of an intervention effect is limited, and indicates the need for more high-quality research. Therefore, it is not yet clear what sort of skin preparation may be most effective for preventing postcaesarean surgical site infection, or for reducing other undesirable outcomes for mother and baby. Well-designed RCTs, with larger sample sizes are needed. High-priority questions include comparing types of antiseptic (especially iodine versus chlorhexidine), and application methods (scrubbing, swabbing, or draping). We found two studies that are ongoing; we will incorporate the results of these studies in future updates of this review.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Endometrite/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Campos Cirúrgicos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Bandagens , Clorexidina/efeitos adversos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Endometrite/epidemiologia , Etanol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo/uso terapêutico , Iodóforos/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Internação , Povidona-Iodo/efeitos adversos , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Xilenos/uso terapêutico
14.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 85(2): 139-146, jun. 2020. []
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1125551

RESUMO

Introducción: Las heridas con defectos de coberturas suponen un gran desafío a la hora de elegir un buen tratamiento que reduzca el riesgo de infección e incremente la capacidad de granulación del tejido. El objetivo de este estudio fue demostrar la utilidad del digluconato de clorhexidina para la granulación de tejidos. Materiales y Métodos: Se incluyeron 18 heridas de 16 pacientes que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. Se realizaron curaciones ambulatorias con gasas embebidas en digluconato de clorhexidina al 20%, cada 48-72 h, hasta lograr la adecuada granulación de tejido y se tomaron fotografías de la evolución clínica de las heridas. Resultados: Se observó una adecuada granulación de las heridas en una media de 9.2 días (rango 4-25), independientemente del tamaño o de las comorbilidades. Ninguna herida presentó signos clínicos de infección durante el período de curación. Conclusiones: El uso de digluconato de clorhexidina es un adecuado método por tener en cuenta para tratar heridas, de forma ambulatoria, y así disminuir los costos hospitalarios del sistema de salud. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


Introduction: Wounds with dressing defects pose a great challenge when choosing a good treatment that may reduce the risk of infection and promote granulation tissue formation. Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) for granulation tissue formation. Materials and Methods: Eighteen wounds (16 patients) that met the inclusion criteria were included. Wound cleansing was performed in outpatients with 20% CHG-impregnated cloths every 48-72 h, until the proper tissue granulation was achieved. Photographs of the clinical evolution of the wounds were taken. Results: The adequate wound granulation mean was of 9.2 days (4-25 days) regardless of wound size or presence of comorbidities. There were no clinical signs of infection in any wound during the healing period. Conclusions: CHG treatment is an appropriate method to be considered for outpatient injuries, which reduces the hospital costs borne by the health-care system. Level of Evidence: IV


Assuntos
Adulto , Cicatrização , Ferimentos e Lesões , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles
15.
Rev. ADM ; 77(3): 156-161, mayo-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128800

RESUMO

Introducción: La instalación inmediata del implante posterior a la extracción dental se está convirtiendo en un procedimiento de rutina debido a la reducción del tiempo de tratamiento y a la preservación de las estructuras anatómicas remanentes. Sin embargo, en muchos casos esta técnica involucra dientes afectados con procesos infecciosos. Hasta ahora, no se ha descrito a ciencia cierta el grado de éxito o fracaso del implante inmediato en alvéolos infectados, ni se ha establecido un protocolo para el manejo de este tipo de casos. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión bibliográfica actualizada, para determinar qué consideraciones se deben tener para instalar un implante inmediato en alvéolos con procesos infecciosos. Conclusión: Es posible obtener las ventajas de la instalación inmediata del implante en alvéolos infectados mediante la aplicación de un adecuado manejo clínico, donde se considere un adecuado tratamiento antibiótico, acompañado de un correcto curetaje alveolar, respetar la cadena de asepsia y antisepsia, posición subcrestal del implante y obtener siempre una buena estabilidad primaria del implante (AU)


Introduction: The immediate placement of the implant after dental extraction is a procedure that every time is becoming a routine procedure due to the reduction of the treatment time and the preservation of the remaining anatomical structures. However, in many cases, this technique involves affected teeth with infectious processes. Until now, the degree of success or failure of the immediate implant in infected alveoli has not been described for sure; nor has a protocol been established for the management of these types of cases. Objective: Carry out an updated bibliographic review, to determine what considerations must be taken to install an immediate implant in alveoli with infectious processes. Conclusion: Is possible obtain the advantages of the immediate installation of the implant in infected alveoli through the application of adequate clinical management, where appropriate antibiotic treatment is considered, accompanied by proper alveolar curettage, respect the aseptic and antiseptic chain, implant subcrestal position and always obtain a good primary stability of the implant (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Extração Dentária , Alvéolo Dental , Carga Imediata em Implante Dentário , Infecção Focal Dentária/terapia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Regeneração Tecidual Guiada , Lasers , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
17.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 18(4): 344-351, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of triphala mouthwash (TRP-MW) in being equally effective to chlorhexidine mouthwash (CHX-MW) in the treatment of plaque-induced gingivitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic searches in MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL were conducted in databases up to April 2020. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing clinical efficacy of TRP-MW (test group) in comparison with CHX-MW in treating plaque-induced gingivitis were considered. The primary outcome was gingival index (GI), whereas the secondary outcome was plaque index (PI). RESULTS: Seven RCTs were included. All studies showed that TRP-MW administration was significantly effective as compared to CHX-MW in the treatment of plaque-induced gingivitis. Considering the effects of TRP-MW on clinical gingival inflammatory parameters, significant heterogeneity for both GI (χ2  = 72.77, P < .0001, I2  = 91.76%) and PI (χ2  = 153.67, P < .0001, I2  = 96.10%) was observed between both TRP-MW and CHX-MW groups. The overall mean difference for both GI (WMD = -0.29, 95% CI = -0.40 to -0.17, P < .001) and PI (WMD = -0.43, 95% CI = -0.54 to -0.31, P < .001) was statistically significant between TRP-MW and CHX-MW at follow-up, respectively. CONCLUSION: Triphala mouthwash seems to significantly improve the clinical gingival inflammatory parameters in plaque-induced gingivitis with equal clinical efficacy as CHX-MW. TRP is a cost-effective alternative and is easily available with limited side effects on periodontal tissues.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Antissépticos Bucais , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inflamação , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
J Endod ; 46(8): 1032-1041.e7, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2 irrigants routinely used in root canal therapy of permanent teeth. METHODS: Electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, were searched for randomized controlled trials published until March 2020. The meta-analysis of relative risk (RR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) was performed using a random effects model with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis was performed for culture and molecular methods of bacterial detection. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 2110 records without duplicates. Eight studies were eligible for a systematic review. No significant differences in the incidence of samples with positive bacterial growth after irrigation (RR = 1.003; 95% CI, 0.729-1.380; P = .987) and mean bacterial number changes (SMD = 0.311; 95% CI, -0.368 to 0.991; P = .369) were observed between CHX and NaOCl in the culture and molecular subgroups. Heterogeneity in RR (I2 = 0%, P = .673) was low among studies, whereas considerable heterogeneity was observed in the analysis of SMD (I2 = 76.336%, P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that both CHX and NaOCl can reduce bacterial infections after irrigation without any significant difference in antimicrobial efficacy between them. Although CHX and NaOCl showed similar efficacy, their molecular mechanisms were different. Therefore, they can be used as the main antibacterial root canal irrigants. However, our results were limited by inconsistencies among retrieved articles and a lack of clinically relevant outcomes. Further well-designed clinical studies are warranted to supplement our results.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Cavidade Pulpar , Enterococcus faecalis , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232062, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330165

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in hospitalized patients reduces healthcare-associated bloodstream infections and colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms. Achieving compliance with bathing protocols is challenging. This non-intensive care unit multicenter project evaluated the impact of organizational context on implementation of CHG and assessed compliance with and healthcare workers' perceptions of the intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multiple case study based on the SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety. The four sites included an adult cardiovascular unit in a community hospital, a medical-surgical unit in an academic teaching pediatric hospital, an adult medical-surgical acute care unit and an adult neuroscience acute care unit in another academic teaching hospital. Complementary data collection methods included focus groups and interviews with healthcare workers (HCWs) and leaders, and direct observations of the CHG treatment process and skin swabs. RESULTS: We collected 389 bathing observations and 110 skin swabs, conducted four focus groups with frontline workers and interviewed leaders. We found variation across cases in CHG compliance, skin swab data and implementation practices. Mean compliance with the bathing process ranged from 64% to 83%. Low detectable CHG on the skin was related to immediate rinsing of CHG from the skin. Variation in the implementation of CHG treatments was related to differences in organizational education and training practices, feedback and monitoring practices, patient education or information about CHG treatments, patient preferences and general unit patient population differences. CONCLUSION: Organizations planning to implement CHG treatments in non-ICU settings should ensure organizational readiness and buy-in and consider delivering systematic and ongoing training. Clear and systematic implementation policies across patients and units may help reduce potential confusion about treatment practices and variation across HCWs. Patient populations and unit factors need to be carefully considered and procedures developed to manage unique challenges.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Banhos/métodos , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(8): 785-789, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent contamination when taking blood culture, there are various effective interventions. Whether there is greater efficacy by using a combination of these interventions has not been widely evaluated. METHODS: Our six-element intervention bundle aimed to prevent contamination of blood culture in our emergency department (ED). Elements were: use of 1% chlorhexidine alcohol, alcohol wiping, hand hygiene, using sterile gloves, using holed sterile cover, and selection of upper extremities as the site of venipuncture. We compared the contamination rate of blood culture between the pre- and the post-intervention periods among all cases with two or more blood cultures taken in our ED. We also evaluated the rate of patients receiving vancomycin among all those transferred to the hospital from the ED. RESULTS: During the pre- and post-intervention periods, 460 and 450 cases were included in analysis, respectively. Contamination of blood culture occurred in 29 pre-intervention cases (6.3%) and five post-interventional cases (1.1%) (relative risk 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.45; P < 0.001). After bundle implementation, there was significant increase in adherence to using 1% chlorhexidine alcohol, alcohol wiping, hand hygiene, and using holed sterile covers. Among patients admitted to hospital, fewer patients received vancomycin during the post-intervention period than in the pre-intervention period (5.4% vs. 3.2%, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our intervention bundle dramatically reduced the contamination rate when drawing blood culture in our ED.


Assuntos
Sangue/microbiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Flebotomia/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Hemocultura/métodos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos
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