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1.
Water Res ; 171: 115403, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901508

RESUMO

Remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) values measured by satellite sensors involve large amounts of uncertainty leading to non-negligible noise in remote Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration estimation. This work distinguished between two main stages in the case of estimating distributions of Chl-a within the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada). At the model building stage, the retrieval algorithm used both in-situ Chl-a measurements and the corresponding Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) L2-level data estimated Rrs at 412, 443, 469, 488, 531, 547, 555, 645, 667, 678 nm at a 1 km spatial resolution during 2004-2013. Through the training and validation of various models and Rrs combinations of the considered eight techniques (including support vector regression, artificial neural networks, gradient boosting machine, random forests, standard CI-OC3M, multiple linear regression, generalized addictive regression, principal component regression), the support vector regression (SVR) technique was shown to have the best performance in Chl-a concentration estimation using Rrs at 412, 443, 488, 531 and 678 nm. The accuracy indicators for both the training (850) and the validation (213) datasets were found to be very good to excellent (e.g., the R2 value varied between 0.7058 and 0.9068). At the space-time estimation stage, this work took a step forward by using the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) theory to further process the SVR estimated Chl-a concentrations by incorporating the inherent spatiotemporal dependency of physical Chl-a distribution. A 56% improvement was achieved in the reduction of the mean uncertainty of the validation data decreased considerably (from 1.2222 to 0.5322 mg/m3). Then, this novel BME/SVR framework was employed to estimate the daily Chl-a concentrations in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during Jan 1-Dec 31 of 2017 (1 km spatial resolution). The results showed that the daily mean Chl-a concentration varied from 1.6630 to 3.3431 mg/m3, and that the daily mean Chl-a uncertainty reduction of the composite BME/SVR vs. the SVR estimation had a maximum reduction value of 1.0082 and an average reduction value of 0.6173 mg/m3. The monthly spatial Chl-a distribution covariances showed that the highest Chl-a concentration variability occurred during November and that the spatiotemporal Chl-a concentration pattern changed a lot during the period August to November. In conclusion, the proposed BME/SVR was shown to be a promising remote Chl-a retrieval approach that exhibited a significant ability in reducing the non-negligible uncertainty and improving the accuracy of remote sensing Chl-a concentration estimates.


Assuntos
Clorofila A , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Teorema de Bayes , Canadá , Clorofila , Monitoramento Ambiental , Incerteza
2.
Water Res ; 171: 115441, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927090

RESUMO

This study is an analysis of relationships between microalgae (measured as chlorophyll a) and the fecal indicator bacteria enterococci. Microalgae blooms and enterococci exceedances have been occurring in Florida's recreational waterways for years. More recently, this has become a management concern as microalgae blooms have been attributed to potentially toxic cyanobacteria, and enterococci exceedances link to human infection/illness. Since both the microalgal blooms and bacterial exceedances occur in regions that receive managed freshwater releases from Lake Okeechobee, we hypothesized that both the blooms and exceedances are related to excess nutrients from the lake. Two experimental sites, on Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River (downstream of the lake), plus a control site on the Loxahatchee River (which does not receive lake flow) were evaluated. The hypothesis was evaluated through three study components: 1) analysis of available long-term data from local environmental databases, 2) a year-long monthly sampling and analysis of chlorophyll a, enterococci, nutrients, and physical-chemical data, and 3) microcosm experiments with altered water/sediment conditions. Results support the hypothesis that excess nutrients play a role in both chlorophyll a and enterococci levels. For the St. Lucie River, analyses indicate that chlorophyll a correlated significantly with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (R2 = 0.30, p = 0.008) and the strongest model for enterococci included nitrate-nitrite, TKN, total phosphorus, orthophosphorus, and turbidity in our long-term analysis (n = 39, R2 = 0.83, p ≤ 0.001). The microcosm results indicated that chlorophyll a and enterococci only persisted for 36 h in water from all sources, and that sediments from Lake Okeechobee may have allowed for sustained levels of chlorophyll a and enterococci levels. Overall similarities were observed in chlorophyll a and enterococci relationships with nutrient concentrations regardless of a Lake Okeechobee connection, as underscored by a study of flow out of the lake and downstream areas. This suggests that both nutrient-rich lake water and untreated surface water runoff contribute to microalgae blooms and enterococci exceedances in southeast Florida.


Assuntos
Lagos , Microalgas , Proliferação de Células , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Enterococcus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Florida , Nitrogênio , Fósforo
3.
Water Res ; 171: 115457, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931377

RESUMO

Although estimates of total CO2 emissions from global estuaries are gradually decreasing, current numbers are based on limited data and the impacts of anthropogenic and seasonal disturbances have not been studied extensively. Our study estimates annual and seasonal CO2 fluxes in China's Yellow River Estuary (YRE) which incorporated spatiotemporal variations and the effects of water and sediment regulation (WSR). Aquatic metabolism was estimated using Odum's open water dissolved oxygen methods and used to represent the production and assimilation of CO2. Net ecosystem production (NEP) was used to represent the CO2 flux from biological activities and estimate the major CO2 emitters in the YRE. According to our measurements, the annual CO2 release was 6.14 ± 33.63 mol C m-2 yr-1 from 2009 to 2013 and the annual CO2 efflux from the 1521.3 km2 of estuarine surface area was 0.11 ± 0.61 Tg C yr-1 in the YRE. High CO2 emissions in autumn were balanced by high CO2 sequestration in summer, leading to a lower than expected annual net CO2 efflux. The system is an atmospheric CO2 source in spring and winter, near neutral in early summer, a large sink in late summer after WSR, and finally a large atmospheric CO2 source in autumn. Discharge events and seasonality jointly affect estuarine CO2 flux. High CO2 sequestration in summer is due mainly to a combination of high water temperature, chlorophyll a levels, dissolved inorganic carbon, and solar radiation and low turbidity, discharge, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) after WSR. WSR supports the high gross primary productivity rate which exceeds the increase in ecosystem respiration. Although the YRE, as a whole, is a source of atmospheric CO2, the amount of CO2 released is lower than the average estuarine value of mid-latitude regions. Our findings therefore suggest that global CO2 release from estuarine systems is overestimated if spatiotemporal variations and the effects of anthropogenic disturbance are excluded. The NEP method is effective for estimating the CO2 flux, especially in estuaries where CO2 variation is mainly due to biological processes.


Assuntos
Estuários , Rios , Dióxido de Carbono , China , Clorofila A , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Processos Heterotróficos , Estações do Ano
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111768, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931383

RESUMO

In vitro callus cultures of Verbena officinalis L. were maintained on solid Murashige and Skoog medium, enriched with 1 mg dm-3 BA and 1 mg dm-3 IBA under LED lights (red, blue, red/blue 70%/30%), in darkness and under control fluorescent lamps. The measurements of 2 phenylpropanoid glycosides (verbascoside and isoverbascoside) and 23 phenolic acids were performed in methanolic extracts from the biomass collected after 2-, 3- and 4-week growth cycles using the HPLC-DAD method. The presence of verbascoside, isoverbascoside and additionaly 7 phenolic acids (protocatechuic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, ferulic, o-coumaric and m-coumaric acids) was confirmed in all extracts. Blue and red/blue lights stimulated the accumulation of verbascoside (max. of 6716 and 6023 mg 100 g-1 DW after a 4-week growth cycle) and isoverbascoside (max. 333 and 379 mg 100 g-1 DW also after 4 weeks). The maximum amounts of verbascoside and isoverbascoside were respectively 1.8- and 7.0-fold higher than under the control conditions. Phenolic acids were accumulated in different amounts, and the maximum total amounts ranged from 36 to 65 mg 100 g-1 DW. LED lights also stimulated their accumulation in comparison with darkness and control. The main phenolic acids included: m-coumaric acid (max. 39 mg 100 g-1 DW), ferulic acid (max. 12 mg 100 g-1 DW), and protocatechuic acid (max. 13 mg 100 g-1 DW). Additionally, the quantities of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) were estimated in acetonic extracts using spectrophotometry. Red/blue light stimulated the biosynthesis of pigments (max. total content 287 µg g-1 FW after 4-week growth cycles). This is the first study describing the effect of LED lights on the production of phenylpropanoid glycosides and phenolic acids in V. officinalis callus cultures. Very high amounts of verbascoside and isoverbascoside are interesting from a practical point of view.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Luz , Fenóis/metabolismo , Verbena/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carotenoides/análise , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosídeos/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão , Espectrofotometria
5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(3): 1059-1067, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952446

RESUMO

The interplay between active molecules and the protein environment in light-harvesting complexes tunes the photophysics and the dynamical properties of pigment-protein complexes in a subtle way, which is not fully understood. Here we characterized the photophysics and the ultrafast dynamics of four variants of the water-soluble chlorophyll protein (WSCP) as an ideal model system to study the behavior of strongly interacting chlorophylls. We found that when coordinated by the WSCP protein, the presence of the formyl group in chlorophyll b replacing the methyl group in chlorophyll a strongly affects the exciton energy and the dynamics of the system, opening up the possibility of tuning the photophysics and the transport properties of multichromophores by engineering specific interactions with the surroundings.


Assuntos
Clorofila A/química , Clorofila/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Modelos Moleculares , Temperatura Ambiente , Termodinâmica , Água/química
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 20, 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955252

RESUMO

Vinasse is a waste from the alcohol industry that can support microalgal growth because of its mineral and organic contents. Growing microalgae on waste can be a means of its remediation and decrease culture costs. The physiological knowledge of microalgae on waste can generate subsidies to increase biomass productivity. However, few studies have explored the photosynthetic metabolism of microalgae on complex matrices such as vinasse. In the present research, we investigated some physiological aspects related to photosynthesis and growth of several microalgae in centrifuged and diluted vinasse. The species investigated were Chlamydomonas sp., Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella vulgaris, Desmodesmus spinosus, Haematococcus pluvialis, Monoraphidium sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda and Tetraselmis gracilis. Daily cell density, in vivo chlorophyll a and final cellular biovolumes (96 h) were monitored to infer about population growth. Maximum and operational photosynthetic yields (ϕM and ϕ'M), photochemical (qP) and non-photochemical (NPQ) quenchings, light saturation curves and related parameters (α, rETRm and EK), as well as theoretical carbon fixation were evaluated using pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry (PAM). The results showed that chlorophyll a, photochemical (qP) and non-photochemical (NPQ) quenchings were not affected in vinasse, but photosynthetic yields, light curves parameters and autotrophic carbon fixation decreased. Connecting these results to the increase in productivities in vinasse lead us to the rationale that mixotrophic metabolism was supporting microalgae growth on the waste. This study offers important insights into the understanding of microalgal photosynthetic physiology on complex organic wastes, generating subsidies for optimization of biotechnological use of vinasse related to microalgae production.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Ciclo do Carbono , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese
7.
Water Res ; 170: 115331, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811989

RESUMO

Inland lakes receive growing attentions on eutrophication and their roles in global carbon cycle. However, understanding how inland lakes contribute to global carbon cycle is seriously hampered due to a shortage of long-term records. This study investigated the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from the Lake Taihu, a large (2400 km2) and shallow (mean depth 1.9 m) eutrophic lake in subtropical region, based on a long-term (2000-2015) measurement of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) at high spatiotemporal resolution. We found that the Lake Taihu was a significant source of atmospheric CO2 with an average CO2 emission flux at 18.2 ± 8.4 mmol m-2 d-1 (mean±1standard deviation) and a mean annual pCO2 value of 778 ± 169 µatm. The highest pCO2 and CO2 flux were observed in eutrophic zone with a high external input of carbon and nutrient, and the lowest in non-eutrophic zones with no direct external input of nutrient and carbon. A substantial seasonal pattern in pCO2 was observed, particularly in eutrophic pelagic area, and was significantly negatively correlated with chlorophyll a. Long-term measurement showed the interannual variation in annual lake CO2 dynamics, which was highly sensitive to human-induced nutrient input. Watershed input of carbon and nutrient leads to the high CO2 level, counterbalancing the in-lake primary production. All lines of evidence suggest that human activities may have predominate contribution to CO2 source in the Lake Taihu, and this mechanism might be widespread in global freshwater lakes.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Lagos , Ciclo do Carbono , China , Clorofila A , Eutrofização , Humanos
8.
Water Environ Res ; 92(1): 26-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424121

RESUMO

Dilution with low-nutrient Columbia River Water (CRW) has markedly improved Moses Lake quality for 42 years. There were two phases of CRW volume input, which proportionately lowered total phosphorus (TP). Initially, spring-summer inputs averaged 130 × 106 m3 during 1977-1988 reducing average TP from 152 to 65 µg/L in half the lake proximal to the inputs. That input represented 1.5 volumes of that half-lake volume. Inputs doubled through the mid-1990s, and nearly 2.5 times since 2000, decreasing TP to a 18-year average of 24 µg/L. Chlorophyll a (chl) decreased further from 18 µg/L during the early dilution years to about 6 µg/L as TP declined. Cyanobacteria biovolume declined to 57% of total biovolume during 1977-1988 from 98% before dilution. Less (65%) CRW water since 2016 led to higher TP (41 µg/L) and chl (18 µg/L) in 2018, while cyanobacteria averaged 87% of total biovolume. More TP and cyanobacteria in 2018 are attributed to more internal TP loading. Increased N:P ratios have possibly given more advantage to the non-N-fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis, which comprised 82% and 74% of maximum cyanobacteria biovolume in 2017 and 2018. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Lake total phosphorus (TP) was reduced 57% in the 1970s-1980s by adding large volumes of low-nutrient Columbia River water (CRW). Total P was further reduced by 65% since 2000 by more than doubling the earlier CRW input to an average spring-summer concentration of 24 µg/L. Less (65%) CRW during 2017-2018 led to higher lake TP (41 µg/L) and a worse cyanobacteria bloom in 2018. Microcystis, an non-nitrogen fixer, was the dominant cyanobacteria in 2017-2018 likely related to higher N:P ratios.


Assuntos
Lagos , Fósforo , China , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização
9.
Water Environ Res ; 92(1): 138-148, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486194

RESUMO

Nutrient enrichment facilitates algal outbreaks in eutrophic shallow lakes. To further understand the influence of various inorganic nutrient forms on cyanobacterial blooms, a nitrate (NO3 ), ammonium (NH4 ), and orthophosphate (PO4 ) amendment experiment was conducted in a large shallow lake of China (Lake Taihu) during summer. The results showed that the photosynthetic performance of phytoplankton responded more positively to phosphorus (P) than nitrogen (N), and NH4 addition stimulated higher algal photosynthetic activities in P-enriched waters. Individual inorganic N or PO4 addition significantly activated cyanobacteria and green algae. Meanwhile, the N plus P amendment promoted higher biomass of the planktonic microbial community, and the dual addition of NH4  + PO4 yielded the highest chlorophyll a concentration. NH4 additions provisionally promoted higher green algae than cyanobacteria biomass in the beginning, while cyanobacteria dominated again with increasing NH4 :PO4 ratios. These results revealed that increasing ammonium would enhance the increase in phytoplankton biomass in advance and prolong the duration of algal blooms. Hence, based on the control of P loading, the reduction in external inorganic N focusing on ammonium sources (such as ammonia N fertilizer) at the watershed scale would help to alleviate eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms over the long term in Lake Taihu. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Ammonium addition stimulated higher algal photosynthetic activities in P-enriched waters. Individual inorganic N or PO4 addition significantly activated cyanobacteria and green algae. The dual addition of NH4  + PO4 yielded the highest chlorophyll a concentration. Increasing NH4 would enhance the increase in phytoplankton biomass in advance and prolong the duration of cyanobacterial blooms.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Lagos , Baías , Biomassa , China , Clorofila A , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Fitoplâncton
10.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124721, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493752

RESUMO

In this work, Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) were applied to inactivate algae under visible light with low doses. Five MOFs with different compositions (Zn and Fe; carboxylates or imidazolates) were successfully synthesized and characterized by XRD, SEM and UV-vis. The effects of MOFs on Microcystis aeruginosa were evaluated with regard to morphology characteristics, physiological activity, cell integrity and pigment degradation. The results indicated that Ag/AgCl@ZIF-8 outperformed MOF-235, ZIF-8, Bi2WO6/MIL-100(Fe) and BiOBr/MOF-5 in the degradation of chlorophyll a at the dose of 10 mg L-1. After 6 h of irradiation, 93.1% of Microcystis aeruginosa died and was unable to regrow and reproduce, which was demonstrated by changes in cell morphology, damage of cell membrane integrity and antioxidant enzyme system. Besides, the intracellular organic matter (IOM) and extracellular organic matter (EOM) were proven to be efficiently removed by MOF-assisted photocatalytic inactivation. Superoxide radical (O2·-) was demonstrated to be the major reactive oxygen species. A probable mechanism was proposed that the electrons in the valence band of Ag/AgCl@ZIF-8 transfer into the conduction band under irradiation to produce O2·- which inactivated the algae cells. Furthermore, Ag/AgCl@ZIF-8 can effectively remove Microcystis aeruginosa under sunlight and is of great application prospects for algae removal in real water bodies.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Microcystis/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Clorofila A/química , Luz , Microcystis/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Processos Fotoquímicos , Compostos de Prata/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Luz Solar , Difração de Raios X
11.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124734, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494317

RESUMO

Dam construction and fish culture can change the biogeochemical processes in river, yet their impact on the spectral properties of particulate organic matter (POM) remains to be studied. This was investigated in a reservoir-type river (Minjiang river, SE China) using absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices-parallel factor analysis (EEMs-PARAFAC). Five fluorescent components were identified from POM with PARAFAC. Four components C1-C4 were affected by the seasonal variations of rainfall and runoff, indicating the influences of hydrological condition and terrestrial inputs. The Chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) correlated significantly with the humic-like C3 (p < 0.05) and the protein-like C4 (p < 0.01), indicating phytoplankton was an important source of C3 and C4. The Chl a and fluorescence intensities of C3-C4 were higher in the fish culture zones than in other areas, and the absorption coefficient a300 and C1-C4 were lower downstream the dam. These results indicated that fish farming in the reservoir probably promoted the production of POM. The a300 and C1 per unit mass of suspended particulate matter (a300/TSM and C1/TSM) correlated significantly with the median particle size (p < 0.01), which might be related to the contribution of micro-phytoplankton. The absorption spectra of POM showed a shoulder peak at ∼280 nm, and its intensity correlated significantly and positively with Chl a (p < 0.01). These results indicated that the peak was probably derived from phytoplankton production. Our results have implications for better understanding the influences of human activities on the dynamics of river POM.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Material Particulado/metabolismo , Rios/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , China , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Análise Fatorial , Fluorescência , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Fitoplâncton , Chuva , Estações do Ano
12.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124774, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521937

RESUMO

Acid mine drainage represents an extreme type of water pollution. The environments develop especial hydrochemical and ecological characteristics, such as high concentrations of acidity and low biodiversity, with dominance of acidophilic organisms. Ecological criteria are assuming increasing relevance for assessing water quality, including in acid mine drainage-affected systems. Photosynthetic pigments, like chlorophyll, could be considered in this context as they are generally used to estimate phytoplankton biomass. The present work was focused on acid mine drainage and their relationships with chlorophyll a. It was developed in the historic mine of São Domingos (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Europe). The methodological approach comprised two sampling campaigns (October and February) to represent seasonal behaviour. The diversity of hydrological conditions was also considered through sampling sites established in the pit lake, acidic lagoons and affected stream. Hydrochemistry and chlorophyll a were analysed. The obtained results revealed very low pH values, with a minimum of 2.1. In general, hydrochemistry indicates higher concentrations of pollutants in summer. One of the sampling point, located in an acidic lagoon, stood out by highest concentrations, presenting maximum of sulfate (6564 mg/L), As (6.26 mg/L), and metals like Al (675 mg/L), Cd (1,30 mg/L), Zn (199 mg/L). These highest concentrations coincided with the maximum concentration of chlorophyll a (113 µg/L). The results suggested that the more contaminated the environment, more chlorophyll a was produced. Factor analyses emphasised the relationships between acid drainage properties and the photosynthetic activity, indicating a strong pH dependency of chlorophyll a production.


Assuntos
Clorofila A/análise , Mineração , Poluição da Água/análise , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Lagos/química , Metais/análise , Feofitinas/análise , Fotossíntese , Fitoplâncton , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Sulfatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
13.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124576, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421462

RESUMO

This study assesses and compares the influence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) on the fatty acid composition, pigments, and growth indices of Chlorella vulgaris. Toxicity testing was carried at the estimated and/or above predicted environmental concentrations of AgNPs and AgNO3. AgNO3 treatments impaired the population growth of C. vulgaris about 2-183 times more than the respective AgNPs ones. The pigments displayed a concentration-dependent decrease in response to both forms of silver; however, AgNO3 displayed higher severity to the pigments than AgNPs. In exposure to 10 µg L-1 AgNO3, the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid, respectively, demonstrated a reduction of about 5, 3, 4, and 4 times when compared with the same respective concentration of AgNPs. Total amounts of saturated (∑SFA), monounsaturated (∑MUFA), and polyunsaturated (∑PUFA) fatty acids as well as the ratio of unsaturated to saturated ones (Unsat./Sat.) displayed somewhat similar-concentration responses. ∑SFA exhibited a hormesis response, and ∑MUFA, ∑PUFA, and Unsat./Sat. did a decreasing trend with increasing concentration of AgNPs and AgNO3. Myristoleic acid, nervonic acid, and eicosadienoic acid revealed the highest sensitivity. Pearson analysis illustrated the highest correlation among myristoleic acid, eicosenoic acid, and nervonic acid as well as among palmitic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, and oleic acid. Taken together, AgNPs and the released ions could disrupt physiological health state of microalgae through perturbation in the fatty acid composition (especially MUFAs and PUFAs) and other macromolecules. These types of bioperturbations could change the good health state of aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nitrato de Prata/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134392, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704513

RESUMO

Estuaries worldwide are undergoing changes to patterns of aquatic productivity because of human activities that alter flow, impact sediment delivery and thus the light field, and contribute nutrients and contaminants like pesticides and metals. These changes can influence phytoplankton communities, which in turn can alter estuarine food webs. We used multiple approaches-including high-resolution water quality mapping, synoptic sampling, productivity and nitrogen uptake rates, Lagrangian parcel tracking, enclosure experiments and bottle incubations-over a short time period to take a "spatial snapshot" of conditions in the northern region of the San Francisco Estuary (California, USA) to examine how environmental drivers like light availability, nutrients, water residence time, and contaminants affect phytoplankton abundance and community attributes like size distribution, taxonomic structure, and nutrient uptake rates. Zones characterized by longer residence time (15-60 days) had higher chlorophyll-a concentrations (9 ±â€¯4 µg L-1) and were comprised primarily of small phytoplankton cells (<5 µm, 74 ±â€¯8%), lower ammonium concentrations (1 ±â€¯0.8 µM), higher nitrate uptake rates, and higher rates of potential carbon productivity. Conversely, zones characterized by shorter residence time (1-14 days) had higher ammonium concentration (13 ±â€¯5 µM) and lower chlorophyll-a concentration (5 ±â€¯1 µg L-1) with diatoms making up a larger percent contribution. Longer residence time, however, did not result in the accumulation of large (>5 µm) cells considered important to pelagic food webs. Rather, longer residence time zones had a phytoplankton community comprised primarily of small cells, particularly picocyanobacteria that made up 38 ±â€¯17% of the chlorophyll-a - nearly double the concentration seen in shorter residence time zones (22 ±â€¯7% picocyanobacterial of chlorophyll-a). Our results suggest that water residence time in estuaries may have an effect as large or larger than that experimentally demonstrated for light, contaminants, or nutrients.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Amônio , Clorofila A , Diatomáceas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Água Doce , Nitrogênio/análise , São Francisco , Qualidade da Água
15.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(12): 195, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784916

RESUMO

The search for effective plant-growth-promoting strains of rhizospheric bacteria that would ensure the resistance of plant-microbial associations to environmental stressors is essential for the design of environmentally friendly agrobiotechnologies. We investigated the interaction of potato (cv. Nevsky) microplants with the plant-growth-promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and Ochrobactrum cytisi IPA7.2 under osmotic stress in vitro. The bacteria improved the physiological and biochemical variables of the microplants, significantly increasing shoot length and root number (1.3-fold, on average). Inoculation also led a more effective recovery of the plants after stress. During repair, inoculation contributed to a decreased leaf content of malonic dialdehyde. With A. brasilense Sp245, the decrease was 1.75-fold; with O. cytisi IPA7.2, it was 1.4-fold. During repair, the shoot length, node number, and root number of the inoculated plants were greater than the control values by an average of 1.3-fold with A. brasilense Sp245 and by an average of 1.6-fold with O. cytisi IPA7.2. O. cytisi IPA7.2, previously isolated from the potato rhizosphere, protected the physiological and biochemical processes in the plants under stress and repair better than did A. brasilense Sp245. Specifically, root weight increased fivefold during repair, as compared to the noninoculated plants, while chlorophyll a content remained at the level found in the nonstressed controls. The results indicate that these bacteria can be used as components of biofertilizers. A. brasilense Sp245 has favorable prospects for use in temperate latitudes, whereas O. cytisi IPA7.2 can be successfully used in saline and drought-stressed environments.


Assuntos
Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Pressão Osmótica , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Azospirillum brasilense/fisiologia , Clorofila A , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Secas , Malonatos , Ochrobactrum/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Brotos de Planta , Rizosfera
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(12): 4071-4081, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840451

RESUMO

To uncover adaptation mechanism of Cyclobalanopsis glauca to the arid environment of Karst areas, current-year seedlings of C. glauca were potted and grown under four soil water conditions: Normal water supply (-0.1 MPa), light drought stress (-0.5 MPa), moderate drought stress (-0.9 MPa), and severe drought stress (-1.5 MPa). We measured leaf growth and parameters of fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction dynamics after treated by 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. With the increase of drought stress intensity, leaf area, number of green leaves, leaf water content, the contents of chlorophyll a+b and carotenoids, the maximum fluorescence, maximum photochemical quantum yield and potential photochemical efficiency significantly decreased, while the number of dead leaves and the initial fluorescence significantly increased. There was no significant difference in these parameters between light drought and normal water treatments. There were no significant difference in the absorption flux per reaction center (ABS/RC), captured light energy used to restore qA (TRo/RC), number of active reaction centers per unit area (RC/CS), light energy captured per unit area (TRo/CS) and light energy used for electron transfer per unit area (ETo/CS) between light drought and normal water treatments. Among these parameters, RC/CS was slightly higher under light drought treatment than that of normal water treatment. TRo/CS and ETo/CS reached peaks at the 45th day, being 606.12 and 440.78, respectively. Leaf ABS/RC, TRo/RC, ETo/RC, DIRo/RC, RC/CS, TRo/CS and ETo/CS of C. glauca seedlings under mode-rate drought and severe drought treatment were lower than those of normal water treatment, and the parameters under severe drought stress decreased more significantly with the extension of drought stress time. With increasing intensity and duration of drought stress, the maximum quantum efficiency, probability of other electron acceptors, and quantum ratio of electron transfer decreased, but quantum yield for energy dissipation increased. These results demonstrated that C. glauca seedlings under light drought condition showed some degree of adaptability and resistance to drought. Mode-rate drought treatment caused a decline in chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments, leading to slow growth of seedlings. Severe drought had a serious impact on growth of C. glauca seedlings, but did not lead to seedling death. Therefore, C. glauca seedlings showed strong drought tolerance, which were suitable for the application of vegetation restoration and reforestation projects in Karst areas.


Assuntos
Secas , Plântula , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Fluorescência , Cinética , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Água
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(12): 4277-4285, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840474

RESUMO

To explore the ability of bloom-forming cyanobacterium Chrysosporum ovalisporum to utilize different kinds of phosphorus compounds in the water column, we examined the growth response of C. ovalisporum in the laboratory by taking dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as the control and set different treatments of phosphorus substrates. The results showed that C. ovalisporum could utilize sodium tripolyphosphate and terasodium pyrophosphate decahydrate, with better utilization of sodium tripolyphosphate. After 15 days, it had the highest biomass and chlorophyll a concentrations under the treatment of sodium tripolyphosphate, with a value of (426.96±47.42) mg·L-1 and (1852.34±116.60) µg·L-1, respectively. Compared with the control, there was no significant difference in biomass of C. ovalisporum under both the (2-aminoethyl)-phosphonic acid and disodium ß-glycerol phosphate pentahydrate treatments. The change characteristics of dissolved inorganic phosphate were related to the alkaline phosphatase activity, indicating that C. ovalisporum was able to utilize these two organophosphorus compounds via enzyme hydrolysis. The concentration of dissolved inorganic phosphate reached 0 mg·L-1 during the whole experiment when the C. ovalisporum were fed with glyphosate. Biomass, specific growth rate, chlorophyll a concentration and photosynthetic activity of algal cells were significantly lower than those of the control, indicating that C. ova-lisporum could not uptake phosphorus compounds in the glyphosate substrate and thus their growth being inhibited. Our results present new insights to understand the diffusion mechanism of C. ovalisporum into different aquatic ecosystems and had theoretical reference value for the prevention and control of new cyanobacterial blooms.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Compostos de Fósforo , Clorofila A , Ecossistema , Fósforo
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(11): 4944-4952, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854560

RESUMO

The construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir has had certain effects on the ecological environment of the water and serious phytoplankton blooms have occurred in its tributary embayment. To explore the spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients and chlorophyll-a in different tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir, a water quality study (June 2018) was conducted in the Xiangxi River, Shengnongxi River, and Daning River of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The results showed that the average TN in the three tributaries was 1.86 mg·L-1, 1.90 mg·L-1, and 1.43 mg·L-1, respectively, and average TP was 0.09 mg·L-1, 0.07 mg·L-1, and 0.05 mg·L-1, respectively. Single-factor ANOVA analysis showed that the spatial difference in TN was significant and occurred in the following order:Shennongxi River > Xiangxi River > Daning River. There were significant differences in the spatial distribution of TP, which were in the order off Xiangxi River > Shennongxi River > Daning River. The mean concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the three tributaries was 6.41 µg·L-1, 21.39 µg·L-1, and 9.85µg·L-1, respectively. The results from the Pearson correlation analysis, showed that chlorophyll-a concentrations were closely related to TP distribution in all tributaries, but Zeu/Zmix was also correlated with the distribution of chlorophyll-a in the Shennongxi River and Daning River. The ratio of TN and TP concentrations was 22.36, 26.76, and 28.6, respectively, which revealed that TP is a critical and limiting factor affecting phytoplankton growth in its tributary embayment.


Assuntos
Clorofila A , Rios , Sais , China , Clorofila , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Inundações , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Estações do Ano
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 3108-3117, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854708

RESUMO

To understand the influence of rainfall on the in situ growth (in a culture cage) of dominant algae species in the Xiangxi River tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, culture experiments were carried out to measure the biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlorella vulgaris, and Chlorella aeruginosa before and after rainfall. The results showed that ① during the study period (October 4-18, 2017), there were significant differences in hydrodynamic conditions between the rainfall period and the non-rainfall period (ANOVA, P<0.05). Total Chl-a and the specific growth rate of the three main algae during rainfall period were significantly lower than during the non-rainfall period, which inhibited algae growth to some extent. The results of correlation analysis showed that the four hydrodynamic parameters characterizing vertical mixing had a highly significant negative correlation with the specific growth rate of the three dominant algae species. Meanwhile, the changes of shear force τ, the vertical turbulent viscosity coefficient Vr, and the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient Vt were the key factors leading to the rapid decline of algae; ② the depth of the mixed layer was lower (1-2 m) before rainfall, but increased (>5 m) markedly after rainfall (October 10-18). At the same time, the concentration of Chl-a during the rainfall period was significantly lower than that during the non-rainfall period. The results of the correlation analysis showed that there was a highly significant positive correlation between the ratio of eutrophic depth to mixing depth (Zeu/Zmix) and the specific growth rate of the three dominant algae species. This indicated that the vertical disturbance of water was enhanced by rainfall, and mixing layer expanded continuously, which reduced the water temperature stratification and thus inhibited the growth and proliferation of algae; ③ there were significant differences in rainfall, water temperature, light intensity, total nitrogen, and dissolved total nitrogen between the rainfall period and non-rainfall period (ANOVA, P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed that changes in rainfall, water temperature, light intensity, total nitrogen, and dissolved total nitrogen caused by rainfall were the key environmental parameters affecting the in situ growth rate of three dominant algae.


Assuntos
Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chuva , Rios , Biomassa , China , Clorofila A/análise , Nitrogênio/análise
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 4023-4032, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854865

RESUMO

Twelve lakes and reservoirs with different water depths and different water residence times were studied to identify the applicability of bioavailable phosphorus of sediments in indicating trophic levels. Water and sediment samples were collected in these 12 lakes and reservoirs to analyze the relationship of nutrient levels between the sediment and the water column. Sodium hydroxide extracted phosphorus (NaOH-P) determined using the SMT classification method is defined as the bioavailable phosphorus of sediment. The results showed that total phosphorus levels in sediments in different lakes and reservoirs ranged from 225 to 760 mg·kg-1 (mean value 502 mg·kg-1); the NaOH-P levels in sediments ranged from 86 to 584 mg·kg-1 (mean value 263 mg·kg-1); the total phosphorus concentrations in the water was 0.02-0.35 mg·L-1 (mean value 0.11 mg·L-1), and the chlorophyll a concentrations in the water were 3-349 µg·L-1 (mean value 51 µg·L-1). It was found that NaOH-P was more effective than total phosphorus in indicating the trophic status of the lakes and reservoirs. However, the NaOH-P levels were significantly related to the phosphorus concentrations in the water column only in shallow water with a long residence time. It was revealed that water residence time and water depth are two key factors that affect the relationship of the phosphorus content between the sediment and the water column. In deep waters or waters with short residence time, the NaOH-P content in the sediment hardly influenced the phosphorus concentration in the water columns, even at high levels. However, in shallow waters with long residence time, the sediment acted as both sources and sinks and frequently exchanged nutrients with the overlying water, especially during bloom periods in summer. Thus NaOH-P could be a potential risk of eutrophication in such waters.


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Lagos , Fósforo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Clorofila A , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos
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