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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112059, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677415

RESUMO

Chlorophyll a fluorescence is increasingly being used as a rapid, non-invasive, sensitive and convenient indicator of photosynthetic performance in marine autotrophs. This review presents the methodology, applications and limitations of chlorophyll fluorescence in marine studies. The various chlorophyll fluorescence tools such as Pulse-Amplitude-Modulated (PAM) and Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometry used in marine scientific studies are discussed. Various commonly employed chlorophyll fluorescence parameters are elaborated. The application of chlorophyll fluorescence in measuring natural variations, stress, stress tolerance and acclimation/adaptation to changing environment in primary producers such as microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses and mangroves, and marine symbiotic invertebrates, namely symbiotic sponges, hard corals and sea anemones, kleptoplastic sea slugs and giant clams is critically assessed. Stressors include environmental, biological, physical and chemical ones. The strengths, limitations and future perspectives of the use of chlorophyll fluorescence technique as an assessment tool in symbiotic marine organisms and seaplants are discussed.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Clorofila , Animais , Clorofila A , Fluorescência , Fluorometria , Fotossíntese
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124995, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744090

RESUMO

Chlorella vulgaris was grown using mixed sources of nitrogen (nitrate and nitrite). Starting from B3N as basal medium, nitrate was substituted by nitrite keeping total nitrogen constant over 7 conditions: 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100% NO2-. Growth rate, nitrogen uptake, photosynthetic apparatus status and pigment contents were monitored. Nitrite addition triggered a growth rate inhibition from early introduction (20% NO2-, 81 mgNO2-/l). Nitrate uptake rate increased with nitrate content in the culture medium (maximum at 5.87 mg/l/Nd, 100% NO3-), while nitrite uptake remained constant around 2.93 mgN/l/d. Photosynthetic apparatus was not impacted by the nitrogen source substitution. Pigments profiles (chlorophyll a, b and total carotenoids) were not statistically different for all the tested conditions. From a biotechnological perspective, this finding rules out the use of nitrite substitution as a pigment manipulating stress strategy.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Nitratos , Clorofila A , Nitritos , Nitrogênio
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 142840, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757250

RESUMO

Protists in aquaculture ponds are key components associated with primary productivity, nutrient cycling, and fish healthy. However, the protist metacommunity diversity, as well as the ecological and environmental factors that structure protist metacommunity in aquaculture ponds remain poorly understood. This study examined protist metacommunities in water and sediment of larval, small juvenile and large juvenile grass carp ponds. The results indicated sediment resuspension became stronger with the increased fish size, which led to high levels of total suspended solids and nitrogen but low levels of phosphate, chlorophyll a and transparency in water. Moreover, sediment resuspension subsequently increased the alpha diversity indexes (i.e., OTU number, Shannon index and Simpson index) of protist communities in water and sediment. Meanwhile, sediment resuspension increased the relative abundance of heterotrophic Ciliophora and Cercozoa, but decreased the relative abundance of autotrophic Chlorophyta, Stramenopiles X, and Ochrophyta. Besides, some mixotrophic and heterotrophic protists showed competitive advantages in the turbidity water, which led to the increase of negative interactions in the protist co-occurrence networks. Based on the null model, sediment resuspension strengthened homogeneous selection (deterministic process) and weakened dispersal limitation (stochastic process) processes of protist community assembly. Indeed, protist community dissimilarity within each local community and each habitat (water or sediment) both decreased while the community dissimilarity between habitats increased with the increase of fish size. Therefore, sediment resuspension did not enhance the dispersal path between water and sediment, but decreased the dispersal limitation within sediment and water coupled with the strengthening of environmental selection. These results indicated that grass carp could restructure the protist metacommunity in aquaculture ponds through bottom up way of sediment resuspension. This study advances our understanding of the relationship between fish and protist metacommunity assembly in aquaculture systems.


Assuntos
Carpas , Tanques , Animais , Aquicultura , Clorofila A , Sedimentos Geológicos
4.
Water Res ; 196: 117053, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774349

RESUMO

Understanding the climatic drivers of eutrophication is critical for lake management under the prism of the global change. Yet the complex interplay between climatic variables and lake processes makes prediction of phytoplankton biomass a rather difficult task. Quantifying the relative influence of climate-related variables on the regulation of phytoplankton biomass requires modelling approaches that use extensive field measurements paired with accurate meteorological observations. In this study we used climate and lake related variables obtained from the ERA5-Land reanalysis dataset combined with a large dataset of in-situ measurements of chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton biomass from 50 water bodies to develop models of phytoplankton related responses as functions of the climate reanalysis data. We used chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton biomass as response metrics of phytoplankton growth and we employed two different modelling techniques, boosted regression trees (BRT) and generalized additive models for location scale and shape (GAMLSS). According to our results, the fitted models had a relatively high explanatory power and predictive performance. Boosted regression trees had a high pseudo R2 with the type of the lake, the total layer temperature, and the mix-layer depth being the three predictors with the higher relative influence. The best GAMLSS model retained mix-layer depth, mix-layer temperature, total layer temperature, total runoff and 10-m wind speed as significant predictors (p<0.001). Regarding the phytoplankton biomass both modelling approaches had less explanatory power than those for chlorophyll-a. Concerning the predictive performance of the models both the BRT and GAMLSS models for chlorophyll-a outperformed those for phytoplankton biomass. Overall, we consider these findings promising for future limnological studies as they bring forth new perspectives in modelling ecosystem responses to a wide range of climate and lake variables. As a concluding remark, climate reanalysis can be an extremely useful asset for lake research and management.


Assuntos
Lagos , Fitoplâncton , Biomassa , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Lagos/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 145488, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736263

RESUMO

With the rapid expansion of maritime traffic, increases in air emissions from shipping have exacerbated numerous environmental issues, including air pollution and climate change. However, the effects of such emissions on marine biogeochemistry remain poorly understood. Here, we collected ship-emitted particles (SEPs) from the stack of a heavy-oil-powered vessel using an onboard emission test system and investigated the impact of SEPs on phytoplankton growth over the northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO). In SEP microcosm experiments conducted in oceanic zones with different trophic statuses, the phytoplankton response, as indicated by chlorophyll a (Chl a), has been shown to increase with the proportion of SEP-derived nitrogen (N) relative to N stocks (PSN) in baseline seawater, suggesting that SEPs generally promote phytoplankton growth via N fertilisation. Simulations using an air quality model combined with a ship emission inventory further showed that oxidised N (NOx) emissions from shipping contributed ~43% of the atmospheric N deposition flux in the NWPO. Air emissions from shipping (e.g. NOx and sulphur dioxide) also indirectly enhanced the deposition of reduced N that existed in the atmosphere, constituting ~15% of the atmospheric N deposition flux. These results suggest that the impact of airborne ship emissions on atmospheric N deposition is comparable to that of land-based emissions in the NWPO. Based on the ship-induced PSN in surface seawater calculated by modeling results and World Ocean Atlas 2013 nutrient dataset, and the well-established quantitative relationship between Chl a and PSN obtained from microcosm experiments, we found a noticeable change in surface Chl a concentrations due to N deposition derived from marine traffic in the NWPO, particularly in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea and open oceans. This work attempts to establish a direct link between marine productivity and air emissions from shipping.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton , Navios , Clorofila A , Oceanos e Mares , Oceano Pacífico
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 145471, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736330

RESUMO

In this research investigation, three microalgal species were screened (Pleurosigma sp., Amphora sp., and Amphiprora sp.) for lipid content before choosing the potential microalgae for biodiesel production. It was found that the lipid content of Amphiprora sp. was 41.48 ± 0.18%, which was higher than the Pleurosigma sp. (27.3 ± 0.8%) and Amphora sp. (22.49 ± 0.21%). The diatom microalga, Amphiprora sp. was isolated and exposed to a controlled environment. Two different media were prepared, and the main research was on the SiO2-NP medium as the cell wall of diatom was made up of silica. Essential growth parameters were studied such as dry cell weight and chlorophyll a content. The results revealed that Amphiprora sp. cultured in the modified medium showed a higher biomass yield and growth rate in all the analyses. In Soxhlet extraction method, biodiesel yield of Amphiprora sp. in modified medium under 24 µmol m-2 s-1 of light intensity was 81.47 ± 1.59% when using 2% of catalyst amount with 1.5:1 volume ratio of methanol/oil in 3 h reaction time at 65 °C. Results reveled that Amphiprora sp. diatom has a higher yield of oil 52.94 ± 0.42% and can be efficiently optimized with further studies with modified nanomaterial culture medium. The present research revealed the series of experiments on microalgal lipid transesterification and in future investigation different types of nanomaterials should be used in culture medium to identify the lipid production in microalgal cells.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Microalgas , Biocombustíveis/análise , Biomassa , Clorofila A , Lipídeos , Nutrientes , Dióxido de Silício
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 201, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742298

RESUMO

The influence of microphytobenthic community on the composition of sedimentary organic matter was evaluated in two Bahía Blanca estuary microhabitats contrasting in vegetation and hydrodynamic conditions; namely, S1 located in a Sarcocornia perennis saltmarsh with macroscopic microbial mats and S2 in a mudflat without macroscopic microbial mats or vegetation. Moisture, organic matter, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, carbohydrates (CH), proteins (PRT), and abundance and structure of microphytobenthic community were evaluated in surface sediments. Higher moisture was observed at S2 and was related to the proximity of this site to the subtidal zone and the effect of the environmental variables temperature and rain. No significant differences were found in organic matter content between sites; however, at S1, a higher concentration was registered during winter and early spring associated to the period of higher microphytobenthic biomass. Chlorophyll a and phaeopigments were higher at S1, attributed to the higher microphytobenthos abundance at this site. Differences in microphytobenthos were observed not only in quantity but also in community structure since at S1 filamentous cyanobacteria dominated the community, whereas at S2, higher abundance of centric diatoms and the absence of cyanobacteria were observed during most of the study. S1 showed higher concentration of proteins and carbohydrates which could be attributed to the higher production of fresh organic matter by microphytobenthos. The total protein and carbohydrate concentrations allowed us to classify both microhabitats into the meso-oligotrophic category, contrasting with the classification made by other authors using water column proxies.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Diatomáceas , Clorofila A , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos
8.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129887, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592517

RESUMO

In this work, the organic solvent effect on the photoconversion of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) under the simulated sunlight, as well as the mechanism and influence factor were studied. Eight organic solvents were selected to demonstrate the solvent effect on the photoconversion by the theoretical calculation method. It was found that the photoconversion rates of 1-chloronaphthalene (CN-1) in different organic solvents were in the order of dimethyl sulfoxide > methanol > acetonitrile > ethanol > dichloromethane > toluene > n-hexane > acetone. The result, obtained by the density functional theory (DFT) computation and the polarized continuum model (PCM) analysis in the framework of self-consistent reaction field (SCRF), indicated that the photoconversion was affected by the hydrogen-donating ability and electron-withdrawing potential of the solvents, as well as non-specific solute-solvent interactions. The photoconversion in acetonitrile for the five PCNs (1-chloronaphthalene, 2-chloronaphthalene, 2,3-dichloronaphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrachloronaphthalene, and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8- octachloronaphthalene) all fitted well with the first-order kinetic equation; and the reaction rate decreased with the increasing of number of chlorine atoms of the PCNs. Products analysis proved that the photoconversion process of PCNs went through two stages, namely the initial stage of dechlorination and the later stage of oxidative ring opening. It was found that inorganic ions (NO3-, Cl-, Fe3+, and Fe2+) promoted or inhibited the photoconversion by generating or quenching of the reactive oxygen species, and chlorophyll a promoted the photoconversion through the generation of singlet oxygen.


Assuntos
Naftalenos , Luz Solar , Clorofila A , Metanol , Solventes
9.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(2): 402-413, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534037

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the effects of 11-day exposure of sulfadiazine (SD), sulfamethazine (SM2), norfloxacin (NOR), and enrofloxacin (ENR) on the growth, chlorophyll a (Chl. a) content, phycobiliproteins (PBPs) content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of Chrysosporum ovalisporum, examined the removal rate of these antibiotics by C. ovalisporum, and performed acute toxicology test with Daphnia magna to determine the effect of interaction between antibiotics and cyanobacteria on aquatic animals. The results showed that the stress of SD and SM2 increased extracellular ALP activity and weakly inhibited the algal growth and the contents of Chl. a and PBPs compared with that noted in the control. ENR and NOR treatment groups exerted significant inhibition on algal growth as well as Chl. a and PBPs contents and ALP activity, although the cyanobacterium could degrade these two antibiotics more than SD and SM2. The results also revealed that the interaction between antibiotics and cyanobacteria could inhibit D. magna feeding.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Clorofila A , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Água
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 118, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564962

RESUMO

Hilo Bay estuary, located on the northeastern side of Hawai'i Island, experiences variability in water quality parameters due to its numerous water inputs. This estuary experiences influxes of water from three sources: groundwater to the east, marine water from the north, and surface water from the Wailuku River to the west. High rainfall and river flow impacts Hilo Bay's water quality including salinity, turbidity, and chlorophyll a concentration. Here, maps of Hilo Bay water quality were examined to assess spatial patterns of these important parameters. Exploring the patterns of these water quality parameters by creating inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation surfaces of survey points and clusters based on hot spot analyses during low- and high-flow conditions showed statistically significant differences in spatial water quality in Hilo Bay. Water quality maps after a storm show (1) an overall decrease in salinity, (2) a river plume from the Wailuku River associated with a turbidity hot spot, and (3) a chlorophyll a hot spot offset from the river plume in the center of the bay. Using spatial analysis to analyze water quality throughout the entirety of Hilo Bay before and after storm events can lead to a better understanding of how this ecosystem is affected during these types of events, and furthermore, adopting this method of sampling and analysis allows for a greater representation of water quality all over the bay and can improve the monitoring of water quality in this important ecosystem.


Assuntos
Baías , Qualidade da Água , Clorofila A , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hawaii , Rios , Análise Espacial
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 172: 104754, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518047

RESUMO

Fungicides are widely used to control diseases in soybean crops. We hypothesized that fungicides applied to healthy soybean plants compromise the plant's physiology, affect the reproductive process and reduce crop productivity. We aimed to evaluate the photosynthetic process, pollen grain viability and yield components of soybean plants exposed to three commercial fungicides. The experiment was performed twice using soybean cultivar SYN 1378C, disease-free plants, with four treatments: i) control treatment (without any fungicide application); ii) cyproconazole 150 g L-1 + difenoconazole 250 g L-1 (CPZ + DFZ; 250 mL ha-1; without adjuvant); iii) azoxystrobin 300 g Kg-1 + benzovindiflupyr 150 g Kg-1 (AZB + BZP; 200 g ha-1; Nimbus® adjuvant (Syngenta)); and iv) propiconazole 250 g L-1 + difenoconazole 250 g L-1 (PPZ + DFZ; 150 mL ha-1; without adjuvant) in both soybean pre-bloom (V8) and bloom (R1) developmental stages. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replicates. Phytotoxicity, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence traits, pollen grain viability, pollen grain germination, flower abortion and soybean production components were evaluated. The fungicides did not affect the physiological traits, pollen grain germination and crop yield.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Clorofila A , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fotossíntese , Doenças das Plantas , Soja
12.
J Environ Radioact ; 229-230: 106544, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556790

RESUMO

Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring metal; its environmental levels can be increased due to processes in the nuclear industry and fertilizer production. The transfer of U in the food chain from plants is associated with deleterious chemical and radiation effects. To date, limited information is available about U toxicity on plant physiology. This study investigates the responses of metal-accumulating plants to different concentrations of U. The plants Noccaea caerulescens and Noccaea goesingense are known as metal hyperaccumulators and therefore could serve as candidates for the phytoremediation of radioactive hotspots; Plantago major is a widely used pharmaceutical plant that pioneers polluted grounds and therefore should not contain high concentrations of toxic elements. The experimental plants were grown hydroponically at U concentrations between 1 µM and 10 mM. The content of U and essential elements was analyzed in roots and leaves by ICP-MS. The amount of accumulated U was influenced by its concentration in the hydroponics. Roots contained most of the metal, whereas less was transported up to the leaves, with the exception of N. goesingense in a medium concentration of U. U also influenced the nutrient profile of the plants. We localized the U in plant tissues using EDX in the SEM. U was evenly distributed in roots and leaves of Noccaea species, with one exception in the roots of N. goesingense, where the central cylinder contained more U than the cortex. The toxicity of U was assessed by measuring growth and photosynthetic parameters. While root biomass of N. caerulescens was not affected by U, root biomass of N. goesingense decreased significantly at high U concentrations of 0.1 and 10 mM and root biomass of P. major decreased at 10 mM U. Dry weight of leaves was decreased at different U concentrations in the three plant species; a promotive effect was observed in N. caerulescens at lowest concentration offered. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was not affected or negatively affected by U in both Noccaea species, whereas in Plantago also positive effects were observed. Our results show that the impact of U on Plantago and Noccaea relates to its external concentration and to the plant species. When growing in contaminated areas, P. major should not be used for medicinal purpose. Noccaea species and P. major could immobilize U in their rhizosphere in hotspots contaminated by U, and they could extract limited amounts of U into their leaves.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Plantago , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes do Solo , Urânio , Clorofila A , Raízes de Plantas , Urânio/toxicidade
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 112081, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524833

RESUMO

Short term stress experiments with dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and tripolyphosphate (TPP) have been carried out on the staghorn coral Acropora intermedia, collected from Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef, at low and elevated seawater temperatures. Zooxanthellae, chlorophyll a, intracellular and tissue dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), and extracellular DMSP production were measured to assess the level of stress on A. intermedia at different winter and summer seasons from 2001 to 2003. Whilst no significant changes were measured in these stress indicators in 2001 and 2003, significant changes occurred in winter 2002, reflecting natural stresses on A. intermedia in the field, and stress from added DIP and TPP at high seawater temperatures. These stresses caused corals to bleach, whilst extracellular DMSP, intracellular and tissue DMSP concentrations increased, reflecting the antioxidant role of DMSP in the coral zooxanthellae and coral host to combat stress. These results have important implications for future research in the GBR.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Clorofila A , Recifes de Corais , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Compostos de Sulfônio
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111628, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396148

RESUMO

Metals may cause damage to the biota of contaminated environments. Moreover, using multiple endpoints in ecotoxicological studies is useful to better elucidate the mechanisms of toxicity of these compounds. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and cobalt (Co) on growth, biochemical and photosynthetic parameters of the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata, through quantification of lipid classes composition, chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, maximum (ΦM) and effective (Φ'M) quantum yields and efficiency of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Both metals affected the algal population growth, with an IC50-96h of 0.67 and 1.53 µM of Cd and Co, respectively. Moreover, the metals led to an increase in the total lipid content and reduced efficiency of OEC and ΦM. Cell density was the most sensitive endpoint to detect Cd toxicity after 96 h of treatment. Regarding Co, the photosynthetic parameters were the most affected and the total lipid content was the most sensitive endpoint as it was altered by the exposure to this metal in all concentrations. Cd led to increased contents of the lipid class wax esters (0.89 µM) and phospholipids (PL - at 0.89 and 1.11 µM) and decreased values of triglycerides (at 0.22 µM) and acetone-mobile polar lipids (AMPL - at 0.44 and 1.11 µM). The percentage of free fatty acids (FFA) and PL of microalgae exposed to Co increased, whereas AMPL decreased in all concentrations tested. We were able to detect differences between the toxicity mechanisms of each metal, especially how Co interferes in the microalgae at a biochemical level. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting Co effects in lipid classes of a freshwater Chlorophyceae. The damage caused by Cd and Co may reach higher trophic levels, causing potential damage to the aquatic communities as microalgae are primary producers and the base of the food chain.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Clorofíceas/fisiologia , Cobalto/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Clorofíceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila A , Ecotoxicologia , Água Doce/química , Metais/farmacologia , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111630, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396150

RESUMO

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCF) is one of the commonly used and frequently detected drugs in water bodies, and several studies indicate its toxic effect on plants and algae. Studies performed with asynchronous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures indicated that DCF inhibit the growth of population of the algae. Here, a synchronous population of C. reinhardtii, in which all cells are in the same developmental phase, is used. Following changes in cells size, photosynthetic activity and gene expression, we could compare, at the level of single cell, DCF-mediated effects with the effects caused by atrazine, a triazine herbicide that inhibits photosynthesis and triggers oxidative stress. Application of DCF and atrazine at the beginning of the cell cycle allowed us to follow the changes occurring in the cells in the subsequent stages of their development. Synchronized Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures (strain CC-1690, wild type) were exposed to diclofenac sodium salt (135 mg/L) or atrazine (77.6 µg/L). The cell suspension was sampled hourly (0-10 h) in the light period of the cell cycle to determine cell number and volume, photosynthetic pigment content, chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP test) in vivo, and selected gene expression (real-time qPCR), namely psbA, psaA, FSD1, MSD3 and APX1. The two toxicants differently influenced C. reinhardtii cells. Both substances decreased photosynthetic "vitality" (PI - performance index) of the cells, albeit for different reasons. While atrazine significantly disrupted the photosynthetic electron transport, resulting in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and limited cell growth, DCF caused silencing of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers, transforming them into "heat sinks", thus preventing significant ROS overproduction. Oxidative stress caused by atrazine was the probable reason for the rapid appearance of phytotoxic action soon after entering the cells, while the effects of DCF could only be seen several hours after treatment. A comparison of DCF-caused effects with the effects caused by atrazine led us to conclude that, although DCF cannot be regarded as typical photosynthetic herbicide, it exhibits an algicidal activity and can be potentially dangerous for aquatic plants and algae.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/fisiologia , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrazina/metabolismo , Atrazina/toxicidade , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111769, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396087

RESUMO

Soils contaminated with heavy metals such as Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) severely impede plant growth. Several rhizospheric microorganisms support plant growth under heavy metal stress. In this study, Cr and Cd stress was applied to in vitro germinating seedlings of a Legume plant species, Sesbania sesban, and investigated the plant growth potential in presence and absence of Bacillus anthracis PM21 bacterial strain under heavy metal stress. The seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of Cr (25-75 mg/L) and Cd (100-200 mg/L) in Petri plates. Growth curve analysis of B. anthracis PM21 revealed its potential to adapt Cr and Cd stress. The bacteria supported plant growth by exhibiting ACC-deaminase activity (1.57-1.75 µM of α-ketobutyrate/h/mg protein), producing Indole-3-acetic acid (99-119 µM/mL) and exopolysaccharides (2.74-2.98 mg/mL), under heavy metal stress condition. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in growth parameters between the seedlings with and without bacterial inoculation in metal stress condition. The combined Cr+Cd stress (75 + 200 mg/L) significantly reduced root length (70%), shoot length (24%), dry weight (54%) and fresh weight (57%) as compared to control. Conversely, B. anthracis PM21 inoculation to seedlings significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) seed germination percentage (5%), root length (31%), shoot length (23%) and photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll a: 20%; Chlorophyll b: 16% and total chlorophyll: 18%), as compared to control seedlings without B. anthracis PM21 inoculation. The B. anthracis PM21 inoculation also enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (52%), peroxidase (66%), and catalase (21%), and decreased proline content (56%), electrolyte leakage (50%), and malondialdehyde concentration (46%) in seedlings. The B. anthracis PM21 inoculated seedlings of S. sesban exhibited significantly high (p ≤ 0.05) tissue deposition of Cr (17%) and Cd (16%) as compared to their control counterparts. Findings of the study suggested that B. anthracis PM21 endured metal stress through homeostasis of antioxidant activities, and positively impacted S. sesban growth and biomass. Further experiments in controlled conditions are necessary for investigating phytoremediation potential of S. sesban in metal-contaminated soils in presence of B. anthracis PM21 bacterial strain.


Assuntos
Bacillus anthracis/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Sesbania/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Bacillus anthracis/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Cromo/análise , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Metais Pesados/análise , Plântula/metabolismo , Sesbania/metabolismo , Sesbania/microbiologia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(1): 231-240, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477231

RESUMO

Strawberry variety 'Benihoppe' was used as the experimental material. The temperature treatments were set at 32 ℃/22 ℃, 35 ℃/25 ℃, 38 ℃/28 ℃ and 41 ℃/31 ℃ (daily maximum temperature/daily minimum temperature), and the stress days lasted for 2, 5, 8 and 11 d, with 28 ℃/18 ℃ as the control. We measured the photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species, protective enzyme activity and membrane lipid peroxidation of strawberry under different high temperature treatments. The key indices were extracted by principal component analysis. The high temperature stress index (Z) was defined to divide the high temperature stress grade. The results showed that 1) with the aggravation of high temperature stress and the extension of stress time, chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoid (Car), light saturation point (LSP), maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax), apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) and maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) decreased, while light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (Rd) increased. 2) High temperature hindered the energy transfer of thylakoid in PSⅡ center (ΔWOK>0), and accelerated the reduction rate of PSⅠ terminal electron receptor pool. On the 11th day of the stress, except that under 32 ℃, all other oxygen evolution complexes (OEC) were inactivated. 3) The content of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 Content and O2-· production rate) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the stress days under different high temperature treatments. 4) The protective enzyme activities and soluble protein content increased first and then decreased with stress duration. 5) Based on principal component analysis (PCA) and combined with the difficulty of index acquisition, Chl a, Pmax, Fv/Fm and MDA were extracted as the key indices, and Z value was calculated. Five high temperature stress grades were divided which were normal (0

Assuntos
Fragaria , Plântula , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(1): 317-325, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477240

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the effects of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) on the growth, physiology, and biochemical characteristics of submerged plants, we exposed a typical submerged plant, Hydrilla verticillata, to a series of concentrations (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 30, 50, 100 mg·L-1) of 3 µm polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) and measured parameters including height, biomass, chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, photosynthetic fluorescence. The results showed that the height of H. Verticillata significantly decreased at the high PS-MP concentrations (50 to 100 mg·L-1), while the fresh weight significantly increased at the low PS-MP concentration (5 mg·L-1). The fresh weight of H. verticillata gradually decreased with the increasing PS-MP concentration but the dry weight did not change. The total amount of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll a/b significantly decreased with the increases of the PS-MP concentrations, while the chlorophyll b did not change. PS-MPs affected the antioxidant enzyme activities of H. verticillata. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were first increased and then decreased with the increasing PS-MP concentration. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm) decreased with the increasing concentration of PS-MP and the 1-Qp-Lss value (reflective of the closing of PSⅡ reaction center) was increased under the stable state, probably due to the inhibited PSⅡ reaction center. The overall intensity of fluorescence imaging of H. verticillata decreased with the increasing concentration of PS-MPs. When the PS-MP concentration was lower than 10 mg·L-1, the photosynthetic activity of the leaves was normal. In contrast, when the PS-MP concentration was higher than 30 mg·L-1, it caused significant adverse effects on leaves, including weaker photosynthetic intensity and the presence of yellow or withered leaves. Our results suggested that H. verticillata could tolerate PS-MP pollution but its growth and photosynthesis would be inhibited at high concentrations (>30 mg·L-1). Our results provided basic information to better understand the eco-physiological effects of PS-MPs in the freshwater environment.


Assuntos
Hydrocharitaceae , Microplásticos , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111894, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472108

RESUMO

Enantiomers of chiral fungicides usually display different toxic effects on nontarget organisms in the surrounding environment, although there are rare reports on the enantioselective toxicity of metconazole (MEZ) to aquatic organisms, such as Microcystis flos-aquae (M. flos-aquae). To explore the enantioselective toxicity of MEZ in algae, the impact of various concentrations (0.001, 0.003, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 mg/L) of MEZ on M. flos-aquae over 8 days was investigated. Significant differences were observed between the four enantiomers in chlorophyll a (Chl a) contents, carotenoids, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), rapid light-response curves (RLCs), utilization efficiency of light energy (α) and protein contents during treatment time. MEZ can enantioselectively stimulate the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (RLCs, Fv/Fm and α) and carotenoid and Chl a contents of M. flos-aquae, especially at low concentrations (0.001 or 0.003 mg/L). At high concentrations of 0.03 or 0.1 mg/L, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (RLCs, Fv/Fm and α), protein and Chl a contents of M. flos-aquae exposed to cis-enantiomers were lower than those of M. flos-aquae exposed to trans-enantiomers. These observations indicated that the enantiomers of MEZ pose different toxicities to M. flos-aquae, with the cis-enantiomers more toxic than the trans-enantiomers. These results are beneficial for understanding the enantioselective effects of MEZ enantiomers on nontarget organisms and helpful for evaluating their eco-environment risk.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Microcystis/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/toxicidade , Clorofila A , Microcystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Estereoisomerismo
20.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111884, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385902

RESUMO

A new method for algal community restructuring is proposed, where harmful algae growth is inhibited through the addition of remedial nano-agent, while probiotic algae growth is promoted or only affected indistinctively. In this paper, the inhibiting effects of five different nanomaterials on Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) and Cyclotella sp. were studied, and the optimal nanomaterial was served as algae-inhibition ingredient of the remedial agent. The effects of the remedial agent on algal growth and their physiological characteristics were investigated, and the restructuring of algal community in actual water samples was explored. The results indicated that the inhibition ratio of 10 mg/L nm-Cu2O/SiO2 on M. aeruginosa and Cyclotella sp. could reach 293.1% and 82.8% respectively, acting as the best candidate for algae-inhibiting ingredient. After adding the remedial nano-agent made with nm-Cu2O/SiO2, the content of chlorophyll a, protein, and polysaccharides of M. aeruginosa decreased sharply, while the physiological characteristics of Cyclotella sp. were not significantly affected. Besides, the total biomass and proportion of cyanobacteria dropped (P < 0.05), but the Bacillariophyta biomass increased significantly (P < 0.05). The uniformity index, Shannon-Wiener index, and richness index all increased significantly (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the quality of actual water samples has been improved evidently (P < 0.001). Therefore, the prepared remedial nano-agent in this study can control the harmful algae bloom to a certain extent by restructuring the algal community in eutrophic water bodies.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Microcystis , Clorofila A , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Dióxido de Silício , Água
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