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1.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(1): e00705, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421347

RESUMO

Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is a common clinical problem that has occurred as a result of the concomitant use of multiple drugs. DDI may occur in patients under treatment with medications used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; i.e., chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, tocilizumab, and remdesivir) and increase the risk of serious adverse reactions such as QT-prolongation, retinopathy, increased risk of infection, and hepatotoxicity. This review focuses on summarizing DDIs for candidate medications used for COVID-19 in order to minimize the adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 794-802, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in the intestines and feces, but its clinical significance is not completely clear. We aim to characterize the longitudinal test results of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs and to explore the association with disease severity. METHODS: We included laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, who were hospitalized in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital and excluded those who had not received anal swabs for SARS-COV-2 RNA testing. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained. Throat swabs and anal swabs were collected periodically for SARS-COV-2 RNA detection. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventeen eligible patients (median aged 50 years, 50.2% were females) were analyzed. 21.2% (46/217) of the patients were detected with SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs. The duration of viral RNA was longer, but the viral load was lower in anal swabs than throat swabs in the early stage of the disease. During a median follow-up of 20 days, 30 (13.8%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for high-flow nasal cannula or higher-level oxygen support measures to correct hypoxemia. Detectable viral RNA in anal swabs (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-5.24), increased C-reactive protein (aHR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.35-7.32) and lymphocytopenia (aHR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.46-6.67) were independently associated with ICU admission. The cumulative incidence of ICU admission was higher among patients with detectable viral RNA in anal swabs (26.3% vs 10.7%, P = .006). CONCLUSION: Detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the digestive tract was a potential warning indicator of severe disease.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/virologia , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , /genética , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , /terapia , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfopenia/patologia , Linfopenia/terapia , Linfopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Faringe/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 194: 113761, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234414

RESUMO

The proliferation of falsified medicines can cause serious public health issues, particularly in the context of a global pandemic such as the actual COVID-19 pandemic. Our study involved eight chloroquine phosphate medicines seized in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo and Niger during March and May 2020. These suspect samples were first analyzed in a screening phase using field tools such as handheld Raman spectroscopy (TruScan) and then in a confirmation phase using laboratory tools such as hyperspectral Raman imaging and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results confirmed the falsified nature of the samples, highlighting the presence of metronidazole at low dose in four samples (16.6, 15.2, 15.2 and 14.5 mg/tab), too low levels of chloroquine in two samples (2.4 and 20.2 mg/tab), and substitution of chloroquine phosphate by paracetamol in one sample (255.7 mg/tab). The results also confirmed that four samples had been adulterated with paracetamol in trace amounts and two of them presented traces of chloramphenicol.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Cloroquina/análogos & derivados , Medicamentos Falsificados/análise , Pandemias , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/análise , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/análise , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos Falsificados/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Comprimidos
4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(1): 30-42, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical studies of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in COVID-19 disease reported conflicting results. We sought to systematically evaluate the effect of CQ and HCQ with or without azithromycin on outcomes of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched multiple databases, preprints and grey literature up to 17 July 2020. We pooled only adjusted-effect estimates of mortality using a random-effect model. We summarized the effect of CQ or HCQ on viral clearance, ICU admission/mechanical ventilation and hospitalization. RESULTS: Seven randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 14 cohort studies were included (20 979 patients). Thirteen studies (1 RCT and 12 cohort studies) with 15 938 hospitalized patients examined the effect of HCQ on short-term mortality. The pooled adjusted OR was 1.05 (95% CI 0.96-1.15, I2 = 0%). Six cohort studies examined the effect of the HCQ+azithromycin combination with a pooled adjusted OR of 1.32 (95% CI 1.00-1.75, I2 = 68.1%). Two cohort studies and four RCTs found no effect of HCQ on viral clearance. One small RCT demonstrated improved viral clearance with CQ and HCQ. Three cohort studies found that HCQ had no significant effect on mechanical ventilation/ICU admission. Two RCTs found no effect for HCQ on hospitalization risk in outpatients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence suggests that HCQ, with or without azithromycin, lacks efficacy in reducing short-term mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 or risk of hospitalization in outpatients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111008, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227708

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has drawn the attention of researchers and clinicians from several disciplines and sectors who are trying to find durable solutions both at preventive and treatment levels. To date, there is no approved effective treatment or vaccine available to control the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The preliminary in vitro studies on viral infection models showed potential antiviral activities of type I and III interferons (IFNs), chloroquine (CQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and azithromycin (AZM); however, the clinical studies on COVID-19 patients treated with CQ/HCQ and AZM led to controversies in different regions due to their adverse side effects, as well as their combined treatment could prolong the QT interval. Interestingly, the treatment with type I IFNs showed encouraging results. Moreover, the different preliminary reports of COVID-19 candidate vaccines showcase promising results by inducing the production of a high level of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and specific T cell-mediated immune response in almost all participants. The present review aims to summarize and analyze the recent progress evidence concerning the use of IFNs, CQ/HCQ, and AZM for the treatment of COVID-19. The available data on immunization options to prevent the COVID-19 are also analyzed with the aim to present the promising options which could be investigated in future for sustainable control of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , /prevenção & controle , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 19-27, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without azithromycin have been widely promoted to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) following early in vitro antiviral effects against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin decreased COVID-19 mortality compared with the standard of care. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and MedRxiv were searched up to 25 July 2020. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included published and unpublished studies comparing the mortality rate between patients treated with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin and patients managed with standard of care. PARTICIPANTS: Patients ≥18 years old with confirmed COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin. METHODS: Effect sizes were pooled using a random-effects model. Multiple subgroup analyses were conducted to assess drug safety. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 839 articles, of which 29 met our inclusion criteria. All studies except one were conducted on hospitalized patients and evaluated the effects of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin. Among the 29 articles, three were randomized controlled trials, one was a non-randomized trial and 25 were observational studies, including 11 with a critical risk of bias and 14 with a serious or moderate risk of bias. After excluding studies with critical risk of bias, the meta-analysis included 11 932 participants for the hydroxychloroquine group, 8081 for the hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin group and 12 930 for the control group. Hydroxychloroquine was not significantly associated with mortality: pooled relative risk (RR) 0.83 (95% CI 0.65-1.06, n = 17 studies) for all studies and RR = 1.09 (95% CI 0.97-1.24, n = 3 studies) for randomized controlled trials. Hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin was associated with an increased mortality (RR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.04-1.54, n = 7 studies). We found similar results with a Bayesian meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Hydroxychloroquine alone was not associated with reduced mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients but the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin significantly increased mortality.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , /mortalidade , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Viés , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Risco , /patogenicidade , Padrão de Cuidado , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(2): 483-486, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327397

RESUMO

Background: Combinations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin have been promoted as treatments for COVID-19 based on small, uncontrolled clinical trials that have not assessed potential risks. Risks of treatment include QT segment prolongation, Torsades de Pointes (TdP), and death. This comparative pharmacovigilance analysis evaluated the risk of these events. Methods: Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) (>13 million total reports) were used. Queries extracted reports based on exposures of HCQ/chloroquine (CQ) alone, azithromycin alone, HCQ/CQ + azithromycin, amoxicillin alone, HCQ/CQ + amoxicillin alone. Amoxicillin served as a control. Events of interest included death and TdP/QT prolongation as well as accidents/injuries and depression as control events. Proportional Reporting Ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated where a lower limit of the of 95% CI (Lower95CI) value of ≥2.0 is interpreted as a potential safety signal. Results: Lower95CIs for HCQ/CQ alone showed no potential safety signals for TdP/QT prolongation, death, or any of the control events included. The PRRs and 95% CIs for TdP/QT prolongation was 1.43 (1.29-2.59) with HCQ/CQ use alone and 4.10 (3.80-4.42) for azithromycin alone. For the combined HCQ/CQ + azithromycin group, the PRR and 95% CI was 3.77 (1.80-7.87). For the control of amoxicillin, there were no safety signals when used alone or in combination with HCQ/CQ. Conclusions: HCQ/CQ use was not associated with a safety signal in this analysis of FAERS data. However, azithromycin used alone was associated with TdP/QT prolongation events and should be used with caution.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , /tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do QT Longo/mortalidade , Farmacovigilância , Torsades de Pointes/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(2): 550-558, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458149

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has prompted investigators worldwide to search for an effective anti-viral treatment. A number of anti-viral drugs such as ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, antibiotics such as azithromycin and doxycycline, and anti-parasite such as ivermectin have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment. In addition, sufficient pre-clinical rationale and evidence have been presented to use chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. Furthermore, Zn has the ability to enhance innate and adaptive immunity in the course of a viral infection. Besides, Zn supplement can favour COVID-19 treatment using those suggested and/or recommended drugs. Again, the effectiveness of Zn can be enhanced by using chloroquine as an ionophore while Zn inside the infected cell can stop SARS-CoV-2 replication. Given those benefits, this perspective paper describes how and why Zn could be given due consideration as a complement to the prescribed treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 220: 108047, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221328

RESUMO

The drug resistance of Plasmodium vivax in clinical cases remains largely unknown till date because of the difficulty in diagnosing the resistant P. vivax strains. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mutant alleles in drug resistance genes viz P. vivax multi-drug resistance (pvmdr-1), chloroquine resistance transporter (pvcrt-o), dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) along with in vitro chloroquine (CQ) sensitivity in P. vivax clinical isolates. During August-October 2017 a total of 86 samples of the febrile patients were screened and 31 samples were found to be positive for P. vivax in Safdarjung hospital, New Delhi. Sequence genotyping of the drug resistance genes was carried out in these P. vivax samples and in vitro CQ susceptibility for 23 isolates was determined by the schizont maturation assay (SMA). The CQ inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the clinical isolates was found to be in the range of 25.6-176.7 nM. All the 31 clinical isolates analyzed for pvmdr-1 gene, showed mutant alleles and in only two isolates novel mutations at 861 and 898 codons were observed. Sequence analysis of pvcrt-o, pvdhfr and pvdhps genes revealed wild type genotypes in all the 31 studied isolates. The presence of mutations in pvmdr-1 gene and the increase in the CQ IC50 value indicates the possibility of shift in drug tolerance where CQ with primaquine (PQ) is still the first line of treatment for P. vivax malaria in the country. The regular molecular surveillance in P. vivax would provide useful information for the policy makers of the malaria control programme.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , DNA de Protozoário , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium vivax/classificação , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade da Espécie , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 589505, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364201

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemics is a challenge without precedent for the modern science. Acute Respiratory Discomfort Syndrome (ARDS) is the most common immunopathological event in SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV infections. Fast lung deterioration results of cytokine storm determined by a robust immunological response leading to ARDS and multiple organ failure. Here, we show cysteine protease Cathepsin L (CatL) involvement with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19 from different points of view. CatL is a lysosomal enzyme that participates in numerous physiological processes, including apoptosis, antigen processing, and extracellular matrix remodeling. CatL is implicated in pathological conditions like invasion and metastasis of tumors, inflammatory status, atherosclerosis, renal disease, diabetes, bone diseases, viral infection, and other diseases. CatL expression is up-regulated during chronic inflammation and is involved in degrading extracellular matrix, an important process for SARS-CoV-2 to enter host cells. In addition, CatL is probably involved in processing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. As its inhibition is detrimental to SARS-CoV-2 infection and possibly exit from cells during late stages of infection, CatL could have been considered a valuable therapeutic target. Therefore, we describe here some drugs already in the market with potential CatL inhibiting capacity that could be used to treat COVID-19 patients. In addition, we discuss the possible role of host genetics in the etiology and spreading of the disease.


Assuntos
/complicações , Catepsina L/fisiologia , Pandemias , /fisiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Amantadina/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Catepsina L/antagonistas & inibidores , Catepsina L/genética , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , /ultraestrutura , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Teicoplanina/uso terapêutico , Internalização do Vírus
12.
Curr Drug Metab ; 21(14): 1127-1135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are often co-administered with other drugs in the treatment of malaria, chronic inflammatory diseases, and COVID-19. Therefore, their metabolic properties and the effects on the activity of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes and drug transporters should be considered when developing the most efficient treatments for patients. METHODS: Scientific literature on the interactions of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine with human P450 enzymes and drug transporters, was searched using PUBMED.Gov (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and the ADME database (https://life-science.kyushu.fujitsu.com/admedb/). RESULTS: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are metabolized by P450 1A2, 2C8, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4/5 in vitro and by P450s 2C8 and 3A4/5 in vivo by N-deethylation. Chloroquine effectively inhibited P450 2D6 in vitro; however, in vivo inhibition was not apparent except in individuals with limited P450 2D6 activity. Chloroquine is both an inhibitor and inducer of the transporter MRP1 and is also a substrate of the Mate and MRP1 transport systems. Hydroxychloroquine also inhibited P450 2D6 and the transporter OATP1A2. CONCLUSIONS: Chloroquine caused a statistically significant decrease in P450 2D6 activity in vitro and in vivo, also inhibiting its own metabolism by the enzyme. The inhibition indicates a potential for clinical drug-drug interactions when taken with other drugs that are predominant substrates of the P450 2D6. When chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are used clinically with other drugs, substrates of P450 2D6 enzyme, attention should be given to substrate-specific metabolism by P450 2D6 alleles present in individuals taking the drugs.


Assuntos
Cloroquina/metabolismo , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Hidroxicloroquina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Animais , /metabolismo , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
13.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 27(5): 434-441, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308510

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019, the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, was first identified in the Hubei Province of China in late 2019. Currently, the only role for therapy is treatment of the disease, as opposed to postexposure prophylaxis, however multiple clinical trials are currently ongoing for both treatment and prophylaxis. Treating coronavirus disease 2019 relies on two components; the first is inhibition of the viral entrance and replication within the body and the second is inhibition of an exacerbated immune response which can be seen in patients with severe disease. Many drugs have shown in vitro antiviral activity; however, clinical trials have not been as promising. This review summarizes the current data for the most commonly used drugs for coronavirus disease 2019 and will cover the unique factors that may affect the dosing of these medications in patients with CKD. While clinical trials are ongoing, most are in patients with normal kidney function. During a pandemic, when patients with CKD are at higher risk of both infection and death, it is imperative to include patients these patients in the clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , /prevenção & controle , /uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/metabolismo , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Citidina/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxilaminas/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Eliminação Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
14.
Malar J ; 19(1): 457, 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357220

RESUMO

The incidence and mortality of COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization reports, shows a noticeable difference between North America, Western Europe, and South Asia on one hand and most African countries on the other hand, especially the malaria-endemic countries. Although this observation could be attributed to limited testing capacity, mitigation tools adopted and cultural habits, many theories have been postulated to explain this difference in prevalence and mortality. Because death tends to occur more in elders, both the role of demography, and how the age structure of a population may contribute to the difference in mortality rate between countries were discussed. The variable distribution of the ACEI/D and the ACE2 (C1173T substitution) polymorphisms has been postulated to explain this variable prevalence. Up-to-date data regarding the role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) in COVID-19 have been summarized. The article also sheds lights on how the similarity of malaria and COVID-19 symptoms can lead to misdiagnosis of one disease for the other or overlooking the possibility of co-infection. As the COVID-19 pandemic threatens the delivery of malaria services, such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying, as well as malaria chemoprevention there is an urgent need for rapid and effective responses to avoid malaria outbreaks.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , /diagnóstico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Interferons/fisiologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371468

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified, the world has vehemently worked to develop treatments and vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at an unprecedented speed. Few of the repositioned drugs for COVID-19 have shown that they were efficacious and safe. In contrast, a couple of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 will be ready for mass rollout early next year. Despite successful vaccine development for COVID-19, the world will face a whole new set of challenges including scale-up manufacturing, cold-chain logistics, long-term safety, and low vaccine acceptance. We highlighted the importance of knowledge sharing and collaboration to find innovative answers to these challenges and to prepare for newly emerging viruses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Nucleosídeos/análogos & derivados , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Saúde Pública , /fisiologia
16.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(6): 569-576, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the disease progression and immunoprotective characteristics in mice re-infected with homogeneous/heterogeneous Plasmodium strains following cure of Plasmodium infections with chloroquine at the peak of parasitemia. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with the non-lethal P. yoelii 17XNL strain, and half of mice were given treatment with chloroquine at the peak of parasitemia (9 days post-infection), while the other mice were self-cured naturally. Then, all cured mice were re-infected with the equivalent lethal P. yoelii 17XL or P. berghei ANKA strain 90 days following primary Plasmodium infections. The parasitemia levels during primary infections and reinfections were measured by microscopic examinations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films, and the levels of the IgG antibody in sera and the percentages of memory T cell subsets in spleen cells were detected in mice using ELISA and flow cytometry before and after parasite reinfections, respectively. RESULTS: Following primary infections with the P. yoelii 17XNL strain, the serum IgG antibody levels were (5.047 ± 0.924) pg/mL in the selfcured mice and (4.429 ± 0.624) pg/mL in the chloroquine-treated mice, respectively (t = 0.437, P > 0.05), which were both significantly higher than that in the uninfected mice (1.624 pg/mL ± 0.280 pg/mL) (F = 22.522, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the serum IgG antibody level among self-cured and chloroquine-treated mice re-infected with the P. yoelii 17XL strain or the P. berghei ANKA strain (F = 0.542, P > 0.05); however, the serum IgG antibody levels were all significantly higher in selfcured and chloroquine-treated mice re-infected with the P. yoelii 17XLstrain[(15.487±1.173)pg/mLand(15.965±1.150)pg/mL] or the P. berghei ANKA strain [(14.644 ± 1.523) pg/mL and (15.185 ± 1.333) pg/mL] relative to primary infections (F = 67.383, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the proportion of CD4+ [(34.208 ± 2.106), (32.820 ± 1.930), (34.023 ± 2.289), (35.608 ± 1.779) pg/mL] or CD8+ T memory cells [(17.935 ± 2.092), (18.918 ± 2.823), (17.103 ± 1.627), (17.873 ± 1.425) pg/mL] in self-cured and chloroquine-treated mice with primary infections with the P. yoelii 17XNL strain followed by re-infections with the P. yoelii 17XL strain or the P. berghei ANKA strain (F = 0.944 and 0.390, both P > 0.05); however, the proportions of the CD4+ or CD8+ T memory cells were significantly greater in self-cured and chloroquine-treated mice with primary infections with the P. yoelii 17XNL strain followed by re-infections with the P. yoelii 17XL strain or the P. berghei ANKA strain than in mice with primary infections (F = 50.532 and 21.751, both P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The cure of murine Plasmodium infections with chloroquine does not affect the production of effective immune protections in mice during parasite re-infections. Following a primary infection, mice show a protection against re-infections with either homogeneous or heterogeneous Plasmodium strains, and a higher-level resistance to re-infections with homogeneous parasite strains is found than with heterogeneous strains.


Assuntos
Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Malária , Plasmodium yoelii , /parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T/imunologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22139, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335141

RESUMO

Many recent studies have investigated the role of either Chloroquine (CQ) or Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) alone or in combination with azithromycin (AZM) in the management of the emerging coronavirus. This systematic review and meta-analysis of either published or preprint observational studies or randomized control trials (RCT) aimed to assess mortality rate, duration of hospital stay, need for mechanical ventilation (MV), virologic cure rate (VQR), time to a negative viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR), radiological progression, experiencing drug side effects, and clinical worsening. A search of the online database through June 2020 was performed and examined the reference lists of pertinent articles for in-vivo studies only. Pooled relative risks (RRs), standard mean differences of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with the random-effects model. Mortality was not different between the standard care (SC) and HCQ groups (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.61-1.59, I2 = 82%), meta-regression analysis proved that mortality was significantly different across the studies from different countries. However, mortality among the HCQ + AZM was significantly higher than among the SC (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.19-2.27, I2 = 70%). The duration of hospital stay in days was shorter in the SC in comparison with the HCQ group (standard mean difference = 0.57, 95% CI 0.20-0.94, I2 = 92%), or the HCQ + AZM (standard mean difference = 0.77, 95% CI 0.46-1.08, I2 = 81). Overall VQR, and that at days 4, 10, and 14 among patients exposed to HCQ did not differ significantly from the SC [(RR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.69-1.23, I2 = 67%), (RR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.26-4.69, I2 = 85%), (RR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.70-2.01, I2 = 95%), and (RR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.76-1.27, I2 = 85% )] respectively. Exposure to HCQ + AZM did not improve the VQR as well (RR = 3.23, 95% CI 0.70-14.97, I2 = 58%). The need for MV was not significantly different between the SC and HCQ (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.78-2.89, I2 = 81%), or HCQ + AZM (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.7-2.13, I2 = 88%). Side effects were more reported in the HCQ group than in the SC (RR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.58-6.24, I2 = 0). Radiological improvement and clinical worsening were not statistically different between HCQ and SC [(RR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.74-1.65, I2 = 45%) and (RR = 1.28, 95% CI 0.33-4.99), I2 = 54%] respectively. Despite the scarcity of published data of good quality, the effectiveness and safety of either HCQ alone or in combination with AZM in treating COVID-19 cannot be assured. Future high-quality RCTs need to be carried out.PROSPERO registration: CRD42020192084.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12593-12608, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336780

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is declared as an international emergency in 2020. Its prevalence and fatality rate are rapidly increasing but the medication options are still limited for this perilous disease. The emergent outbreak of COVID-19 triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) keeps propagating globally. The present scenario has emphasized the requirement for therapeutic opportunities to relive and overcome this latest pandemic. Despite the fact, the deteriorating developments of COVID-19, there is no drug certified to have considerable effects in the medical treatment for COVID-19 patients. The COVID-19 pandemic requests for the rapid testing of new treatment approaches. Based on the evidence, hydroxychloroquine is the first medicine opted for the treatment of disease. Umifenovir, remdesivir, and fevipiravir are deemed the most hopeful antiviral agent by improving the health of infected patients. The dexamethasone is a first known steroid medicine that can save the lives of seriously ill patients, and it is shown in a randomized clinical trial by the United Kingdom that it reduced the death rate in COVID-19 patients. The current review recapitulates the existing evidence of possible therapeutic drugs, peptides, humanized antibodies, convulsant plasma, and vaccination that has revealed potential in fighting COVID-19 infections. Many randomized and controlled clinical trials are taking place to further validate these agent's safety and effectiveness in curing COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , /terapia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Teicoplanina/uso terapêutico , Tetraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243598, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The search for a SARS-CoV-2 treatment has emerged as a worldwide priority. We evaluated the role of chloroquine and its derivatives in COVID-19 in Spanish individuals. METHODS: We performed a survey addressed to patients regularly taking chloroquine and its derivatives for the control of their autoimmune diseases. The survey was distributed with special attention to Spanish patient associations centred on autoimmune diseases and rheumatology and to the general population. A sample of untreated subjects was matched to the treated group according to sex, age range and incidence region. COVID-19 disease prevalence was compared between treated and untreated-matched control sample. RESULTS: A total of 319 surveys of patients regularly taking chloroquine and its derivatives were recovered for further analysis. The prevalence of declared COVID-19 status in the treated group was 5.3% and the mean prevalence among the untreated-matched groups was 3.4%. A community exposition to COVID-19 was associated with a greater prevalence of COVID-19 in both, treated (17.0% vs. 3.2%; p-value<0.001) and untreated groups (13.4% vs. 1.1%; p-value = 0.027). CONCLUSION: We did not find differences of reported COVID-19 cases between treated and untreated groups, indicating a lack of protection by regular administration of chloroquine and its derivative drugs on COVID-19 infection. Of relevance, data indicates that patients that regularly take chloroquine derivatives are exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and must take the same protection measures as the general population.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , /patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /patologia , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 999, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A severe epidemic of COVID-19 has broken out in China and has become a major global public health event. We focus on the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)-like changes and overactivation of Th17 cells (these produce cytokines) in patients with COVID-19. We aim to explore the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab (an injectable drug for the treatment of autoimmune diseases) to prevent organ injury caused by the immune response to COVID-19. Ixekizumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to interleukin-17A and inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. TRIAL DESIGN: The experiment is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the open trial, 3 patients with COVID-19 are treated with ixekizumab, and the safety and efficacy are observed for 7 days. In the second stage, 40 patients with COVID-19 are randomly divided into two groups at 1:1 for 14 days. This is a two-center, open-label, randomized controlled pilot trial with 2-arm parallel group design (1:1 ratio). PARTICIPANTS: Patients with COVID-19 aged 18-75 with increased Interleukin (IL)-6 levels will be enrolled, but patients with severe infections requiring intensive care will be excluded. The trial will be undertaken in two centers. The first stage is carried out in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, and the second stage is carried out simultaneously in the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In the first stage, three subjects are given ixekizumab ("Taltz") (80 mg/ml, 160 mg as a single hypodermic injection) and antiviral therapy (α-interferon (administer 5 million U by aerosol inhalation twice daily), lopinavir/ritonavir (administer 100mg by mouth twice daily, for the course of therapy no more than 10 days), chloroquine (administer 500mg by mouth twice daily, for the course of therapy no more than 10 days), ribavirin (administer 500mg by intravenous injection two to three times a day, for the course of therapy no more than 10 days), or arbidol (administer 200mg by mouth three times a day, for the course of therapy no more than 10 days), but not more than 3 types). The treatment course of the first stage is 7 days. In the second stage, 40 randomized patients will receive the following treatments--Group 1: ixekizumab (80 mg/ml, 160 mg as a single hypodermic injection) with antiviral therapy (the same scheme as in the first stage); Group 2: antiviral therapy alone (the same scheme as in the first stage). The length of the second treatment course is 14 days. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is a change in pulmonary CT severity score (an imaging tool for assessing COVID-19, which scores on the basis of all abnormal areas involved). Pulmonary CT severity score is assessed on the 7th day, 14th day, or at discharge. RANDOMISATION: In the second stage, 40 patients with COVID-19 are randomly divided into two groups at 1:1 for 14 days. The eLite random system of Nanjing Medical University is used for randomization. BLINDING (MASKING): The main efficacy indicator, the CT results, will be evaluated by the third-party blinded and independent research team. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): In the second stage, 40 patients with COVID-19 are randomly divided into two groups at 1:1 for 14 days. TRIAL STATUS: Trial registration number is ChiCTR2000030703 (version 1.7 as of March 19, 2020). The recruitment is ongoing, and the date recruitment was initiated in June 2020. The anticipated date of the end of data collection is June 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The name of the trial register is the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. The trial registration number is ChiCTR2000030703 ( http://www.chictr.org.cn/ ). The date of trial registration is 10 March 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting the dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , /efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Segurança , Células Th17/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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