Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.013
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510163

RESUMO

Background: Long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) combination therapy improved lung function and health-related quality-of-life and reduced exacerbation rates and dyspnea in symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We compared the real-world effects of three fixed-dose LABA/LAMA combinations for COPD in Taiwan. Methods: This multicenter, retrospective study evaluated 1-year outcomes after LABA/LAMA combination therapy in patients with symptomatic COPD. Exacerbations and symptoms of COPD, lung functions, and therapy escalation were compared among patients using tiotropium/olodaterol, umeclidinium/vilanterol and indacaterol/glycopyrronium. Propensity score matching (PSM) was applied to balance the baseline characteristics. Results: Data of 1,617 patients were collected. After PSM, time to first moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation was comparable among three groups, while the annualized rates of the exacerbation (episodes/patient/year) in patients receiving tiotropium/olodaterol (0.19) or umeclidinium/vilanterol (0.17) were significantly lower than those receiving indacaterol/glycopyrronium (0.38). COPD-related symptoms were stable over the treatment period, and there was no significant difference in the changes of symptom scores including CAT and mMRC among three groups at the end of the study period. Conclusion: This study presented valuable real-world outcome in terms of exacerbation and treatment response of COPD patients treated with fixed-dose LABA/LAMA regimens in Taiwan. The annualized rates of moderate-to-severe exacerbation in patients receiving tiotropium/olodaterol or umeclidinium/vilanterol were significantly lower than those receiving indacaterol/glycopyrronium, though the time to first moderate-to-severe exacerbation was similar among different fixed-dose LABA/LAMA combinations.


Assuntos
Glicopirrolato , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2 , Benzoxazinas , Álcoois Benzílicos , Broncodilatadores , Clorobenzenos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Glicopirrolato/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Indanos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas , Quinuclidinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan , Brometo de Tiotrópio/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Chemosphere ; 298: 134274, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288185

RESUMO

Dielectric barrier discharge coupled with 10 wt% Co/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was developed to degrade chlorobenzene in this study. The effects of experimental parameters including applied voltage, flow rate, initial chlorobenzene concentration, and their interactions on the chlorobenzene degradation performance were investigated by the response surface methodology integrated with a central composite design. Results indicated that applied voltage was the most significant parameter affecting the mineralization rate and the concentration of ozone generated, while energy yield was mainly determined by initial chlorobenzene concentration. As a key precursor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorophenols were found during the identification of the intermediates produced during chlorobenzene degradation through GC-MS. Furthermore, HRGC-HRMS was used to detect the remaining byproducts on the catalyst surface after 3 and 10 h discharge time, and three types of PCDD/Fs (2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HCDF and OCDD) were detected after 10 h of discharge. The degradation mechanism of chlorobenzene was analyzed based on these detected intermediates, and the possible formation mechanisms of the three PCDD/Fs were proposed for the first time in plasma catalytic degradation of chlorobenzene.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Catálise , Clorobenzenos , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345479

RESUMO

Background: Fixed dose dual bronchodilators such as long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) plus long-acting ß2-agonists (LABAs) are a new and important inhaled preparation for COPD treatment in China. Among these, umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VIL) is increasingly being used in China, especially among the elderly. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of maintenance treatment with UMEC/VIL compared with salmeterol/fluticasone (FSC) as one of the main therapeutic drugs for moderate to very severe COPD in China. Methods: A Markov model was developed to estimate the costs and outcomes from a societal perspective in a 10-year time horizon. Patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD were treated with UMEC/VIL (62.5/25µg) or FSC (50/500ug). Data concerning clinical efficacy, costs, utilities, transition probability, exacerbation rate, and mortality were obtained from the published literature and official government datasets. The costs were presented in US dollars based on 2021 prices. The indicators of total costs, life years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and mortality were used as the model output. Costs and outcomes were discounted at a 5% annual rate. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated considering the threshold recommended by WHO. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the stability of results. Results: Compared with FSC, treatment with UMEC/VIL could save $1947.18, with a gain of 0.12 life-years and 0.05 QALYs. Further, 28.0% patients treated with UMEC/VIL and 29.2% patients treated with FSC were predicted to die after 10 years. Incremental cost effectiveness analysis showed that UMEC/VIL was dominant to FSC. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the results were robust. Conclusion: UMEC/VIL is a cost-effective treatment option compared with FSC among patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Álcoois Benzílicos , Broncodilatadores , Clorobenzenos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Combinação de Medicamentos , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(9): 5796-5807, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321543

RESUMO

Developing economic and applicable catalysts with elegant chlorine resistance and organic byproduct inhibition capability is of great significance for chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) eco-friendly purification. Here, ternary CexSr1-xTiO3 catalysts with tunable surface acidity and oxygen species mobility were creatively fabricated using the hollow tubular-structured fruit hair of Platanus (FHP; a widespread greenery waste) as the scaffolding biotemplate. It is shown that the oxygen vacancy (Ov) triggered by the presence of Ce can optimize the synergy between the Lewis acid sites (LAS) and Brønsted acid sites (BAS). High concentration of Ov and BAS promotes the C-Cl cleavage of chlorobenzene (CB) and accelerates the desorption of Cl• radicals as inorganic chlorine. Simultaneously, the strong electron transfer within Ti-Ce-Sr linkage increases the acidity of LAS, resulting in the superior reducibility of Ce0.4Sr0.6TiO3 and facilitating the deep oxidation of dechlorination intermediates. Additionally, the spatial confinement of the tubular structure remarkably accelerates the CB flow rate and reduces the residence time of byproducts over the prepared catalysts. Owing to these, CB can be efficiently destructed over Ce0.4Sr0.6TiO3 with selectivity of CO2 and inorganic chlorine dramatically enhanced, respectively, approximately 16 and 21 times at 275 °C compared to those of pure SrTiO3. The present work provides a feasible and promising strategy for engineering efficient catalysts for heterogeneous thermocatalytic reactions for industrial-scale Cl-CVOC destruction.


Assuntos
Cloro , Oxigênio , Catálise , Cloretos , Clorobenzenos/química , Oxirredução
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281476

RESUMO

Purpose: Triple therapy (TT; inhaled corticosteroid, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and long-acting ß2-agonist) is recommended for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at risk of exacerbation, although the optimum timing of TT initiation remains unclear. This study evaluated the impact of prompt versus delayed initiation of single-inhaler TT (fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, and vilanterol [FF/UMEC/VI]) following a COPD exacerbation. Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from the IQVIA PharMetrics® Plus database. Patients initiating FF/UMEC/VI following a COPD exacerbation between September 18, 2017 and September 30, 2019 (exacerbation = index date) were categorized as prompt (within 30 days of index) or delayed (31-180 days after index) FF/UMEC/VI initiators. Patients were aged ≥40 years at index, had ≥12 months' continuous health insurance coverage before index (baseline), and ≥6 months' coverage after index (follow-up). Patients with a COPD exacerbation or claim for FF/UMEC/VI during baseline were excluded. Inverse probability weighting was used to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between cohorts. Exacerbations (overall, moderate, and severe), healthcare costs, and readmissions were evaluated during follow-up. Results: A total of 1904 patients (prompt: 529; delayed: 1375) were included. After weighting, baseline characteristics were well balanced between cohorts. Patients in the prompt cohort had significantly lower rates per person-year (PPY) of overall (0.98 vs 1.23; rate ratio [RR] [95% CI] = 0.79 [0.65-0.94], p = 0.004), moderate (0.86 vs 1.03; RR [95% CI] = 0.84 [0.69-0.99], p = 0.038), and severe (0.11 vs 0.20; RR [95% CI] = 0.57 [0.37-0.79], p = 0.002) exacerbations, compared with delayed initiators. Mean all-cause and COPD-related healthcare costs were significantly lower among prompt initiators (all-cause: $26,107 vs $32,400 PPY, p = 0.014; COPD-related: $12,694 vs $17,640 PPY, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Prompt initiation of FF/UMEC/VI following a moderate or severe COPD exacerbation was associated with significant reductions in exacerbations and healthcare costs relative to delayed initiation.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Androstadienos/uso terapêutico , Álcoois Benzílicos/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Clorobenzenos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 429: 128384, 2022 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236041

RESUMO

Lotus-like Ni@NiO embedded porous carbons (Ni@NiO/PCs) were fabricated by pyrolysis of MOF-74/cellulose nanocrystal hybrids, and used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coating for ultrasensitive determination of chlorobenzenes (CBs) from water combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Owing to its abundant chemical groups, high porosity, and excellent thermal stability, the as-prepared Ni@NiO/PCs presented superior extraction performance compared to commercial SPME coatings. Notably, Ni@NiO/PCs derived from MOF-74/CNC hybrids presented higher extraction efficiencies towards CBs than that derived from pristine CNC and MOF-74 due to the formation of micro/mesopores and more abundant oxygen-containing groups. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the proposed analytical method presented wide linearity range (0.5-1500 ng L-1), ultra-low detection of limit (0.005-0.049 ng L-1), and excellent precision with relative standard deviations of 4.7-9.2% for a single fiber and 8.8-10.9% for 5 fibers, and long lifetime (≥160 times). The proposed analytical method was finally applied for determination of CBs from real water samples, and the recoveries were in the range of 93.2-116.8% towards eight CBs. This study delivered a novel and efficient sorbent as SPME coating to extraction and determination of CBs from water.


Assuntos
Lotus , Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbono , Celulose , Clorobenzenos , Nanopartículas/análise , Porosidade , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 395(4): 471-485, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35141760

RESUMO

NAV2729 is a presumed inhibitor of the monomeric GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) and inhibits smooth muscle contraction outside the cardiovascular system. Its effects on vascular smooth muscle contraction or a possible role of ARF6 in vasocontraction have not yet been examined. Here, we report effects of NAV2729 on neurogenic and agonist-induced contractions in renal interlobar and coronary arteries. Contractions of pig interlobar and coronary arteries were induced in an organ bath by agonists or by electric field stimulation (EFS). Owing to divergent characteristics of both vessel types, EFS-induced contractions were only examined in interlobar arteries, and contractions by agonists acting on muscarinic receptors only in coronary arteries. NAV2729 inhibited frequency-dependent EFS-induced contractions of interlobar arteries. The degree of inhibition was similar using 5 µM and 10 µM NAV2729. Inhibition of EFS-induced contractions was resistant to a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and to diclofenac. The neurogenic and adrenergic character of EFS-induced contractions was confirmed by inhibition by tetrodotoxin and prazosin. In coronary arteries, NAV2729 (5 µM) inhibited concentration-dependent contractions induced by carbachol and methacholine. Contractions induced by α1-adrenergic agonists, endothelin-1, the thromboxane receptor agonist U46619, or serotonin remained unchanged by NAV2729 in both vessel types. NAV2729 inhibits neurogenic contractions in interlobar arteries and contractions induced by cholinergic agonists in coronary arteries. In both vessel types, NAV2729 does not inhibit contractions induced by receptor agonists other than those acting on muscarinic receptors. Addressing effects in other vessels and in other smooth muscle-rich organs merits further attention.


Assuntos
Próstata , Animais , Clorobenzenos , Colinérgicos/farmacologia , Vasos Coronários , Estimulação Elétrica , Masculino , Contração Muscular , Pirazóis , Pirimidinonas , Artéria Renal , Suínos
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 271: 120899, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104740

RESUMO

A new and convenient calculation method based on Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory assuming an extremely loose transition state (LTS) has been attempted to predict the branching ratio in photodissociation. This method enables estimation of the branching ratios without detailed structural information on the transition state which is indispensable in conventional RRKM calculations. To evaluate our simple method through comparison to the experimental results, photodissociation of 1-bromo-3-chlorobenzene cation (3BCB+) was chosen as a model unimolecular reaction system which has two distinct photodissociation channels in ultraviolet region: 3BCB+ → Br-dissociated daughter ion (ClBz+) + Br and 3BCB+ → Cl-dissociated daughter ion (BrBz+) + Cl. The branching ratio was monitored with decreasing the internal energy using a linear tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer, which clearly showed decreased branching ratios of 3BCB+ → ClBz+ + Br over 3BCB+ → BrBz+ + Cl in reasonable agreement with the calculation results employing the new method. Although there was some discrepancy in internal energy between the experimental and calculation results, the new calculation method is worth to be extended to other diverse systems considering its intuitive and simple nature.


Assuntos
Clorobenzenos , Cátions , Espectrometria de Massas
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 429: 128349, 2022 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101763

RESUMO

Since little is known about the sorption/desorption behaviors of the mixed chlorobenzenes (CBs) on fresh and aged biochar, this study evaluated the co-sorption/co-desorption mechanism of the mixed monochlorobenzene (MCB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB) and 1,2,4-tirchlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) on the fresh bulk biochar derived from pinewood sawdust and corn straw under the heat treatment temperature (HTT) of 300 and 500 °C, and elucidated the aging-induced changes in the sorption/desorption of mixed CBs by biochar. The distinct sorption capacities of MCB< 1,2-DCB< 1,2,4-TCB were observed on all the tested biochar with the differences being further enhanced following the rise of HTT, as the main sorption mechanism was converted from phase partitioning to π-π interaction between graphitized biochar moieties and more hydrophobic aromatic chemicals. In comparison to the fresh biochar, the sorption suppression of the mixed CBs on the aged biochar was likely attributable to the reduction in accessibility to the aromatic carbon in biochar by introducing O-containing polar moieties on the biochar surfaces. Intriguingly, the kinetics of desorption was decreased with the aging of biochar may be caused by the increase in surface steric hindrance. These findings can provide new insights on understanding the co-sorption/co-desorption mechanism of the mixed CBs and help assess and manage the application of biochar on the treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater under field conditions.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes do Solo , Adsorção , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal/química , Clorobenzenos/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 295: 133794, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124088

RESUMO

Nitrogen oxides, mercury and chlorobenzene are important air pollutants emitted by waste incineration and other industries. Coordinated control of multiple pollutants has become an important technology for air pollution control. Through solid-phase structure control, the catalytic performance of the WCeMnOx/TiO2-ZrO2 catalyst for simultaneous catalytic removal of NO, mercury and simultaneous removal of NO and chlorobenzene were improved. MnWO4 improved the solid acidity of the catalyst and improved the catalytic activity at high temperature. The formation of Ce0·75Zr0·25O2, Ce2WO6, Ce2Zr2O7 and Ce2Ti2O7 improved the catalytic activity at low temperature. The presence of TiOSO4 would affect the valence of metal ions and the reduction of chemisorbed oxygen, thereby reducing the catalytic activity at low temperature. Within the same size range of nanoparticles, cyclic nanoparticles exposed more active sites due to their hollow structure, and their catalytic performance was better than spherical nanoparticles. The thickness of the circular nanoparticles of WCM/TZ-14 catalyst was about 14 nm, and the diameter was about 40 nm Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 and MnWO4 were also present in the phase composition. Therefore, it exhibited the best performance for simultaneous catalytic removal of NO, mercury and simultaneous removal of NO and chlorobenzene. The coincidence temperature window was 347-516 °C. Finally, WCM/TZ-14 catalyst followed both E-R and L-H mechanisms in the NH3-SCR reaction.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Catálise , Clorobenzenos/química , Mercúrio/química , Oxirredução , Titânio , Zircônio/química
11.
Environ Res ; 208: 112706, 2022 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031339

RESUMO

Dimethachlon, a broad-spectrum dicarboximide fungicide, poses a hazard to the safety of human and ecosystem due to its residue in the environment. A high-efficient dimethachlon degrading bacteria JH-1 belonging to Paenarthrobacter sp. was isolated and characterized. Strain JH-1 can utilize high concentration of dimethachlon as sole carbon source for growth and degrade 98.53% of 300 mg·L-1 dimethachlon within 72 h. Crude enzyme of strain JH-1 could degrade 99.76% of 100 mg·L-1 dimethachlon within 2 h. The optimum degradation condition of dimethachlon by strain JH-1 was at 35 °C and pH 7.0. Dimethachlon was degraded in Paenarthrobacter sp. JH-1 as following: it was firstly converted to 4-(3,5-dichloroanilino)-4-oxobutanoic acid and then subjected to the hydrolysis to 3,5-dichloroaniline and succinic acid, the latter was further degraded. Dimethachlon inhibited the growth of Chlorella ellipsoidea, while Paenarthrobacter sp. JH-1 could degrade dimethachlon to relieve its toxicity. This work facilitates our knowledge of the degradation mechanism of dimethachlon and offers potential resource of microbial strains for the bioremediation of dimethachlon-contaminated environments in the future.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorobenzenos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Succinimidas
12.
J Environ Manage ; 306: 114475, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033888

RESUMO

Sites polluted by dense non-aqueous phases (DNAPLs) constitute an environmental concern. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) application is limited since oxidation often occurs in the aqueous phase and contaminants are usually hydrophobic. In this work, ISCO enhanced by the surfactant addition (S-ISCO) was studied for a complex liquid mixture of chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) using persulfate (PS) activated by alkali (PSA) as oxidant and Emulse-3® as a commercial non-ionic surfactant. The reaction between E3 and PSA was investigated in the absence and presence of solubilized COCs in the following concentration ranges: COCs 1.2-50 mM, PS 84-336 mM, NaOH:PS molar ratio of 2, and surfactant concentration 1-10 g·L-1. In the experiments carried out in the absence of COCs, the unproductive consumption of PS was studied. The higher the surfactant concentration, the lower the ratio PS consumed to the initial surfactant concentration due to more complex micelle structures hindering the oxidation of surfactant molecules. This hindering effect was also noticed in the oxidation of solubilized COCs. The reduction of chlorobenzenes by PSA was negligible at surfactant concentrations above 2.5 g·L-1, independently of the COCs concentration solubilized. Instead, a surfactant concentration of about 1 and PS concentration of 168 mM yielded a significant decrease in the time required to abate a mass of DNAPL, compared with an ISCO process, with a bearable increase in the unproductive consumption of PS.


Assuntos
Tensoativos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Álcalis , Clorobenzenos , Compostos Orgânicos , Oxirredução , Sulfatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(13): 19309-19323, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713406

RESUMO

The simultaneous removal of NOx and dioxins is the frontier of environmental catalysis, which is still in the initial stage and poses several challenges. In this study, a series of CeNb3Fex/TiO2 (x = 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0) catalysts were prepared by the sol-gel method and examined for the synergistic removal of NOx and CB. The CeNb3Fe0.3/TiO2 catalyst exhibits an optimum catalytic performance, with an NOx conversion greater than 95% at 260-380 °C. It also exhibits an optimal CB oxidation activity, in which CB promoted both the NOx conversion and N2 selectivity below 250 °C. Moreover, the more favorable ratios of Ce4+ to Ce3+ and plentiful surface-adsorbed oxygen species are the reasons why CeNb3Fe0.3/TiO2 catalyst has better catalytic activity than other catalysts at the lower temperature. Simultaneously, owing to the modulation of Fe to the redox properties of Ce and Nb, the large number of oxygen vacancies and acid sites was generated, and the CeNb3Fe0.3/TiO2 catalyst is beneficial to NOx reduction and CB oxidation. Furthermore, the results of in situ DRIFTS study reveal the NH3-SCR reactions over CeNb3Fe0.3/TiO2 catalysts are mainly conformed to by the L-H mechanism (< 350 °C) and E-R mechanism (> 350 °C), respectively, and the multi-pollutant conversion mechanism in the synergistic reaction was systematically studied.


Assuntos
Amônia , Titânio , Catálise , Clorobenzenos
14.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112018, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536370

RESUMO

In this study photo-catalytic degradation of chlorobenzene from aqueous solutions using CQD decorated Fe-doped TiO2 immobilized in Glass Fibers (GF) was investigated. Characteristics of the synthesized photo-catalyst were determined by EF-SEM, EDX, BET, XRD, FTIR, and DRS analysis. Additionally, DRS analysis demonstrated adding CQD to the TiO2-Fe reduced its band gap energy from 2.96 eV to 2.91eV, while that was 3.10 eV for undoped TiO2. Among that three photo-catalysts, GF/CQD(4.5 wt%) decorated Fe-TiO2 composite had performance nearly 100.0%, when pH was 5 and low concentration of chlorobenzene. In addition, GF/CQD(4.5 wt%) decorated Fe-TiO2 composite show it could be well applied for five times and with a little reduction on the performance. Also, no detectable Fe found to be released from the composite. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for E. coli bacteria was 12.2 mg L-1 of chlorobenzene residual. Our findings show the catalyst was successful for chlorobenzene removal in the wastewater effluent. In conclusion, present hybrid composite could successfully and safely remove chlorobenzene from synthetic aqueous solution.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Titânio , Catálise , Clorobenzenos , Vidro
15.
Eur Respir J ; 59(4)2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Navafenterol (AZD8871) belongs to a new class of bronchodilator, the single-molecule muscarinic antagonist and ß-agonist, developed for the treatment of COPD. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety of navafenterol versus placebo and an active comparator treatment for moderate-to-severe COPD. METHODS: This phase 2a, randomised, multicentre (Germany and UK), double-blind, double-dummy, three-way complete crossover study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03645434) compared 2 weeks' treatment of once-daily navafenterol 600 µg via inhalation with placebo and a fixed-dose combination bronchodilator (umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI); 62.5 µg/25 µg) in participants with moderate-to-severe COPD. The primary outcome was change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) on day 15. Secondary end-points included change from baseline in peak FEV1; change from baseline in Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS); change from baseline in COPD Assessment Tool (CAT); adverse events; and pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: 73 participants were randomised. After 14 days, trough FEV1 was significantly improved with navafenterol compared with placebo (least-squares (LS) mean difference 0.202 L; p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in FEV1 between navafenterol and UMEC/VI (LS mean difference -0.046 L; p=0.075). COPD symptoms (CAT and BCSS) showed significantly greater improvements with both active treatments versus placebo (all p<0.005). Novel objective monitoring (VitaloJAK) showed that cough was reduced with both active treatments compared with placebo. Safety profiles were similar across the treatment groups and no serious adverse events were reported in the navafenterol treatment period. CONCLUSION: Once-daily navafenterol was well tolerated, improved lung function and reduced COPD-related symptoms, similar to an established once-daily fixed-dose combination bronchodilator.


Assuntos
Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Clorobenzenos , Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Chemosphere ; 289: 133156, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864012

RESUMO

We compared the influences of Al2O3 and SiO2 on a traditional V2O5-MoO3/TiO2 for the simultaneous removal of NOx and chlorobenzene (CB). The Al2O3 doping catalyst considerably broadens the active temperature window with higher NOx reduction and CB oxidation efficiencies than the SiO2 doping one and the V2O5-MoO3/TiO2. Furthermore, its resistance to SO2 was preserved and the quantities of polychlorinated byproducts also decreased. The increase in activity at low temperatures could be due to the promotion of vanadia reducibility via interactions between V2O5 and Al2O3. Moreover, the high temperature activity could be due to the additional surface acidities provided by Al2O3, in which the Lewis acid sites played the predominant role in both NH3 adsorptions and CB de-chlorination compared to the Brønsted acid sites. Finally, we proposed that Al2O3 is an effective addition for vanadia-based catalyst in NOx and CB simultaneous removal from stationary sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Dióxido de Silício , Catálise , Clorobenzenos , Titânio
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150589, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597570

RESUMO

In this study, effects of two quorum sensing (QS) enhancement methods on the performance and biofilm of biofilters treating chlorobenzene were investigated. Three biofilters were set up with BF1 as a control, BF2 added exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and BF3 inoculated AHLs-producing bacterium identified as Acinetobacter. The average chlorobenzene elimination capacities were 73 and 77 g/m3/h for BF2 and BF3 respectively, which were significantly higher than 50 g/m3/h for BF1. The wet biomass of BF2 and BF3 with QS enhancement eventually increased to 60 and 39 kg/m3 respectively, and it was 29 kg/m3 for BF1. Analysis on biofilms in three biofilters showed that distribution uniformity, extracellular polymeric substances production, adhesive strengths, viability, and metabolic capacity of biofilms were all prompted by the two QS enhancement methods. Comparisons between the two QS enhancement methods showed that adding exogenous AHLs had more significant enhancing effect on biofilm due to its higher AHLs level in start-up period, while AHLs-producing bacteria had an advantage in enhancing bacterial community diversity. These results demonstrate that QS enhancement methods have the potential to optimize the biofilm and thus improve the performance of biofilters treating recalcitrant VOCs.


Assuntos
Gases , Percepção de Quorum , Acil-Butirolactonas , Biofilmes , Clorobenzenos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884956

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the adsorption process of ortho-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB) onto activated carbons (ACs) and modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from the aqueous phase. The starting material NC_7000 carbon nanotubes were modified by chlorination (NC_C) and then by the introduction of hydroxyl groups (NC_C_B). The concentration of o-DCB in solutions was performed by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. After adsorption, the activated carbons were regenerated by extraction with organic solvents such as acetone, methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol; the carbon nanotubes were regenerated by methanol. The degree of adsorbate recovery was determined by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection, using ethylbenzene as an internal standard. The equilibrium isotherm data of adsorption were satisfactorily fitted by the Langmuir equations. The results indicate that carbon adsorbents are effective porous materials for removing o-DCB from the aqueous phase. Additionally, activated carbons are more regenerative adsorbents than carbon nanotubes. The recoveries of o-DCB from ACs were in the range of 76-85%, whereas the recoveries from CNTs were in the range of 23-46%. Modifications of CNTs affect the improvement of their adsorption properties towards o-DCB compared to unmodified CNTs. However, the introduction of new functional groups on carbon nanotube surfaces makes the regeneration process less effective.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Clorobenzenos/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Adsorção , Cromatografia Gasosa , Halogenação , Estrutura Molecular , Solventes/química
19.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 3105-3118, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916789

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dual bronchodilators are recommended as maintenance treatment for patients with symptomatic COPD in the UK; further evidence is needed to evaluate cost-effectiveness versus monotherapy. Cost-effectiveness of umeclidinium/vilanterol versus umeclidinium and salmeterol from a UK healthcare perspective in patients without exacerbations in the previous year was assessed using post hoc EMAX trial data. METHODS: The validated GALAXY model was populated with baseline characteristics and treatment effects from the non-exacerbating subgroup of the symptomatic EMAX population (COPD assessment test score ≥10) and 2020 UK healthcare and drug costs. Outputs included estimated exacerbation rates, costs, life-years (LYs), and quality-adjusted LYs (QALYs); incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated as incremental cost/QALY gained. The base case (probabilistic model) used a 10-year time horizon, assumed no treatment discontinuation, and discounted future costs and QALYs by 3.5% annually. Sensitivity and scenario analyses assessed robustness of model results. RESULTS: Umeclidinium/vilanterol treatment was dominant versus umeclidinium and salmeterol, providing an additional 0.090 LYs (95% range: 0.035, 0.158) and 0.055 QALYs (-0.059, 0.168) with total cost savings of £690 (£231, £1306) versus umeclidinium, and 0.174 LYs (0.076, 0.286) and 0.204 QALYs (0.079, 0.326) with savings of £1336 (£1006, £2032) versus salmeterol. In scenario and sensitivity analyses, umeclidinium/vilanterol was dominant versus umeclidinium except over a 5-year time horizon (more QALYs at higher total cost; ICER=£4/QALY gained) and at the lowest estimate of the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire treatment effect (fewer QALYs at lower total cost; ICER=£12,284/QALY gained); umeclidinium/vilanterol was consistently dominant versus salmeterol. At willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000/QALY, probability that umeclidinium/vilanterol was cost-effective in this non-exacerbating subgroup was 95% versus umeclidinium and 100% versus salmeterol. CONCLUSION: Based on model predictions from a UK perspective, symptomatic patients with COPD and no exacerbations in the prior year receiving umeclidinium/vilanterol are expected to have better outcomes at lower costs versus umeclidinium and salmeterol.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Álcoois Benzílicos , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Clorobenzenos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas , Xinafoato de Salmeterol/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
20.
Water Res ; 207: 117809, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741903

RESUMO

Industrial chemicals are frequently detected in sediments due to a legacy of chemical spills. Globally, site remedies for groundwater and sediment decontamination include natural attenuation by in situ abiotic and biotic processes. Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a diagnostic tool to identify, quantify, and characterize degradation processes in situ, and in some cases can differentiate between abiotic degradation and biodegradation. This study reports high-resolution carbon, chlorine, and hydrogen stable isotope profiles for monochlorobenzene (MCB), and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope profiles for benzene, coupled with measurements of pore water concentrations in contaminated sediments. Multi-element isotopic analysis of δ13C and δ37Cl for MCB were used to generate dual-isotope plots, which for 2 locations at the study site resulted in ΛC/Cl(130) values of 1.42 ± 0.19 and ΛC/Cl(131) values of 1.70 ± 0.15, consistent with theoretical calculations for carbon-chlorine bond cleavage (ΛT = 1.80 ± 0.31) via microbial reductive dechlorination. For benzene, significant δ2H (122‰) and δ13C (6‰) depletion trends, followed by enrichment trends in δ13C (1.6‰) in the upper part of the sediment, were observed at the same location, indicating not only production of benzene due to biodegradation of MCB, but subsequent biotransformation of benzene itself to nontoxic end-products. Degradation rate constants calculated independently using chlorine isotopic data and carbon isotopic data, respectively, agreed within uncertainty thus providing multiple lines of evidence for in situ contaminant degradation via reductive dechlorination and providing the foundation for a novel approach to determine site-specific in situ rate estimates essential for the prediction of remediation outcomes and timelines.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Anaerobiose , Benzeno/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Clorobenzenos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...