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1.
Theriogenology ; 177: 1-10, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653791

RESUMO

Chloroquine (CQ) could function as a lysosomotropic agent to inhibit the endolysosomal trafficking in the autophagy pathway, and is widely used on malarial, tumor and recently COVID-19. However, the effect of CQ treatment on porcine immature Sertoli cells (iSCs) remains unclear. Here we showed that CQ could reduce iSC viability in a dose-dependent manner. CQ treatment (20 µM) on iSCs for 36h could elevate oxidative stress, damage mitochondrial function and promote apoptosis, which could be partially rescued by melatonin (MT) (10 nM). Transcriptome profiling identified 1611 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (776 up- and 835 down-regulated) (20 µM CQ vs. DMSO), mainly involved in MAPK cascade, cell proliferation/apoptosis, HIF-1, PI3K-Akt and lysosome signaling pathways. In contrast, only 467 (224 up- and 243 down-regulated) DEGs (CQ + MT vs. DMSO) could be found after MT (10 nM) addition, enriched in cell cycle, regulation of apoptotic process, lysosome and reproduction pathways. Therefore, the partial rescue effects of MT on CQ treatment were confirmed by multiple assays (cell viability, ROS level, mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and mRNA levels of selected genes). Collectively, CQ treatment could impair porcine iSC viability by deranging the signaling pathways related to apoptosis and autophagy, which could be partially rescued by MT supplementation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Melatonina , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/veterinária , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , SARS-CoV-2 , Células de Sertoli , Suínos
2.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1247-1250, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792872

RESUMO

Interest in chloroquine, and its analog with a more favorable safety profile - hydroxychloroquine, in 2020 is certainly associated with the outbreak of a new coronavirus infection, SARS-CoV-2. The high pathogenicity and lack of specific immunity in the population caused the rapid spread of infection with an extraordinary increase in the burden on the health systems of many countries. In such conditions, it was necessary to quickly find and implement effective methods of treatment and prevention. One of the most promising candidates for this role was hydroxychloroquine, as a multi-purpose drug with a well-studied safety profile and a rich history of use. The article describes some historical stages of the study of chloroquine and its derivatives starting from the 19th century and ending in 2020. The experience of its use for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, bronchial asthma, photosensitivity and skin porphyria was reviewed. Separately, some historical aspects of its use for the treatment of viral and oncological diseases were considered. The bibliometric method used in this scientific work clearly demonstrates the dynamics of the changing interest of the scientific community in chloroquine and its derivatives. Chloroquine and its derivatives can definitely be attributed to «pharmaceutical centenarians¼ with an intense life that continues.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Clínica , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Bibliometria , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19998, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620963

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of metabolism on the rational design of novel and more effective drugs is still a considerable challenge. To the best of our knowledge, there are no entirely computational strategies that make it possible to predict these effects. From this perspective, the development of such methodologies could contribute to significantly reduce the side effects of medicines, leading to the emergence of more effective and safer drugs. Thereby, in this study, our strategy is based on simulating the electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) fragmentation of the drug molecules and combined with molecular docking and ADMET models in two different situations. In the first model, the drug is docked without considering the possible metabolic effects. In the second model, each of the intermediates from the EI-MS results is docked, and metabolism occurs before the drug accesses the biological target. As a proof of concept, in this work, we investigate the main antiviral drugs used in clinical research to treat COVID-19. As a result, our strategy made it possible to assess the biological activity and toxicity of all potential by-products. We believed that our findings provide new chemical insights that can benefit the rational development of novel drugs in the future.


Assuntos
Antivirais/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenina/efeitos adversos , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/metabolismo , Adenina/farmacologia , Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/metabolismo , Alanina/farmacologia , Amidas/efeitos adversos , Amidas/metabolismo , Amidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/análogos & derivados , Cloroquina/metabolismo , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nitrocompostos/efeitos adversos , Nitrocompostos/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Pirazinas/metabolismo , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/metabolismo , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Ribavirina/metabolismo , Ribavirina/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos , Tiazóis/metabolismo , Tiazóis/farmacologia
4.
Parasitol Res ; 120(11): 3771-3781, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561749

RESUMO

This study investigated the polymorphism in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene 11 years after chloroquine (CQ) cessation in Jazan region, southwestern Saudi Arabia. Two hundred and thirty-five P. falciparum isolates were amplified to detect mutations in the pfcrt gene. The pfcrt 76 T molecular marker for CQ resistance was detected in 66.4% (156/235) of the isolates, while the K76 CQ-sensitive wild type was detected in 33.6%. The pfcrt 74I and pfcrt 75E point mutations were each found to be present in 56.2% of isolates, while only four isolates (1.7%) were found to carry the pfcrt 72S mutation. Moreover, four pfcrt haplotypes were identified as follows: the CVIET triple-allele (56.2%), SVMET double-allele (1.7%) and CVMNT single-allele (8.5%) mutant haplotypes and the CVMNK wild haplotype (33.6%). The analysis also revealed significant associations between the prevalence of mutant pfcrt alleles and haplotypes and the age group, governorate and nationality of the patients as well as the parasitaemia level (p < 0.05). The findings provide evidence of the potential re-emergence of CQ-susceptible P. falciparum strains in Jazan region over a decade after CQ discontinuation, with about one third of the isolates analysed carrying the pfcrt K76 CQ-sensitive wild allele and the CVMNK ancestral wild haplotype. Although the reintroduction of CQ cannot be recommended at present in Saudi Arabia, these findings support the rationale for a potential future role for CQ in malaria treatment. Therefore, continuous molecular and in vitro monitoring mutations of pfcrt polymorphism in Jazan region is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Artemisininas , Malária Falciparum , Parasitos , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Arábia Saudita
5.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21914, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547132

RESUMO

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy D2 (LGMDD2) is an ultrarare autosomal dominant myopathy caused by mutation of the normal stop codon of the TNPO3 nuclear importin. The mutant protein carries a 15 amino acid C-terminal extension associated with pathogenicity. Here we report the first animal model of the disease by expressing the human mutant TNPO3 gene in Drosophila musculature or motor neurons and concomitantly silencing the endogenous expression of the fly protein ortholog. A similar genotype expressing wildtype TNPO3 served as a control. Phenotypes characterization revealed that mutant TNPO3 expression targeted at muscles or motor neurons caused LGMDD2-like phenotypes such as muscle degeneration and atrophy, and reduced locomotor ability. Notably, LGMDD2 mutation increase TNPO3 at the transcript and protein level in the Drosophila model Upregulated muscle autophagy observed in LGMDD2 patients was also confirmed in the fly model, in which the anti-autophagic drug chloroquine was able to rescue histologic and functional phenotypes. Overall, we provide a proof of concept of autophagy as a target to treat disease phenotypes and propose a neurogenic component to explain mutant TNPO3 pathogenicity in diseased muscles.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/complicações , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Autofagia/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hormônios de Inseto , Locomoção , Masculino , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/complicações , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/tratamento farmacológico , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/patologia , Fenótipo , Taxa de Sobrevida , beta Carioferinas/genética , beta Carioferinas/metabolismo
6.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342560

RESUMO

Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory illness in young children and can cause severe infections in the elderly or in immunocompromised adults. To date, there is no vaccine to prevent hRSV infections, and disease management is limited to preventive care by palivizumab in infants and supportive care for adults. Intervention with small-molecule antivirals specific for hRSV represents a good alternative, but no such compounds are currently approved. The investigation of existing drugs for new therapeutic purposes (drug repositioning) can be a faster approach to address this issue. In this study, we show that chloroquine and pyrimethamine inhibit the replication of human respiratory syncytial virus A (long strain) and synergistically increase the anti-replicative effect of ribavirin in cellulo. Moreover, chloroquine, but not pyrimethamine, inhibits hRSV replication in the mouse model. Our results show that chloroquine can potentially be an interesting compound for treatment of hRSV infection in monotherapy or in combination with other antivirals.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Pirimetamina/farmacologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Ribavirina/farmacologia
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431917

RESUMO

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to Chloroquine (CQ) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is a paucity of documented data on the prevalence of CQ-resistant mutant haplotypes of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes from malaria-endemic war effected Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. falciparum CQ-resistance in this area. Clinical isolates were collected between May 2017 and May 2018 from North Waziristan and South Waziristan agencies of Federally Administrated Trial Area. Subsequently, Giemsa-stained blood smears were examined to detect Plasmodium falciparum. Extraction of malarial DNA was done from microscopy positive P. falciparum samples, and P. falciparum infections were confirmed by nested PCR (targeting Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes). All PCR confirmed P. falciparum samples were sequenced by pyrosequencing to find out mutation in Pfcrt gene at codon K76T and in pfmdr1 at codons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D, and D1246Y. Out of 121 microscopies positive P. falciparum cases, 109 samples were positive for P. falciparum by nested PCR. Pfcrt K76T mutation was found in 96% of isolates, Pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was observed in 20%, and 11% harboured Y184F mutation. All samples were wild type for Pfmdr1 codon N1042D and D1246Y. In the FATA, Pakistan, the frequency of resistant allele 76T remained high despite the removal of CQ. However, current findings of the study suggest complete fixation of P. falciparum CQ-resistant genotype in the study area.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Plasmodium falciparum , Alelos , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Paquistão , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
8.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 84(21): 859-874, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338159

RESUMO

Chloroquine (CQ) is an important drug used therapeutically for treatment of malaria. However, due to limited number of studies on metabolic targets of chloroquine (CQ), it is difficult to attribute mechanisms underlying resistance associated with usage of this drug. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic signatures of CQ-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (PfDd2) compared to CQ-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (Pf3D7). Both Pf3D7 and PfDd2 were treated with CQ at 200 nM for 48 hr; thereafter, the harvested red blood cells (RBCs) and media were subjected to microscopy and high-resolution metabolomics (HRM). Glutathione, γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine, spermidine, inosine monophosphate, alanine, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate were markedly altered in PfDd2 of RBC. In the media, cysteine, cysteic acid, spermidine, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylacetic acid were significantly altered in PfDd2. These differential metabolic signatures related signaling pathways of PfDd2, such as oxidative stress pathway and glycolysis may provide evidence for understanding the resistance mechanism and pathogenesis of the CQ-resistant parasite.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10669-10677, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463093

RESUMO

Chloroquine (CQ) is a famous medicine for treatment of diseases including malaria and pneumonia caused by COVID-19, but gastrointestinal disorder caused by its oral administration is a great concern. Milk is usually recommended to be taken with CQ to reduce such effect. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. Here, we found that ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin (LF) in whey proteins were able to interact with CQ to form complexes as suggested by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and molecular docking. Indeed, the crystal structure revealed that ß-LG is bound to CQ through hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding with a ratio of 1:1. Consequently, the formation of these protein-CQ complexes not only reduced the cytotoxicity of chloroquine to the stomach and gut cells but also facilitated its uptake by cells. This work gave an example to understand the relationship between food and drug.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cloroquina , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Humanos , Lactalbumina , Lactoglobulinas , Proteínas do Leite , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
10.
Bone ; 153: 116160, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464779

RESUMO

Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis type II (ADO2) is a bone disease of impaired osteoclastic bone resorption that usually results from heterozygous missense mutations in the chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) gene. We created mouse models of ADO2 by introducing a knock-in (p.G213R) mutation in the Clcn7 gene, which is analogous to one of the common mutations (G215R) found in humans. The mutation leads to severe osteopetrosis and lethality in homozygous mice but produces substantial phenotypic variability in heterozygous mice on different genetic backgrounds that phenocopy the human disease of ADO2. ADO2 is an osteoclast-intrinsic disease, and lysosomal enzymes and proteins are critical for osteoclast activity. Chloroquine (CQ) is known to affect lysosomal trafficking, intracellular signaling and the lysosomal and vesicular pH, suggesting it might improve ADO2 osteoclast function. We tested this hypothesis in cell culture studies using osteoclasts derived from wild-type (WT or ADO2+/+) and ADO2 heterozygous (ADO2+/-) mice and found that CQ and its metabolite desethylchloroquine (DCQ), significantly increased ADO2+/- osteoclasts bone resorption activity in vitro, whereas bone resorption of ADO2+/+ osteoclasts was increased only by DCQ. In addition, we exploited our unique animal model of ADO2 on 129 background to identify the effect of CQ for the treatment of ADO2. Female ADO2 mice at 8 weeks of age were treated with 5 doses of CQ (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/kg BW/day) via drinking water for 6 months. Bone mineral density and bone micro-architecture were analyzed by longitudinal in vivo DXA and micro-CT at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Serum bone biomarkers (CTX, TRAP and P1NP) were also analyzed at these time points. CQ treatment at the doses tested failed to produce any significant changes of aBMD, BMC (whole body, femur and spine) and trabecular BV/TV (distal femur) in ADO2 mice compared to the control group (water only). Further, levels of bone biomarkers were not significantly changed due to CQ treatment in these mice. Our findings indicate that while CQ increased osteoclast activity in vitro, it did not improve the osteopetrotic bone phenotypes in ADO2 heterozygous mice.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteopetrose , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Osso e Ossos , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Osteoclastos , Osteopetrose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteopetrose/genética , Fenótipo
11.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annona muricata and Khaya grandifoliola are ethnomedicinally used for the treatment of malaria and have been experimentally shown to have an anti-plasmodial effect, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of the ethanol extracts of their leaves on parasitemia, radical scavenging and cytokines in Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected BALB/c mice. METHODS: BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei and treated with chloroquine, A. muricata or K. grandifoliola extract for 4 days. The percentage of parasitemia and the level of cytokine expression were determined after treatment. Trace element, phytochemical and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging properties assays were done to study the antioxidant effects of AN and KG in vitro. RESULTS: P. berghei consistently increased parasitemia in BALB/c mice. The tested doses (100-, 200-, and 400 mg/kg) of A. muricata and K. grandifoliola attenuated the P. berghei-induced elevation of parasitemia and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-5, and IL-6) in vivo during the experimental period, though not as much as chloroquine. Moreover, both extracts scavenged the DPPH and NO radicals, though A. muricata had more anti-oxidant effect than K. grandifoliola in-vitro. CONCLUSION: The ethanol extracts of A. muricata and K. grandifoliola reduce parasitemia in P. berghei-treated mice BALB/c by scavenging free radicals and reducing cytokines, though the extracts were not as effective as chloroquine.


Assuntos
Annona , Citocinas/metabolismo , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Meliaceae , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Folhas de Planta , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359849

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as erlotinib, have dramatically improved clinical outcomes of patients with EGFR-driven non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). However, intrinsic or acquired resistance remains a clinical barrier to the success of FDA-approved EGFR TKIs. Multiple mechanisms of resistance have been identified, including the activation of prosurvival autophagy. We have previously shown that the expression and activity of PFKFB3-a known driver of glycolysis-is associated with resistance to erlotinib and that PFKFB3 inhibition improves the response of NSCLC cells to erlotinib. This study focuses on investigating the role of PFKFB3 in regulating erlotinib-driven autophagy to escape resistance to erlotinib. We evaluated the consequence of pharmacological inhibition of PFKFB3 on erlotinib-driven autophagy in NSCLC cells with different mutation statuses. Here, we identify PFKFB3 as a mediator of erlotinib-induced autophagy in NSCLCs. We demonstrate that PFKFB3 inhibition sensitizes NCSLCs to erlotinib via impairing autophagy flux. In summary, our studies uncovered a novel crosstalk between PFKFB3 and EGFR that regulates erlotinib-induced autophagy, thus contributing to erlotinib sensitivity in NSCLCs.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209818

RESUMO

This study builds a coronavirus knowledge graph (KG) by merging two information sources. The first source is Analytical Graph (AG), which integrates more than 20 different public datasets related to drug discovery. The second source is CORD-19, a collection of published scientific articles related to COVID-19. We combined both chemo genomic entities in AG with entities extracted from CORD-19 to expand knowledge in the COVID-19 domain. Before populating KG with those entities, we perform entity disambiguation on CORD-19 collections using Wikidata. Our newly built KG contains at least 21,700 genes, 2500 diseases, 94,000 phenotypes, and other biological entities (e.g., compound, species, and cell lines). We define 27 relationship types and use them to label each edge in our KG. This research presents two cases to evaluate the KG's usability: analyzing a subgraph (ego-centered network) from the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and revealing paths between biological entities (hydroxychloroquine and IL-6 receptor; chloroquine and STAT1). The ego-centered network captured information related to COVID-19. We also found significant COVID-19-related information in top-ranked paths with a depth of three based on our path evaluation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bases de Conhecimento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/etiologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Gráficos por Computador , Bases de Dados Factuais , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , PubMed , Receptores de Interleucina-6/sangue , SARS-CoV-2 , Fator de Transcrição STAT1
14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 908: 174374, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303662

RESUMO

The efficacy of corticosteroids and its use for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections is controversial. In this study, using data sets of SARS-CoV-2 infected lung tissues and nasopharyngeal swabs, as well as in vitro experiments, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly downregulates DUSP1 expression. This downregulation of DUSP1 could be the mechanism regulating the enhanced activation of MAPK pathway as well as the reported steroid resistance in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, chloroquine, an off labeled COVID-19 drug is able to induce DUSP1 and attenuate MAPK pathway; and is expected to improve sensitivity to steroid treatment. However, further mechanistic studies are required to confirm this effect.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Fosfatase 1 de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fosfatase 1 de Especificidade Dupla/metabolismo , Fibroblastos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Uso Off-Label , Cultura Primária de Células , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
15.
Antiviral Res ; 193: 105127, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217752

RESUMO

In this study, a series of 10 quinoline analogues was evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activity against a panel of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2), as well as the human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were the most potent with antiviral EC50 values in the range of 0.12-12 µM. Chloroquine displayed the most favorable selectivity index (i.e. ratio cytotoxic versus antiviral concentration), being 165 for HCoV-OC43 in HEL cells. Potent anti-coronavirus activity was also observed with amodiaquine, ferroquine and mefloquine, although this was associated with substantial cytotoxicity for mefloquine. Primaquine, quinidine, quinine and tafenoquine only blocked coronavirus replication at higher concentrations, while piperaquine completely lacked antiviral and cytotoxic effects. A time-of-addition experiment in HCoV-229E-infected HEL cells revealed that chloroquine interferes with viral entry at a post-attachment stage. Using confocal microscopy, no viral RNA synthesis could be detected upon treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells with chloroquine. The inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication by chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine coincided with an inhibitory effect on the autophagy pathway as visualized by a dose-dependent increase in LC3-positive puncta. The latter effect was less pronounced or even absent with the other quinolines. In summary, we showed that several quinoline analogues, including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, amodiaquine, ferroquine and mefloquine, exhibit broad anti-coronavirus activity in vitro.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Malar J ; 20(1): 292, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drug resistance may be limited by decreased fitness in resistant parasites. Important contributors to resistance are mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum putative drug transporter PfMDR1. METHODS: Impacts on in vitro fitness of two common PfMDR1 polymorphisms, N86Y, which is associated with sensitivity to multiple drugs, and Y184F, which has no clear impact on drug sensitivity, were evaluated to study associations between resistance mediators and parasite fitness, measured as relative growth in competitive culture experiments. NF10 P. falciparum lines engineered to represent all PfMDR1 N86Y and Y184F haplotypes were co-cultured for 40 days, and the genetic make-up of the cultures was characterized every 4 days by pyrosequencing. The impacts of culture with anti-malarials on the growth of different haplotypes were also assessed. Lastly, the engineering of P. falciparum containing another common polymorphism, PfMDR1 D1246Y, was attempted. RESULTS: Co-culture results were as follows. With wild type (WT) Y184 fixed (N86/Y184 vs. 86Y/Y184), parasites WT and mutant at 86 were at equilibrium. With mutant 184 F fixed (N86/184F vs. 86Y/184F), mutants at 86 overgrew WT. With WT N86 fixed (N86/Y184 vs. N86/184F), WT at 184 overgrew mutants. With mutant 86Y fixed (86Y/Y184 vs. 86Y/184F), WT and mutant at 86 were at equilibrium. Parasites with the double WT were in equilibrium with the double mutant, but 86Y/Y184 overgrew N86/184F. Overall, WT N86/mutant 184F parasites were less fit than parasites with all other haplotypes. Parasites engineered for another mutation, PfMDR1 1246Y, were unstable in culture, with reversion to WT over time. Thus, the N86 WT is stable when accompanied by the Y184 WT, but incurs a fitness cost when accompanied by mutant 184F. Culturing in the presence of chloroquine favored 86Y mutant parasites and in the presence of lumefantrine favored N86 WT parasites; piperaquine had minimal impact. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with those for Ugandan field isolates, suggest reasons for varied haplotypes, and highlight the interplay between drug pressure and fitness that is guiding the evolution of resistance-mediating haplotypes in P. falciparum.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Aptidão Genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Haplótipos , Lumefantrina/farmacologia , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/farmacologia
17.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(1): e21832, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250644

RESUMO

Autophagy is a critical mechanism for the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. Bombyx mori midgut has stem cells that play a role in the regeneration of the larval epithelium in larval stages and the formation of the pupal midgut epithelium during larval-pupal metamorphosis. In this study, the role of the autophagy mechanism in midgut stem cells during the formation of the pupal midgut was investigated. For this purpose, two different doses of autophagy inhibitor chloroquine were administered to B. mori larvae on days 7 and 8 of the fifth larval stage. Morphological changes during the formation process of the pupal epithelium, expression levels of autophagy-related genes Atg8 and Atg12 in stem cells, and the amounts of lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase were determined after the application. The obtained findings were evaluated in comparison with the control groups. Abnormalities in the formation of the pupal midgut after inhibition of autophagy showed the significance of the autophagy mechanism during this period.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Bombyx , Intestinos , Metamorfose Biológica/fisiologia , Células-Tronco , Fosfatase Ácida/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Bombyx/citologia , Bombyx/metabolismo , Bombyx/fisiologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/citologia , Larva/metabolismo , Pupa/citologia , Pupa/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009706, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252168

RESUMO

Many viruses utilize the host endo-lysosomal network for infection. Tracing the endocytic itinerary of SARS-CoV-2 can provide insights into viral trafficking and aid in designing new therapeutic strategies. Here, we demonstrate that the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is internalized via the pH-dependent CLIC/GEEC (CG) endocytic pathway in human gastric-adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells expressing undetectable levels of ACE2. Ectopic expression of ACE2 (AGS-ACE2) results in RBD traffic via both CG and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Endosomal acidification inhibitors like BafilomycinA1 and NH4Cl, which inhibit the CG pathway, reduce the uptake of RBD and impede Spike-pseudoviral infection in both AGS and AGS-ACE2 cells. The inhibition by BafilomycinA1 was found to be distinct from Chloroquine which neither affects RBD uptake nor alters endosomal pH, yet attenuates Spike-pseudovirus entry. By screening a subset of FDA-approved inhibitors for functionality similar to BafilomycinA1, we identified Niclosamide as a SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitor. Further validation using a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 in AGS-ACE2 and Vero cells confirmed its antiviral effect. We propose that Niclosamide, and other drugs which neutralize endosomal pH as well as inhibit the endocytic uptake, could provide broader applicability in subverting infection of viruses entering host cells via a pH-dependent endocytic pathway.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Amônio/farmacologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/fisiologia , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Clatrina/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocitose/fisiologia , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Niclosamida/administração & dosagem , Niclosamida/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Células Vero
19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(10): 2565-2568, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expanding resistance to multiple antimalarials, including chloroquine, in South-East Asia (SEA) urges the development of new therapies. AQ-13, a chloroquine derivative, is a new drug candidate for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. OBJECTIVES: Possible cross-resistance between the 4-aminoquinolines amodiaquine, piperaquine and AQ-13 has not been assessed. In vitro parasite growth assays were used to characterize the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant and susceptible P. falciparum patient isolates to AQ-13. METHODS: A [3H]hypoxanthine uptake assay and a 384-well high content imaging assay were used to assess efficacy of AQ-13 and desethyl-amodiaquine against 38 P. falciparum isolates. RESULTS: We observed a strong cross-resistance between the chloroquine derivative amodiaquine and AQ-13 in Cambodian P. falciparum isolates (Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.8621, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In light of the poor efficacy of amodiaquine that we described recently in Cambodia, and its cross resistance with AQ-13, there is a significant risk that similar clinical efficacy of AQ-13-based combinations should be anticipated in areas of amodiaquine resistance.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Amodiaquina/farmacologia , Amodiaquina/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum
20.
Malar J ; 20(1): 329, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2002, Zambia withdrew chloroquine as first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria due to increased treatment failure and worldwide spread of chloroquine resistance. The artemisinin combination regimen, artemether-lumefantrine, replaced chloroquine (CQ) as first choice malaria treatment. The present study determined the prevalence of CQ resistance molecular markers in the Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes in Eastern Zambia at 9 and 13 years after the removal of drug pressure. METHODS: Samples collected from Katete District during the drug therapeutic efficacy assessments conducted in 2012 and 2016 were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) to determine the prevalence of genetic mutations, K76T on the Pfcrt gene and N86Y on the Pfmdr1 gene. A total of 204 P. falciparum-positive DBS samples collected at these two time points were further analysed. RESULTS: Among the samples analysed for Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1 N86Y in the present study, 112 (82.4%) P. falciparum-infected samples collected in 2012 were successfully amplified for Pfcrt and 94 (69.1%) for Pfmdr1, while 69 (65.7%) and 72 (68.6%) samples from 2016 were successfully amplified for Pfcrt and Pfmdr1, respectively. In 2012, the prevalence of Pfcrt 76K (sensitive) was 97.3%, 76T (resistant) was 1.8%, and 0.8% had both 76K and 76T codons (mixed). Similarly in 2012, the prevalence of Pfmdr1 86N (sensitive) was 97.9% and 86Y (resistant) was 2.1%. In the 2016 samples, the prevalence of the respective samples was 100% Pfcrt 76K and Pfmdr1 86N. CONCLUSION: This study shows that there was a complete recovery of chloroquine-sensitive parasites by 2016 in Katete District, Eastern Zambia, 13 years following the withdrawal of CQ in the country. These findings add to the body of evidence for a fitness cost in CQ-resistant P. falciparum in Zambia and elsewhere. Further studies are recommended to monitor resistance countrywide and explore the feasibility of integration of the former best anti-malarial in combination therapy in the future.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/química , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
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