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1.
Int Heart J ; 62(3): 479-486, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994496

RESUMO

The rapid introduction of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is important for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The risks and benefits of reduced-dose prasugrel (20 mg loading and 3.75 mg maintenance) over clopidogrel have not been fully discussed. The purpose of this study was to compare the 90-days clinical outcomes of AMI between prasugrel-based DAPT and clopidogrel-based DAPT. We included 534 AMI patients and divided them into the clopidogrel group (n = 330) and the prasugrel group (n = 204). The primary endpoint was the total ischemic events and total bleeding events. In all, 52 ischemic events and 35 bleeding events were observed during the study period. The total ischemic events were similar between the clopidogrel and the prasugrel groups (P = 0.385). The total bleeding events were similar between the clopidogrel and the prasugrel groups (P = 0.125). The multivariate Cox hazard analysis showed that prasugrel was not associated with the total ischemic events (hazard ratio (HR) 0.955, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.499-1.829, P = 0.890) and was not associated with the total bleeding events after controlling confounding factors (HR 0.972, 95% CI 0.528-1.790, P = 0.927). In conclusion, as compared to clopidogrel, the reduced dose of prasugrel was not associated with the excess risk of bleeding or the excess risk of ischemic events. Our real-world data support the current regimen of prasugrel for AMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1545-1555, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877270

RESUMO

Importance: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States with an annual incidence of approximately 1 million. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), consisting of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel) reduces cardiovascular event rates after ACS. Observations: In 2016, the updated guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) recommended aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor for at least 12 months for patients with ACS. Since these recommendations were published, new randomized clinical trials have studied different regimens and durations of antiplatelet therapy. Recommendations vary according to the risk of bleeding. If bleeding risk is low, prolonged DAPT may be considered, although the optimal duration of prolonged DAPT beyond 1 year is not well established. If bleeding risk is high, shorter duration (ie, 3-6 months) of DAPT may be reasonable. A high risk of bleeding traditionally is defined as a 1-year risk of serious bleeding (either fatal or associated with a ≥3-g/dL drop in hemoglobin) of at least 4% or a risk of an intracranial hemorrhage of at least 1%. Patients at higher risk are 65 years old or older; have low body weight (BMI <18.5), diabetes, or prior bleeding; or take oral anticoagulants. The newest P2Y12 inhibitors, prasugrel and ticagrelor, are more potent, with high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity of about 3% vs 30% to 40% with clopidogrel and act within 30 minutes compared with 2 hours for clopidogrel. Clinicians should avoid prescribing prasugrel to patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack because of an increased risk of cerebrovascular events (6.5% vs 1.2% with clopidogrel, P = .002) and should avoid prescribing it to patients older than 75 years or who weigh less than 60 kg. The ISAR-REACT-5 trial found that prasugrel reduced rates of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year compared with ticagrelor among patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (9.3% vs 6.9%, P = .006) with no significant difference in bleeding. Recent trials suggested that discontinuing aspirin rather than the P2Y12 inhibitor may be associated with better outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Dual antiplatelet therapy reduces rates of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Specific combinations and duration of dual antiplatelet therapy should be based on patient characteristics-risk of bleeding myocardial ischemia.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Aspirina/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/farmacologia , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 60, 2021 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While developments in oncology have lengthened survival in patients with cancer, such patients often develop cardiovascular diseases. Thus, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is frequently undertaken in them. Although stent thrombosis remains a fatal complication in stent-based PCI, worldwide consensus panels tend to recommend shorter duration of dual-antiplatelet therapy. This is based on its clinical efficacy that has resulted from technological innovation. However, there is insufficient discussion on the risk of stent thrombosis in cancer patients with coronary artery disease, especially in those undergoing chemotherapeutic regimens that have a risk for thrombosis, such as regimens with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Presented here is a case of early stent thrombosis that occurred in a cancer patient on regorafenib, despite the administration of triple antithrombotic therapy. Case presentation A 66-year-old Japanese male patient received regorafenib for metastatic colorectal carcinoma and apixaban for deep vein thrombosis. Coronary angiography revealed severe stenosis in the proximal left anterior descending artery. A sirolimus-eluting stent was implanted, without malapposition and under-expansion, under intravascular ultrasound guidance while administering a triple antithrombotic therapy (aspirin: 100 mg/day, prasugrel: 3.75 mg/day, and apixaban: 5 mg/day). However, he was admitted to the hospital for exacerbation of heart failure 1 month after PCI. Coronary angiography revealed contrastive defects in the previous stent. Optical frequency domain imaging confirmed stent thrombosis. PCI was successfully performed with perfusion balloon long-inflation. Antithrombotic therapy was enhanced (aspirin: 100 mg/day, ticagrelor: 120 mg/day, and apixaban: 10 mg/day) and regorafenib was discontinued permanently. While ischemic events did not occur thereafter, the patient died due to metastatic carcinoma progression. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that anti-vascular endothelial growth factor might contribute to early stent thrombosis, despite triple antithrombotic therapy. Further discussion is needed on the surveillance and management of cancer patients with coronary artery disease receiving chemotherapy, which carries a risk of thrombosis.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Stents , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Coronária/terapia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Brasília; CONITEC; nov. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1145484

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA) é um termo abrangente para: infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST, IAM sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST e angina instável (1,2). A incidência é muito variável entre diferentes países e regiões do mundo (3­8). De acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde, doenças isquêmicas do coração foram responsáveis por 12% das mortes observadas em países de média e baixa renda, e aproximadamente 16% das mortes em países da alta renda em 2008 (9). Em particular, pacientes com diabetes mellitus (DM) possuem maior potencial pró-trombótico (3,4) e consequente maior potencial de beneficiarem-se de antiagregantes plaquetários (aspirina, clopidogrel) após uma angioplastia. O prasugrel é um anti-agregante plaquetário da mesma classe do clopidogrel, hoje incorporado ao SUS, e do ticagrelor, cuja incorporação foi rejeitada pela CONITEC. PERGUNTA: O prasugrel é eficaz, seguro e custo-efetivo em relação ao clopidogrel para a redução de eventos cardiovasculares em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA) e diabetes mellitus (DM) que realizaram angioplastia? EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: Um único ensaio clínico randomizado (TRITON TIMI 38) avaliou prasugrel versus clopidogrel, 23% dos participantes eram diabéticos. Estudo patrocinado pelo demandante. Baixo risco de viés. A análise em pacientes diabéticos é baseada em uma análise de subgrupo. A qualidade da evidência é limitada pois não houve randomização para diabéticos e o estudo não foi controlado para o tipo e gravidade da doença. Ainda, a interação para diabetes não foi significativa (P = 0,09), ou seja, a análise deste subgrupo como um grupo independente não é adequada. A razão de chances, que no estudo pivotal era de 0,76 para redução de infarto foi recalculada para 0,60 no subgrupo de diabéticos. Analisando os resultados do subgrupo de pacientes diabéticos para o desfecho primário composto de morte cardiovascular, infarto e AVC, foram observados eventos em 17,0% no grupo clopidogrel e 12,2% no grupo prasugrel (HR=0,70; IC 0,58 - 0,85). Para morte cardiovascular, 4,2% no grupo clopidogrel e 3,4% no grupo prasugrel (HR=0,85; IC 0,58 - 1,24); IAM não fatal: 13,2% no grupo clopidogrel e 8,2% no grupo prasugrel (HR=0,60; IC 0,48 - 0,76); Trombose de stent: 3,6% no grupo clopidogrel e 2,0% no grupo prasugrel (HR=0,52; IC 0,33 - 0,84). O prasugrel apresentou maior risco de sangramentos não relacionada à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica: 4,3% no grupo clopidogrel e 5,3% no grupo prasugrel (HR=1,30; IC 0,92 - 1,82). AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: A avaliação econômica do prasugrel apresentada pelo demandante baseou-se nos resultados do estudo pivotal e em um modelo de custo-efetividade e custo-utilidade utilizado previamente no NICE. Como resultados, prasugrel demonstrou-se ser mais efetivo e com maior custo em relação ao clopidogrel, apresentando uma razão de custo-utilidade incremental (RCEI) de R$ 9.325,00 mil/QALY. O modelo foi refeito pelo parecerista externo, obtendo um novo valor de RCEI de R$ 12.324,53/QALY e com 100% das simulações com valor igual ou inferior a R$ 15.591,13/QALY. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: A Conitec, em sua 89ª reunião ordinária, no dia 06 de agosto de 2020, recomendou a não incorporação no SUS de prasugrel para tratamento de pacientes diabéticos com síndrome coronariana aguda pós angioplastia. A recomendação levou em consideração que a população alvo foi mal definida, gerando incertezas no impacto orçamentário e na proposta de redução de preços. A operacionalização da proposta de redução de preços necessita de esclarecimentos. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: A Conitec, em sua 89ª reunião ordinária, no dia 06 de agosto de 2020, recomendou a não incorporação no SUS de prasugrel para tratamento de pacientes diabéticos com síndrome coronariana aguda pós angioplastia. A recomendação levou em consideração que a população alvo foi mal definida, gerando incertezas no impacto orçamentário e na proposta de redução de preços. A operacionalização da proposta de redução de preços necessita de esclarecimentos. RECOMENDAÇÃO FINAL DA CONITEC: Os membros da CONITEC presentes na 92ª reunião ordinária, no dia 05 de novembro de 2020, deliberaram por recomendar a não incorporação no SUS do cloridrato de prasugrel para pacientes diabéticos com síndrome coronariana aguda submetidos à angioplastia primária. Os membros presentes entenderam que o medicamento atenderia um subgrupo de pacientes específico e que ainda há incertezas quanto ao seu benefício e segurança. Foi assinado o Registro de Deliberação nº 573.


Assuntos
Humanos , Angioplastia/instrumentação , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 22-28, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771221

RESUMO

Prasugrel and ticagrelor are preferred over clopidogrel for patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. We sought to determine the relative merits of 1 agent over the other. Multiple databases were queried to identify relevant randomized control trials (RCTs) and observational cohort studies. Random-effects model was used to calculate an unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for major adverse cardiovascular and cerbrovascular events (MACCE) and its components. A total of 27 (7 RCTs, 20 observational cohort studies) studies comprising 118,266 (prasugrel 62,716, ticagrelor 51,196) patients were included. At 30 days, prasugrel was associated with a significantly lower odds of MACCE (OR 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 0.85, p ≤0.0001) and mortality (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.71, p ≤0.0001). At 1 year, the overall odds of mortality favored prasugrel (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92, p = 0.002), but no significant interdrug difference was seen in terms of MACCE (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.05, p = 0.16). There was no significant difference in the odds of overall myocardial infarction, revascularization, stent thrombosis, stroke, and major bleeding events between the 2 groups on both 30-day and 1-year follow-up. A subgroup analysis of RCTs data showed no significant difference between prasugrel and ticagrelor in terms of any end point at all time points. In conclusion, prasugrel might have lower odds of MACCE and mortality at 30 days. However, there was no difference in the safety and efficacy end points of 2 drugs at 1 year. The observed transient prasugrel-related mortality benefits were subject to the bias of nonrandomized assignment.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Saúde Global , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
9.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(4): 646-654, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) frequently occurs following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with the prescription of P2Y12 inhibiting antiplatelet agents. Compared with clopidogrel, the newer P2Y12 inhibitors lower major adverse cardiac events with similar or possibly higher major bleeding events. The comparative GIB rates of these medications remain poorly understood. AIM: To compare GIB rates associated with clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor using national medical and pharmacy claims data from privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees . METHODS: Propensity score and inverse probability treatment weighting were used to balance baseline characteristics among treatment groups. The 1-year GIB risk was calculated using weighted Cox proportional hazard models and expressed as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and number needed to harm (NNH). RESULTS: We identified 37 019 patients with ACS (non-ST elevation ACS [NSTE-ACS] and ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) within 14 days of a PCI (mean age 63 years and 70% male). Clopidogrel prescription was most common (69%) with prasugrel (16%) and ticagrelor (14%) prescribed less frequently. When compared with clopidogrel, ticagrelor was associated with a 34% risk reduction (HR 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54-0.81) in GIB overall and with NSTE-ACS, and a 37% GIB risk reduction (HR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42-0.93) in STEMI patients. When compared with clopidogrel, prasugrel was associated with a 21% risk reduction (HR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64-0.97) overall, a 36% GIB risk reduction (HR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.49-0.85) in STEMI patients but no reduction of GIB risk in NSTE-ACS patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the first year following PCI, ticagrelor or prasugrel are associated with fewer GIB events than clopidogrel.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202004, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239221

RESUMO

Importance: Prasugrel was approved at a lower dose in 2014 in Japan than in the West because East Asian patients are considered more susceptible to bleeding than Western patients. However, real-world outcomes with low-dose prasugrel treatment remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the association of low-dose prasugrel vs standard-dose clopidogrel administration with short-term outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used data from the Japan Cardiovascular Database-Keio Interhospital Cardiovascular Studies registry, a large, ongoing, multicenter, retrospective cohort of consecutive patients who underwent PCI. The present cohort study evaluated 2770 patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent PCI and received either low-dose prasugrel (loading dose, 20 mg; maintenance dose, 3.75 mg) or clopidogrel (loading dose, 300 mg; maintenance dose, 75 mg) in combination with aspirin between 2014 and 2018. Propensity score-matching analysis was conducted to balance the baseline characteristics of patients receiving low-dose prasugrel and those receiving clopidogrel. Data analysis was conducted in June 2019. Exposures: Prescription of either low-dose prasugrel or standard-dose clopidogrel prior to PCI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary ischemic events (in-hospital death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke) and primary bleeding events, defined as bleeding complications within 72 hours after PCI consistent with the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry definition. Results: Of 2559 patients included in the study, the mean (SD) age was 67.8 (12.7) years, and 78.2% were male. In total, 1297 patients (50.7%) received low-dose prasugrel, and 1262 patients (49.3%) received clopidogrel. After propensity score matching, primary ischemic events among patients receiving low-dose prasugrel and those receiving clopidogrel were comparable (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% CI, 0.90-2.23), but primary bleeding events were significantly higher among patients receiving prasugrel (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.63-5.18). This increase in bleeding events was associated with the presence of a profile of high-bleeding risk (≥75 years of age, body weight <60 kg, or history of stroke or transient ischemic attack) (OR, 4.08; 95% CI, 1.86-8.97), being female (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.05-14.0), or the presence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.05-4.09) or chronic kidney disease (OR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.95-11.7). Conclusions and Relevance: Since its approval, low-dose prasugrel has been used by nearly 80% of patients who undergo PCI. Despite the modified dose, bleeding events were higher among patients receiving low-dose prasugrel than among patients receiving clopidogrel, with no difference in ischemic events between the 2 groups. These results suggest the importance of a risk assessment of bleeding prior to selecting a P2Y12 inhibitor, even for the use of a lower approved dose, when treating patients of East Asian descent.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/induzido quimicamente , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Morte , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
12.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(12): 1815-1822, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305225

RESUMO

Dual antiplatelet therapy combining aspirin with a P2Y12-receptor inhibitor reduces atherothrombotic events following an acute coronary syndromes (ACS), but the relative merits of different P2Y12 inhibitors remain unclear, despite several recent large-scale trials. We performed a network meta-analysis, representing the largest evidence to date to inform P2Y12 inhibitor choice in patients with ACS. Fourteen studies were included, for a total population of 145,019 patients. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used in this systematic review. A network meta-analysis using a frequentist approach with surface under the cumulative ranking probability calculation was performed. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), definite stent thrombosis (ST) and major bleeding at 30-day and 1-year all-cause death and MI were the study endpoints. At 30-day, prasugrel was superior to both clopidogrel and ticagrelor in MACE, all-cause death and definite ST endpoints. Both prasugrel and ticagrelor were superior to clopidogrel in MI endpoint. Ticagrelor also reduced all-cause death compared with clopidogrel. Ticagrelor, prasugrel, and clopidogrel resulted equivalent in terms of the safety outcome of 30-day major bleeding. No significant difference was found among clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor with respect to 1-year MACE outcome. Both prasugrel and ticagrelor reduced the occurrence of 1-year all-cause death compared with clopidogrel. Prasugrel reduced 1-year MI rate as compared with clopidogrel, while ticagrelor did not. At probability analyses, prasugrel ranked best in all 30-day and 1-year efficacy and safety endpoints. In conclusion, in this network meta-analysis, prasugrel showed the highest efficacy in reducing adverse outcomes in ACS patients and had the highest probability of being the best P2Y12 inhibitor to reduce hard adverse events both at 30-day and 1-year follow-up.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Stents , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
13.
Lancet ; 395(10233): 1374-1381, 2020 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend potent platelet inhibition with ticagrelor or prasugrel in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. However, data about optimal platelet inhibition in older patients are scarce. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of clopidogrel compared with ticagrelor or prasugrel in older patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). METHODS: We did the open-label, randomised controlled POPular AGE trial in 12 sites (ten hospitals and two university hospitals) in the Netherlands. Patients aged 70 years or older with NSTE-ACS were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio using an internet-based randomisation procedure with block sizes of six to receive a loading dose of clopidogrel 300 mg or 600 mg, or ticagrelor 180 mg or prasugrel 60 mg, and then a maintenance dose for the duration of 12 months (clopidogrel 75 mg once daily, ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily, or prasugrel 10 mg once daily) on top of standard care. Patient and treating physicians were aware of the allocated treatment strategy, but the outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. Primary bleeding outcome consisted of PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO; major or minor bleeding [superiority hypothesis]). Co-primary net clinical benefit outcome consisted of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, PLATO major and minor bleeding (non-inferiority hypothesis, margin of 2%). Follow-up duration was 12 months. Analyses were done on intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register (NL3804), ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02317198), and EudraCT (2013-001403-37). FINDINGS: Between June 10, 2013, and Oct 17, 2018, 1002 patients were randomly assigned to clopidogrel (n=500) or ticagrelor or prasugrel (n=502). Because 475 (95%) patients received ticagrelor in the ticagrelor or prasugrel group, we will refer to this group as the ticagrelor group. Premature discontinuation of the study drug occurred in 238 (47%) of 502 ticagrelor group patients randomly assigned to ticagrelor, and in 112 (22%) of 500 patients randomly assigned to clopidogrel. Primary bleeding outcome was significantly lower in the clopidogrel group (88 [18%] of 500 patients) than in the ticagrelor group (118 [24%] of 502; hazard ratio 0·71, 95% CI 0·54 to 0·94; p=0·02 for superiority). Co-primary net clinical benefit outcome was non-inferior for the use of clopidogrel (139 [28%]) versus ticagrelor (161 [32%]; absolute risk difference -4%, 95% CI -10·0 to 1·4; p=0·03 for non-inferiority). The most important reasons for discontinuation were occurrence of bleeding (n=38), dyspnoea (n=40), and the need for treatment with oral anticoagulation (n=35). INTERPRETATION: In patients aged 70 years or older presenting with NSTE-ACS, clopidogrel is a favourable alternative to ticagrelor, because it leads to fewer bleeding events without an increase in the combined endpoint of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and bleeding. Clopidogrel could be an alternative P2Y12 inhibitor especially for elderly patients with a higher bleeding risk. FUNDING: ZonMw.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
14.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(2): 152-159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The safety of prasugrel in elderly and/or low body weight Japanese patients with ischemic stroke who have a relatively high bleeding risk with antiplatelet therapy remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of long-term prasugrel monotherapy for stroke prevention compared with clopidogrel in elderly and/or low body weight Japanese patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, comparative, phase III study, elderly (age ≥75 years) and/or low body weight (≤50 kg) Japanese patients with a previous history of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke were assigned to a prasugrel 3.75 mg (PRA3.75) group, a prasugrel 2.5 mg (PRA2.5) group, or a clopidogrel 50 mg (CLO50) group and followed up for 48 weeks. The primary safety endpoint was the combined incidence of primary safety events, defined as life-threatening, major, and other clinically relevant bleeding. The efficacy endpoint was a composite of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular causes. RESULTS: A total of 654 patients (age 76.4 ± 7.3 years, body weight 55.6 ± 9.3 kg, women 43.9%) from 74 medical institutions within Japan were enrolled. The combined incidence (95% CI) of primary safety events was 4.2% (1.9-7.8%), 1.9% (0.5-4.7%), and 3.6% (1.6-6.9%) in the PRA3.75 group (n = 216), PRA2.5 group (n = 215), and CLO50 group (n = 223), respectively (hazard ratios [HR] PRA3.75/CLO50, 1.13 [0.44-2.93]; PRA2.5/CLO50, 0.51 [0.15-1.69]). The incidences of bleeding leading to treatment discontinuation (95% CI) were 2.3% (0.8-5.3%), 0.9% (0.1-3.3%), and 2.2% (0.7-5.2%) in the PRA3.75, PRA2.5, and CLO50 groups, respectively (HRs PRA3.75/CLO50, 1.01 [0.29-3.48]; PRA2.5/CLO50, 0.41 [0.08-2.12]). There was no significant difference in all bleeding events between groups. The incidence of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular causes was lower, but not significantly so, in patients treated with prasugrel than in patients treated with clopidogrel: PRA3.75, 0.0% (0/216); PRA2.5, 3.3% (7/215); and CLO50, 3.6% (8/223; HRs PRA3.75/CLO50, 0.00 [0.00-0.00]; PRA2.5/CLO50, 0.90 [0.32-2.47]). CONCLUSIONS: Elderly and/or low body weight -Japanese patients with previous non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke who received PRA3.75 showed similar results in terms of primary safety endpoint, and a numerically lower incidence of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular causes, compared with those who received CLO50.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Peso Corporal/etnologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etnologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Japão , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(3): e006275, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156164

RESUMO

Background Ticagrelor and prasugrel are potent P2Y12 inhibitors with superior efficacy compared with clopidogrel among patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), though use in recent practice is not well described. In this retrospective study, we assessed trends, predictors, and variation in use of P2Y12 inhibitors in patients with STEMI in the United States. Methods and Results We identified 169 505 STEMI patients in the Chest Pain-Myocardial Infarction Registry from October 2013 through March 2017. We determined national utilization rates of P2Y12 inhibitors at discharge, patient predictors for each medication, and variation in use between hospitals. In a subset of 9655 Medicare patients ≥65 years old, we compared 1-year adjusted risks of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and bleeding based on hospital quartile of potent P2Y12 inhibitor use. Rates of ticagrelor use increased from 18.0% to 44.0%, while rates of prasugrel and clopidogrel use decreased from 24.6% to 13.5% and 57.4% to 42.6%, respectively. Prior percutaneous coronary intervention was the strongest clinical predictor for use of ticagrelor (adjusted odds ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.09-1.18]) and prasugrel (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.21-1.34]) compared with clopidogrel. Predictors of clopidogrel use included no insurance, insurance with Medicare or Medicaid, and features associated with higher bleeding risk. The median hospital usage rate for newer P2Y12 inhibitors was 51.3% (interquartile range, 35.0%-65.9%), with substantial variation between hospitals (adjusted median odds ratio, 2.92 [95% CI, 2.77-3.10]). Among patients ≥65 years old, there were no differences in adjusted 1-year risks of adverse outcomes across hospital quartiles of potent P2Y12 inhibitor use. Conclusions Almost one-half of STEMI patients by 2017 were discharged on ticagrelor while far fewer received prasugrel. Patient characteristics are associated with P2Y12 inhibitor selection, though substantial hospital variation exists. Identifying barriers to use of more potent P2Y12 inhibitors may improve patient-centered decision-making for STEMI patients.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/tendências , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Idoso , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 130, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the efficacy and safety of novel P2Y12 antagonists, including prasugrel or ticagrelor, has not been established relative to that of the clopidogrel-based triple-antiplatelet treatments (TAPTs; in combination with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor). The present meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of prasugrel- or ticagrelor-based TAPTs relative to that of clopidogrel TAPTs in patients with STEMI undergoing PCI. METHODS: The databases PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane's Library were systematically searched for relevant randomized controlled trials concerning prasugrel or ticagrelor (test) relative to clopidogrel (control). Depending on heterogeneity, studies were pooled with a random effects or a fixed effects model. Outcomes of blood flow after PCI were evaluated, including TIMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction), bleeding events, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). RESULTS: Seven studies comprising 11,874 patients conformed to the inclusion criteria. The pooled results with the fixed effects model indicated that after PCI patients in the prasugrel or ticagrelor groups were as likely as those treated with clopidogrel to achieve TIMI grade 3 flow or experience bleeding events. However, compared with the control, the test groups had significantly less risk of MACE (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.94, P = 0.004), especially at the 1-year follow-up (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66-0.95, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A prasugrel- or ticagrelor-based TAPT may reduce the rate of MACEs, without increasing bleeding in STEMI patients undergoing PCI. However, due to the limited RCT studies and variations in study weight, results of this meta-analysis should be confirmed in a large RCT with adequate sample size and follow-up duration.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(3)2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169992

RESUMO

A patient undergoes intracranial stent insertion for stent-assisted coiling of a basilar tip aneurysm and left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. A flow diverting stent is also placed across an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Prior to the procedure, the patient takes dual antiplatelet medications, being aspirin and clopidogrel. Because of the concern regarding in-stent thrombus and thromboembolic complications related to intracranial stenting and the high rate of clopidogrel resistance, preoperative platelet function testing (PFT) was undertaken to ensure platelet inhibition. In this case, PFT was performed on a platelet function analyser which demonstrated platelet inhibition. Ten days following the procedure, the patient represented with thromboembolic stroke. Repeat PFT performed with whole blood impedance aggregometry and despite full medication compliance demonstrated clopidogrel resistance. Clopidogrel was then ceased and prasugrel commenced. This case demonstrates the importance of appropriate platelet inhibition in patients with intracranial stents and the controversy surrounding PFT.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano/tratamento farmacológico , Stents/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tromboembolia/complicações , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Resistência a Medicamentos , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Testes de Função Plaquetária/métodos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Suspensão de Tratamento
18.
Life Sci ; 247: 117429, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061670

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypercholesterolemia is a hazard for increasing susceptibility of the heart to myocardial infarction (MI) by inducing platelet hyperaggregability. Clopidogrel and prasugrel have documented cardioprotective effects in clinical studies. Herein, we investigated whether clopidogrel and prasugrel could protect against isoproterenol-induced acute MI (A-MI) under hypercholesterolemic conditions in rats. MAIN METHODS: Dietary hypercholesterolemic rats were subjected to acute doses of isoproterenol. Serum lipids, inflammatory markers, aortic endothelin1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNAs expression and immunexpression of BCL2 were determined. KEY FINDINGS: Hypercholesterolemic rats showed infiltration of inflammatory cells and reduction in aortic wall thickness, deposition of fibrous tissue between cardiac muscle fibers. Protective doses of prasugrel or clopidogrel for 28 days before A-MI increased survival, amended the ECG parameters -including ST segment elevation- and improved the histopathological picture in hypercholesterolemic rats. This was coupled with reductions in platelet aggregation, creatine kinase-MB activity, endothelin 1, systemic inflammation and cardiac lipid peroxidation and increment in aortic eNOS expression. Clopidogrel and prasugrel groups showed enhanced BCL2 expression in cardiac fibers and aortic wall. SIGNIFICANCE: Prasugrel and clopidogrel protected against A-MI via anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory effects. These results add to the value of these drugs in correcting cardiovascular dysfunction in patients vulnerable to A-MI after confirmation by appropriate human studies.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/metabolismo , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Mortalidade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(1): 53-63, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062795

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since ticagrelor inhibits the cellular uptake of adenosine, thereby increasing extracellular adenosine concentration and biological activity, we hypothesized that ticagrelor has adenosine-dependent antiplatelet properties. In the current study, we compared the effects of ticagrelor and prasugrel on platelet activation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Platelet surface expression of P-selectin and activated glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), the toll-like receptor (TLR)-1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4, the TLR-4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 agonist SFLLRN, and the PAR-4 agonist AYPGKF were measured by flow cytometry in blood from 80 ticagrelor- and 80 prasugrel-treated ACS patients on day 3 after percutaneous coronary intervention. Residual platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid (AA) and ADP were assessed by multiple electrode aggregometry and light transmission aggregometry. RESULTS: ADP-induced platelet activation and aggregation, and AA-induced platelet aggregation were similar in patients on ticagrelor and prasugrel, respectively (all p ≥ 0.3). Further, LPS-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa did not differ significantly between ticagrelor- and prasugrel-treated patients (both p > 0.4). In contrast, Pam3CSK4-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa were significantly lower in ticagrelor-treated patients (both p ≤ 0.005). Moreover, SFLLRN-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa were significantly less pronounced in patients on ticagrelor therapy compared to prasugrel-treated patients (both p < 0.03). Finally, PAR-4 mediated platelet activation as assessed by platelet surface expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa following stimulation with AYPGKF was significantly lower in patients receiving ticagrelor (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Ticagrelor inhibits TLR-1/2 and PAR mediated platelet activation in ACS patients more strongly than prasugrel.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Receptores Ativados por Proteinase/metabolismo , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Idoso , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(8): 1280-1283, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081368

RESUMO

Intraocular bleeding is a devastating clinical event due to its potentially blinding nature. It is not known if determine if dual antiplatelet therapy using aspirin and potent P2Y12 inhibitors increases this risk. We searched MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled trials that were phase III, randomly assigned patients to dual antiplatelet therapy with either aspirin and a potent P2Y12 inhibitor or aspirin and clopidogrel, had follow-up of 6 months, and at least 200 patients. Corresponding authors were contacted for intraocular bleeding data. Inverse-variance, weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken, with random-effects meta-analysis performed as a sensitivity analysis. Four trials enrolling 42,850 patients were included. The median follow-up ranged from 12 to 14 months. There was overall low risk of bias. Pooled analysis demonstrated no statistically significant increase in the risk of intraocular bleeding with dual antiplatelet therapy using potent P2Y12 inhibitors compared with clopidogrel (risk ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 1.36). There was no significant heterogeneity observed across trials (I2 statistic 0%, p = 0.98). The use of random-effects meta-analysis did not change the effect estimate or confidence intervals, and the results appeared similar when stratified by potent P2Y12 inhibitor (p = 0.97). In conclusion, this collaborative meta-analysis of dual antiplatelet trials does not suggest that the risk of intraocular bleeding is increased with the use of potent P2Y12 inhibitors compared with clopidogrel. Our results suggest that these potent P2Y12 inhibitors may continue to be used cautiously where indicated as part of dual antiplatelet therapy, even in those at high risk of spontaneous intraocular bleeding.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Ocular/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Hemorragia Ocular/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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