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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267127, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522667

RESUMO

Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) designated as ZNP-4, isolated from the rhizosphere of Ziziphus nummularia, was identified as Enterobacter cloacae following 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolated strain exhibited various plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (ACCD) activity was evaluated under diverse physiological conditions that could be useful for minimizing the abiotic stress-induced inhibitory effects on wheat plants. The strain showed resistance to salt (NaCl) and metal (ZnSO4) stress. The effect of E. cloacae ZNP-4 on the augmentation of plant growth was studied under salinity stress of 150 mM (T1 treatment) & 200 mM (T2 treatment) NaCl. The inoculation of strain ZNP-4 significantly improved the various growth parameters of wheat plant such as shoot length (41%), root length (31%), fresh weight (28%), dry weight (29%), photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a (62%) and chlorophyll b (34%). Additionally, the strain was found to be efficient for minimizing the imposed Zn stress in terms of improving plant growth, biomass and photosynthetic pigments in pots containing different levels of metal stress of 150 mg kg-1 (treatment T1) and 250 mg kg-1 (treatment T2). Isolate ZNP-4 also improved the proline content and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level under both salinity and metal stress, therefore maintaining the membrane integrity. Furthermore, bacterial inoculation increased the activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX). The positive effects of PGPR occurred concurrently with the decrease in abiotic stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2-) contents. Overall, the observed results indicate that use of bacteria with such beneficial traits could be used as bio-fertilizers for many crops growing under stress conditions.


Assuntos
Enterobacter cloacae , Triticum , Carbono-Carbono Liases , Clorofila A , Enterobacter cloacae/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos , Piridinas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/genética
2.
Mar Environ Res ; 177: 105640, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526360

RESUMO

Marine artificial structures such as pilings are replacing natural habitats, and modifying surrounding areas, often resulting in local decreases in species diversity and facilitation of bioinvasion. Most research on the impacts of artificial structures in marine ecosystems has primarily focused on rocky bottom habitats and biodiversity, overlooking the effects of these structures on the functioning of nearby sedimentary habitats. Here we compared, for the first time, benthic metabolism (O2 fluxes) and sediment-water nutrient (inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, and dissolved organic nitrogen) fluxes in shallow water sediments adjacent to pilings and natural reefs. We also measured sediment properties (grain size, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, C:N ratio and chlorophyll-a content). We found that sediments near pilings were generally finer with greater C:N ratios than those near reefs, while differences in other sediment properties between types of habitats were dependent on the site. We found significant differences in the oxygen consumption, primary productivity, and net ecosystem metabolism in sediments around pilings compared to sediments near natural reefs, but these patterns differed by site. Net nutrient fluxes were similar in sediments near pilings and reefs at both sites. This study showed that although pilings can be associated with changes in the functioning of sedimentary habitats, patterns and the direction of change seem to vary depending on local conditions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Clorofila A , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nitrogênio , Água
3.
J Chem Phys ; 156(14): 145102, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428399

RESUMO

Using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, we measured the Qx to Qy transfer dynamics of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) manifold in the photosystem II (PSII) monomeric core complex from Arabidopsis thaliana. A PSII monomeric core consists of 35 Chls a and no Chl b, thus allowing for a clear window to study Chl a Qx dynamics in a large pigment-protein complex. Initial excitation in the Qx band results in a transfer to the Qy band in less than 60 fs. Upon the ultrafast transfer, regardless of the excitation frequency within the Qx band, the quasi-transient absorption spectra are very similar. This observation indicates that Chl a's Qx to Qy transfer is not frequency selective. Using a simple model, we determined that this is not due to the lifetime broadening of the ultrafast transfer but predominantly due to a lack of correlation between the PSII core complex's Chl a Qx and Qy bands. We suggest the origin to be the intrinsic loss of correlation during the Qx to Qy internal conversion as observed in previous studies of molecular Chl a dissolved in solvents.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Clorofila/química , Clorofila A , Eletrônica , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Análise Espectral/métodos
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1863(5): 148555, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378087

RESUMO

In land plants, both efficient light capture and photoprotective dissipation of chlorophyll excited states in excess require proper assembly of Photosystem II supercomplexes PSII-LHCs. These include a dimeric core moiety and a peripheral antenna system made of trimeric LHCII proteins connected to the core through monomeric LHC subunits. Regulation of light harvesting involves re-organization of the PSII supercomplex, including dissociation of its LHCII-CP24-CP29 domain under excess light. The Chl a603-a609-a616 chromophore cluster within CP29 was recently identified as responsible for the fast component of Non-Photochemical Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Here, we pinpointed a chlorophyll-protein domain of CP29 involved in the macro-organization of PSII-LHCs. By complementing an Arabidopsis knock-out mutant with CP29 sequences deleted in the residue binding chlorophyll b614/b3-binding, we found that the site is promiscuous for chlorophyll a and b. By plotting NPQ amplitude vs. CP29 content we observed that quenching activity was significantly reduced in mutants compared to the wild type. Analysis of pigment-binding supercomplexes showed that the missing Chl did hamper the assembly of PSII-LHCs supercomplexes, while observation by electron microscopy of grana membranes highlighted the PSII particles were organized in two-dimensional arrays in mutant grana partitions. As an effect of such array formation electron transport rate between QA and QB reduced, likely due to restricted plastoquinone diffusion. We conclude that chlorophyll b614, rather being part of pigment cluster responsible for quenching, is needed to maintain full rate of electron flow in the thylakoids by controlling protein-protein interactions between PSII units in grana partitions.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Clorofila , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409126

RESUMO

Functions of the photosynthetic apparatus of C3 (Pisum sativum L.) and C4 (Zea mays L.) plants under physiological conditions and after treatment with different NaCl concentrations (0-200 mM) were investigated using chlorophyll a fluorescence (pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) and JIP test) and P700 photooxidation measurement. Data revealed lower density of the photosynthetic structures (RC/CSo), larger relative size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool (N) and higher electron transport capacity and photosynthetic rate (parameter RFd) in C4 than in C3 plants. Furthermore, the differences were observed between the two studied species in the parameters characterizing the possibility of reduction in the photosystem (PSI) end acceptors (REo/RC, REo/CSo and δRo). Data revealed that NaCl treatment caused a decrease in the density of the photosynthetic structures and relative size of the PQ pool as well as decrease in the electron transport to the PSI end electron acceptors and the probability of their reduction as well as an increase in the thermal dissipation. The effects were stronger in pea than in maize. The enhanced energy losses after high salt treatment in maize were mainly from the increase in the regulated energy losses (ΦNPQ), while in pea from the increase in non-regulated energy losses (ΦNO). The reduction in the electron transport from QA to the PSI end electron acceptors influenced PSI activity. Analysis of the P700 photooxidation and its decay kinetics revealed an influence of two PSI populations in pea after treatment with 150 mM and 200 mM NaCl, while in maize the negligible changes were registered only at 200 mM NaCl. The experimental results clearly show less salt tolerance of pea than maize.


Assuntos
Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Fluorescência , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plastoquinona , Estresse Salino , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Zea mays/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265934, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390020

RESUMO

Changes in gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) phenology and distribution are related to observed and hypothesized prey availability, bottom water temperature, salinity, sea ice persistence, integrated water column and sediment chlorophyll a, and patterns of wind-driven biophysical forcing in the northern Bering and eastern Chukchi seas. This portion of the Pacific Arctic includes four Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) sampling regions. In the Bering Strait area, passive acoustic data showed marked declines in gray whale calling activity coincident with unprecedented wintertime sea ice loss there in 2017-2019, although some whales were seen there during DBO cruises in those years. In the northern Bering Sea, sightings during DBO cruises show changes in gray whale distribution coincident with a shrinking field of infaunal amphipods, with a significant decrease in prey abundance (r = -0.314, p<0.05) observed in the DBO 2 region over the 2010-2019 period. In the eastern Chukchi Sea, sightings during broad scale aerial surveys show that gray whale distribution is associated with localized areas of high infaunal crustacean abundance. Although infaunal crustacean prey abundance was unchanged in DBO regions 3, 4 and 5, a mid-decade shift in gray whale distribution corresponded to both: (i) a localized increase in infaunal prey abundance in DBO regions 4 and 5, and (ii) a correlation of whale relative abundance with wind patterns that can influence epi-benthic and pelagic prey availability. Specifically, in the northeastern Chukchi Sea, increased sighting rates (whales/km) associated with an ~110 km (60 nm) offshore shift in distribution was positively correlated with large scale and local wind patterns conducive to increased availability of krill. In the southern Chukchi Sea, gray whale distribution clustered in all years near an amphipod-krill 'hotspot' associated with a 50-60m deep trough. We discuss potential impacts of observed and inferred prey shifts on gray whale nutrition in the context of an ongoing unusual gray whale mortality event. To conclude, we use the conceptual Arctic Marine Pulses (AMP) model to frame hypotheses that may guide future research on whales in the Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem.


Assuntos
Euphausiacea , Baleias , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Biofísica , Clorofila A , Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares , Água
7.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 21(4): 437-446, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394642

RESUMO

Phycocyanobilin, the primary pigment of both light perception and light-harvesting in cyanobacteria, is synthesized from biliverdin IXα (BV) through intermediate 181, 182-dihydrobiliverdin (181, 182-DHBV) by a phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA). In our previous study, we discovered two PcyA homologs (AmPcyAc and AmPcyAp) derived from Acaryochloris marina MBIC 11017 (A. marina) that exceptionally uses chlorophyll d as the primary photosynthetic pigment, absorbing longer wavelength far-red light than chlorophyll a, the photosynthetic pigment found in most cyanobacteria. Biochemical characterization of the two PcyA homologs identified functional diversification of these two enzymes: AmPcyAc provides 181, 182-DHBV, and PCB to the cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) photoreceptors, whereas, AmPcyAp specifically provides PCB to the light-harvesting phycobilisome subunit. In this study, we focused on the residues necessary for 181, 182-DHBV supply to the CBCR photoreceptors by AmPcyAc. Based on the SyPcyA structure, we concentrated on the 30 residues that constitute the substrate-binding pocket. Among them, we discovered that Leu151 and Val225 in AmPcyAc were both substituted with isoleucine. During the enzymatic reaction, the SyPcyA variant molecule, possessing V225I and L151I replacements, accumulates the 181, 182-DHBV and supplies it to a CBCR molecule derived from A. marina. It is worth noting that the substitution of Val225 with isoleucine was specifically conserved among the Acaryochloris genus. Collectively, we propose that the specific evolution of PcyA among the Acaryochloris genus may correlate with the acquisition of Chl. d synthetic ability and growth in long-wavelength far-red light environments.


Assuntos
Isoleucina , Oxirredutases , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Ficobilinas/química , Ficocianina
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 382, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441323

RESUMO

Seasonal variation in phytoplankton community structure within Tang-Pu Reservoir (Shaoxing city, Zhejiang province, China) was investigated in relation to variation in physicochemical and hydrological characteristics. Over the three-study seasons (autumn, winter, and spring), phytoplankton abundance and biomass showed a gradual increase with the peak in spring season. During this study period, phytoplankton community comprised of 7 phyla, 80 genera, and 210 species. The dominating phyla were Chlorophyta 80 species, Bacillariophyta 46, and Cyanophyta 44 as well as other phyla of freshwater ecosystems except Xanthophyta. The phytoplankton density and biomass varied in the six sampling sites between a minimum of 257.42 × 104 cells/L to 1054.15 × 104 cells/L and 1.60 mg/L to 4.56 mg/L respectively. Spring season had higher biomass and density values than autumn and winter. Furthermore, the results indicated that the Shannon-Wiener (H') and Pielou evenness (J') indices of phytoplankton community were stable although with slightly higher values in spring. Based on the calculated indices, Tang-Pu reservoir could be considered mesosaprobic in all the three seasons. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that pH, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), transparency, chlorophyll a (Chl a), dissolve oxygen (DO), and water temperature (WT) were responsible for most phytoplankton community shift from Bacillariophyta and Cryptophyta to Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta in spring. These environmental parameters play an essential role in the community structure variation of phytoplankton in the downstream and upstream of Tang-Pu Reservoir. A decreasing phytoplankton abundance trend from the river area (inlet) to the lake (outlet) was also observed.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Cianobactérias , Diatomáceas , China , Clorofila A/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/análise , Fósforo/análise , Fitoplâncton , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água
9.
J Environ Manage ; 313: 115000, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390659

RESUMO

Reducing the load of nutrients is essential to improve water quality while water quality may not respond to the load reduction in a linear way. Despite nonlinear water quality responses being widely mentioned by studies, there is a lack of comprehensive assessment on the extent and type of nonlinear responses considering the seasonal changes. This study aimed to measure the strength of nonlinearity of theoretically possible water quality responses and explore their potential types in shallow eutrophic water bodies. Hereto, we generated 14,710 numerical water body cases that describe the water quality processes using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and applied eight load reduction scenarios on each water body case. Inflows are simplified from Lake Dianchi. The climate conditions consider three cases: Lake Dianchi, Wissahickon Creek, and Famosa Slough. We then developed a nonlinearity strength indicator to quantify the strength and frequency of nonlinear water quality responses. Based on the quantification of nonlinearity, we clustered all the samples of water quality responses using K-Means, an unsupervised Machine Learning algorithm, to find the potential types of nonlinear water quality responses for TN (total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus), and Chla (chlorophyll a). Results show linear or near-linear response types account for 90%, 69%, and 20% of TN, TP, and Chla samples respectively. TP and Chla could perform more types of nonlinearity. Representative nonlinear water quality responses include disproportional improvement, peak change (disappear, move forwards or afterward), and seasonal deterioration of TN after load reduction. This study would contribute to the current understanding of nonlinear water quality responses to load reduction and provide a basis to study under which conditions the nonlinear responses may emerge.


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Qualidade da Água , China , Clorofila A , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Fósforo/análise
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 354: 127135, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405214

RESUMO

Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are naturally occurring biopolymeric compounds that accumulate in a variety of microorganisms, including microalgae as energy and carbon storage sources. The present study was designed to evaluate nature-based PHB production using microalgae (Chlorella sorokiniana SVMIICT8) in biphasic (growth (GP) and stress phase (SP)) nutritional mode of cultivation. Microalgal PHB accumulation was driven by nutrient constraint, with a maximal production of 29.5% of PHB from 0.94 gm L-1 of biomass. Fluorescence microscopy revealed PHB granules in the cell cytoplasm, while NMR (1H and 13C), XRD and TGA analysis confirmed the structure. The biopolymer obtained was homopolymer of PHB with carbonyl (C=O) stretch of the aliphatic ester moiety. In GC-MS analysis, major peak representing butyric acid methyl ester also confirmed the PHB. Chlorophyll a fluorescence transients inferred through OJIP, exhibited significant variation in photosynthetic process during growth and nutrient limiting conditions. Mining of bio-based products from microalgae cultivation embrace nature-based approach addressing climate change and sustainability inclusively.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Biomassa , Clorofila A , Ésteres , Nutrientes
11.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 280, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helictotrichon virescens is a perennial grass that is primarily distributed in high altitude areas of 2000 ~ 4500 m. It is widely cultivated in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, strongly resistant to cold, and an essential part of the wild herbs in this region. However, the molecular mechanism of the response of H. virescens to low temperature stress and the key regulatory genes for specific biological processes are poorly understood. RESULTS: Physiological and transcriptome analyses were used to study the cold stress response mechanism in H virescens. During the low temperature stress period, the content of chlorophyll a and b decreased more and more with the delay of the treatment time. Among them, the difference between the controls was not significant, and the difference between the control and the treatment was significant. At the same time, the expression of related differential genes was up-regulated during low temperature treatment. In addition, the plant circadian pathway is crucial for their response to cold stress. The expression of differentially expressed genes that encode LHY and HY5 were strongly up-regulated during cold stress. CONCLUSIONS: This study should help to fully understand how H. virescens responds to low temperatures. It answers pertinent questions in the response of perennial herbs to cold stress, i.e., how light and low temperature signals integrate to regulate plant circadian rhythms and Decrease of content of chlorophylls (which can be also accompanied with decrease of total quantity of reaction centers) leads to an increase in photosynthetic damage.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Clorofila A , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Poaceae/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Temperatura
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(4): 1976-1987, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393821

RESUMO

The overwinter period is the pre-stage of the algal bloom, and the endogenous phosphorus (P) in sediments is one of the main P sources of algal blooms during this period. Based on the investigation of the water quality and sediment pollutants during the overwinter period of cyanobacteria (recruitment period and dormancy period), this study analyzed the P release characteristics of sediments in the horizontal and vertical directions and clarified the P release risk of sediments and the change in microbial community structures. The results showed that the lake bay was moderately eutrophic in the two periods of the study area, and the water quality and sediment nitrogen and P pollution were more serious, and the chlorophyll a content (Chl-a) was still at a high level in the overwinter period. The pseudo-second order model and the modified Langmuir model could respectively describe the P kinetics and sorption isotherm behavior in the sediment. The theoretical maximum P sorption capacities (Qmax) of sediments were bottom layer>middle layer>surface layer, and the highest value was 1.648 mg·g-1 with the highest P sorption rate constant of the pseudo second-order kinetic model of 6.292 g·(mg·min)-1. Additionally, the P adsorption parameters (Qmax, NAP, and EPC0) were mainly affected by the physical and chemical properties of the sediment itself and the nutritional level of the lake bay. The surface sediments from the dormancy period mainly played the role of P sinks, and the part of sediments from the recruitment period played the role of P sources, in which existed the risk of endogenous P release. The analysis of the microbial community structure in sediments indicated that the microbial diversity in the sediments during the dormancy period was higher than that during the recruitment period, and some microbial categories with phosphate-solubilizing function of relative abundance was high.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Baías , China , Clorofila A/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(4): 1997-2006, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393823

RESUMO

The spatial distribution of environmental factors, chlorophyll a (Chla), phytoplankton abundance, and community structure in the Laizhou Bay were investigated in August 2018 (wet season after pollution control) to clarify the effects of the pollution control of the Xiaoqing River, which is a major source of pollution, on environmental factors and phytoplankton community structure in this area. The results showed that the environmental factors changed significantly after pollution control of the Xiaoqing River. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic silicon (DSi), NO3-, and NO2- decreased significantly, with values only 40.1% to 60.4% of those from the same period of in 2017 (the nearest year before the pollution control), whereas dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and NH4 increased by 2.5 and 1.4 times that of their concentrations in 2017. The spatial distribution of environmental factors changed significantly, with the nutrient concentrations around the Xiaoqing River estuary noticeably decreasing. The abundance of phytoplankton cells was 21.5×106 cell·m-3, which was close to the results of a previous study, whereas the ρ(Chla) was 2.43 µg·L-1, which decreased obviously. Both microscopic analysis and pigment taxonomy suggested that phytoplankton community structure in the Laizhou Bay changed clearly, with the dominant community shifting from diatoms alone to the co-dominance of diatoms and cyanobacteria. Chaetoceros curvisetus, Skeletonema costatum, and Cerataulina pelagica, which were commonly observed in the Laizhou Bay before pollution control of the Xiaoqing River, decreased in 2018, whereas the abundance of common dominant freshwater species (e.g., Merismopedia sp. and Synedra spp.) increased significantly. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the phytoplankton community was significantly related to nitrogen, phosphate (negative correlation), and salinity (negative correlation) after pollution control of the Xiaoqing River, indicating that the variation in nutrient concentration and the structure of river runoff input may be the main factors affecting phytoplankton community and dominant species structure.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Diatomáceas , Baías , China , Clorofila A/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fitoplâncton , Rios/química , Estações do Ano
14.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0259326, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472200

RESUMO

Leaves harvested from kratom [Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.)] have a history of use as a traditional ethnobotanical medicine to combat fatigue and improve work productivity in Southeast Asia. In recent years, increased interest in the application and use of kratom has emerged globally, including North America, for its potential application as an alternative source of medicine for pain management and opioid withdrawal syndrome mitigation. Although the chemistry and pharmacology of major kratom alkaloids, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, are well documented, foundational information on the impact of plant production environment on growth and kratom alkaloids synthesis is unavailable. To directly address this need, kratom plant growth, leaf chlorophyll content, and alkaloid concentration were evaluated under three lighting conditions: field full sun (FLD-Sun), greenhouse unshaded (GH-Unshaded), and greenhouse shaded (GH-Shaded). Nine kratom alkaloids were quantified using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. Greenhouse cultivation generally promoted kratom height and width extension by 93-114% and 53-57%, respectively, compared to FLD-Sun. Similarly, total leaf area and leaf number were increased by 118-160% and 54-80% under such conditions. Average leaf size of plants grown under GH-Shaded was 41 and 69% greater than GH-Unshaded and FLD-Sun, respectively; however, no differences were observed between GH-Unshaded and FLD-Sun treatments. At the termination of the study, total leaf chlorophyll a+b content of FLD-Sun was 17-23% less than those grown in the greenhouse. Total leaf dry mass was maximized when cultivated in the greenhouse and was 89-91% greater than in the field. Leaf content of four alkaloids to include speciociliatine, mitraphylline, corynantheidine, and isocorynantheidine were not significantly impacted by lighting conditions, whereas 7-hydroxymitragynine was below the lower limit of quantification across all treatments. However, mitragynine, paynantheine, and corynoxine concentration per leaf dry mass were increased by 40%, 35%, and 111%, respectively, when cultivated under GH-Shaded compared to FLD-Sun. Additionally, total alkaloid yield per plant was maximized and nearly tripled for several alkaloids when plants were cultivated under such conditions. Furthermore, rapid, non-destructive chlorophyll evaluation correlated well (r2 = 0.68) with extracted chlorophyll concentrations. Given these findings, production efforts where low-light conditions can be implemented are likely to maximize plant biomass and total leaf alkaloid production.


Assuntos
Mitragyna , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Clorofila A , Cromatografia Líquida , Mitragyna/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409929

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical; bisphenol S (BPS) is a substitute for BPA. Both are frequently detected in rivers, sewage, and surface water, and have a great impact on the water environment. The effects of BPA and BPS on cell growth, chlorophyll a content, and oxidative stress of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) were studied. When BPA and BPS acted alone or in combination, compared with the blank control group, the growth of C. pyrenoidosa in the experimental group showed a pattern of "low promotion and high inhibition", and the inhibition rate reached the maximum on the 6th day. Under the combined action, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level of C. pyrenoidosa first increased, and then decreased. In addition, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) increased with the increase in combined concentration. In the 0.5 P treatment group, SOD and POD activity reached peak values of 29.59 U/mg∙prot and 1.35 U/mg∙prot, respectively. The combined toxicity of BPA and BPS to C. pyrenoidosa was evaluated as a synergistic effect by using toxicity unit and additive index methods. This study evaluated the effects of BPA and BPS on algae in the aquatic environment, providing some data support for their potential ecological risks.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Clorofila A , Fenóis , Sulfonas , Superóxido Dismutase , Água
16.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 67, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytoplankton communities significantly contribute to global biogeochemical cycles of elements and underpin marine food webs. Although their uncultured genomic diversity has been estimated by planetary-scale metagenome sequencing and subsequent reconstruction of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), this approach has yet to be applied for complex phytoplankton microbiomes from polar and non-polar oceans consisting of microbial eukaryotes and their associated prokaryotes. RESULTS: Here, we have assembled MAGs from chlorophyll a maximum layers in the surface of the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans enriched for species associations (microbiomes) with a focus on pico- and nanophytoplankton and their associated heterotrophic prokaryotes. From 679 Gbp and estimated 50 million genes in total, we recovered 143 MAGs of medium to high quality. Although there was a strict demarcation between Arctic and Atlantic MAGs, adjacent sampling stations in each ocean had 51-88% MAGs in common with most species associations between Prasinophytes and Proteobacteria. Phylogenetic placement revealed eukaryotic MAGs to be more diverse in the Arctic whereas prokaryotic MAGs were more diverse in the Atlantic Ocean. Approximately 70% of protein families were shared between Arctic and Atlantic MAGs for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, eukaryotic MAGs had more protein families unique to the Arctic whereas prokaryotic MAGs had more families unique to the Atlantic. CONCLUSION: Our study provides a genomic context to complex phytoplankton microbiomes to reveal that their community structure was likely driven by significant differences in environmental conditions between the polar Arctic and warm surface waters of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Microbiota , Oceano Atlântico , Clorofila A , Eucariotos/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/genética
17.
Opt Express ; 30(7): 10329-10345, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473003

RESUMO

The Trophic state index (TSI) is a vital parameter for aquatic ecosystem assessment. Estimating TSI by remote sensing is still a challenge due to the multivariate complexity of the eutrophication process. A comprehensive in situ spectral-biogeochemical dataset for 7 lakes in Northeast China was collected in October 2020. The dataset covers trophic states from oligotrophic to eutrophic, with a wide range of total phosphorus (TP, 0.07-0.2 mg L-1), Secchi disk depth (SDD, 0.1-0.78 m), and chlorophyll a (Chla, 0.11-20.41 µg L-1). Here, we propose an empirical method to estimate TSI from remote sensing data. First, TP, SDD, and Chla were estimated by band ratio/band combination models. Then TSI was estimated using the Carlson model with a high R2 (0.88), a low RMSE (3.87), and a low MRE (6.83%). Synergistic effects between TP, SDD, and Chla dominated the trophic state, changed the distribution of light in the water column, affected the spectral characteristics. Furthermore, the contribution of each parameter for eutrophication were different among the studied lakes from ternary plot. High Chla concentration was the main reason for eutrophication in HMT Lake with 45.4% of contribution more than the other two parameters, However, in XXK Lake, high TP concentrations were the main reason for eutrophication with 66.8% of contribution rather than Chla and SDD. Overall, the trophic state was dominated by TP, and SDD accounted for 85.6% of contribution in all sampled lakes. Additionally, we found using one-parameter index to evaluate the lake trophic state will lead to a great deviation, even with two levels of difference. Therefore, multi-parameter TSI is strongly recommended for the lake trophic state assessment. Summarily, our findings provide a theoretical and methodological basis for future large-scale estimations of lake TSI using satellite image data, help with water quality monitoring and management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagos , Clorofila A , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Imageamento Hiperespectral
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(8)2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458924

RESUMO

Chlorophyll-a measurement is important in algal growth and water quality monitoring in natural waters. A portable pulsed LED fluorescence lidar system based on the preliminary algal organic matter and pigments excitation-emission matrix (EEM) of commercialized AZTEC Spirulina powder at varying concentrations was developed. Fluorescence peaks from EEMs showed increasing intensity as the Spirulina concentration increases. Using this information, an LED fluorescence lidar with a wavelength of 385 nm, pulse width of 10 ns, and repetition frequency of 500 kHz was constructed for chlorophyll detection at 680 nm. Turbidity measurements were also conducted at 700 nm emission wavelength at the same excitation wavelength. Range-resolved fluorescence lidar signals from the portable pulsed LED fluorescence lidar system are highly correlated with the standard methods such as optical density at 680 nm (R2 = 0.87), EEM fluorescence chlorophyll-a pigment at 680 nm (R2 = 0.89), and corrected chlorophyll-a concentration (R2 =0.92). The F680/F700 lidar ratio was measured to provide a linear relationship of chlorophyll-a and turbidity in waters. The F680/F700 measurement showed strong correlations with Spirulina concentration (R2 = 0.94), absorbance at 680 nm (R2 = 0.84), EEM chlorophyll-a pigment at 680 nm (R2 = 0.83), and corrected chlorophyll-a concentration (R2 = 0.86). Results revealed that this new technique of chlorophyll-a measurement can be used as an alternative to other standard methods in algal growth monitoring.


Assuntos
Spirulina , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Fluorescência , Pigmentação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(8)2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459010

RESUMO

The PROSPECT leaf optical radiative transfer models, including PROSPECT-MP, have addressed the contributions of multiple photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoids) to leaf optical properties, but photo-protective pigment (anthocyanins), another important indicator of vegetation physiological and ecological functions, has not been simultaneously combined within a leaf optical model. Here, we present a new calibration and validation of PROSPECT-MP+ that separates the contributions of multiple photosynthetic and photo-protective pigments to leaf spectrum in the 400-800 nm range using a new empirical dataset that contains multiple photosynthetic and photo-protective pigments (LOPEX_ZJU dataset). We first provide multiple distinct in vivo individual photosynthetic and photo-protective pigment absorption coefficients and leaf average refractive index of the leaf interior using the LOPEX_ZJU dataset. Then, we evaluate the capabilities of PROSPECT-MP+ for forward modelling of leaf directional hemispherical reflectance and transmittance spectra and for retrieval of pigment concentrations by model inversion. The main result of this study is that the absorption coefficients of chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, and anthocyanins display the physical principles of absorption spectra. Moreover, the validation result of this study demonstrates the potential of PROSPECT-MP+ for improving capabilities in remote sensing of leaf photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoids) and photo-protective pigment (anthocyanins).


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Carotenoides , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 392, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478058

RESUMO

Water resource management and lake rehabilitation are global interest, to overcome the acute water scarcity facing most urban areas, especially in developing countries. Lake Mariut (LM) is an Egyptian lake that lies south of the Mediterranean Sea, and its management had a great interest in Alexandria's future development and as a part of the environmental sustainability of the Mediterranean basin. LM consists of 4 major basins, namely, main (MB), northwest (NWB), southwest (SWB), and fishery (FB). The MB has deteriorated as it consistently received (sewage and industrial) wastewaters till 2010. This was the date of diversion of the polluting sources as a rehabilitation step. The present work is made after elapsing 8 years from the diversion and aims at monitoring and assessing the status of the water quality not only of MB but also for the other 3 basins too. This was carried out twice, one in cold winter and the other in warm summer. The parameters studied were physico-chemical including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen/hydrogen sulfide (DO/H2S), salinity, and chlorophyll a besides nutrient salts (nitrogen, N and phosphorus, P compounds). The results revealed that the waters of both MB and SWB basins were depleted in DO to a level difficult to sustain fish life and showed elevated levels of most nutrient salts. Trophically, all the studied basins were in eutrophic-hypereutrophic condition. As a result of pollution source diversion away from MB to be discharged in the downstream part of Umum Drain (UD), the levels of TN and TP entering Mex Bay through UD were slightly higher than the permissible limit and lower than dangerous loading. The applying of principle component analysis (PCA)-based classification approach, for obtaining the WQI on the current study, revealed that the FB, NWB, and SWB2000 showed a relatively good water quality when compared with MB. The depletion in the vital DO is catastrophic and needs urgent solution/s. One of the proposed solutions is the dredging of bottom spoiled organic-rich sediments. This and other suggested solutions are, however, discussed, evaluated, and presented.


Assuntos
Lagos , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Clorofila A , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/química , Sais
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