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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132331, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607113

RESUMO

This study reported Fe doped zinc oxide (Fe-ZnO) synthesis to degrade chlorpyrifos (CPY), a highly toxic organophosphate pesticide and important sources of agricultural wastes. Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analyses showed successful formation of the Fe-ZnO with highly crystalline and amorphous nature. Water collected from agricultural wastes were treated with Fe-ZnO and the results showed 67% degradation of CPY by Fe-ZnO versus 39% by ZnO at 140 min treatment time. Detail mechanism involving reactive oxygen species production from solar light activated Fe-ZnO and their role in degradation of CPY was assessed. Use of H2O2, peroxydisulfate (S2O82-) and peroxymonosulfate (HSO5-) with Fe-ZnO under solar irradiation promoted removal of CPY. The peroxides yielded hydroxyl (OH) and sulfate radical () under solar irradiation mediated by Fe-ZnO. Effects of several parameters including concentration of pollutant and oxidants, pH, co-existing ions, and presence of natural organic matter on CPY degradation were studied. Among peroxides, HSO5- revealed to provide better performance. The prepared Fe-ZnO showed high reusability and greater mineralization of CPY. The GC-MS analysis showed degradation of CPY resulted into several transformation products (TPs). Toxicity analysis of CPY as well as its TPs was performed and the formation of non-toxic acetate imply greater capability of the treatment technology.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Óxido de Zinco , Catálise , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Difração de Raios X , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
2.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 228-237, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566284

RESUMO

Organophosphate compounds are the most widely employed insecticides in countries with high agriculture activity. On average, organophosphates cause 3 million people to poison and 200 000 deaths per year due to food chain or occupational, accidental, or suicidal exposure. Our study aimed to research selenium's protective role against the toxic action of CPF, one of the most commonly used organophosphates, with an experimental model formed with rats. A total of 56 male SD rats were distributed into seven groups as follows: control (tap water), sham (corn oil), group I (5.4 mg/kg CPF), group II (13.5 mg/kg CPF), group III (3 mg/kg Se), group IV (5.4 mg/kg CPF+Se), and group V (13.5 mg/kg CPF+Se). Following 6 weeks of oral exposure, there were significant changes in AChE activity, biochemical and hematological parameters, and trace element levels in CPF-treated rats. In the high-dose CPF group, RBC values, Hb, and Hct decreased, and values of WBC, AST, ALT, ALP increased (p < 0.001) significantly compared to control, sham, and Se groups. While there was no significant change in zinc level, the copper and selenium levels were significantly higher in group IV than in control (p < 0.001) and sham (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively) groups. Moreover, max. O.R.L. was found statistically more elevated in the high-dose CPF group compared to control, sham, and Se groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.01, respectively). All results indicated that Se is an antioxidant that reduces the toxic effects caused by CPF. Employing combinations of chlorpyrifos and selenium appeared greatly in restoring the harmful effects of CPF exposure.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Selênio , Oligoelementos , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Selênio/farmacologia
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118333, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637829

RESUMO

While interactions with global warming and multigenerational effects are considered crucial to improve risk assessment of pesticides, these have rarely been studied in an integrated way. While heat extremes can magnify pesticide toxicity, no studies tested how their combined effects may transmit to the next generation. We exposed mosquito larvae in a full factorial, two-generation experiment to a heat spike followed by chlorpyrifos exposure. As expected, the heat spike magnified the chlorpyrifos-induced lethal and sublethal effects within both generations. Only when preceded by the heat spike, chlorpyrifos increased mortality and reduced the population growth rate. Moreover, chlorpyrifos-induced reductions in heat tolerance (CTmax), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and development time were further magnified by the heat spike. Notably, when parents were exposed to chlorpyrifos, the chlorpyrifos-induced lethal and sublethal effects in the offspring were smaller, indicating increased tolerance to chlorpyrifos. In contrast, there was no such multigenerational effect for the heat spike. Despite the adaptive multigenerational effect to the pesticide, the synergism with the heat spike was still present in the offspring generation. Generally, our results provide important evidence that short exposure to pulse-like global change stressors can strongly affect organisms within and across generations, and highlight the importance of considering multigenerational effects in risk assessment.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Culicidae , Praguicidas , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta , Larva
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150373, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818764

RESUMO

There is increasing awareness that the toxicity of pesticides can to a large extent be modulated by warming, and that temporal exposure scenarios may strongly affect the impact of two stressors. Nevertheless, we lack information on how the exposure duration to warming may shape pesticide toxicity under warming. Furthermore, despite that bioenergetic responses have the potential to generate mechanistic insights in how toxicants interact with warming, this has been understudied in ecotoxicology. To investigate whether warming duration modifies pesticide toxicity, mosquito larvae were exposed to a control temperature at 20 °C or three warming treatments at 24 °C (acute, developmental and transgenerational warming), and to four pesticide treatments (solvent control, and three chlorpyrifos concentrations) in a full factorial design. Chlorpyrifos increased mortality, growth rate and the energy consumed, and reduced the AChE (acetylcholinesterase) activity, the energy available, and the net energy budget (estimated as cellular energy allocation). The warming treatments did not affect mortality, AChE activity, and the energy consumed. However, acute warming increased the growth rate and decreased the energy available, while both acute and developmental warming decreased the cellular energy allocation. A first key finding was that the lethal and sublethal effects of chlorpyrifos were less strong under warming because of a higher degradation in the medium under warming. A second key finding was that, among the warming treatments, the pesticide toxicity was more increased under acute warming than under transgenerational warming. This could be explained by the negative impact of acute warming but not transgenerational warming on the net energy budget. The results in this study provide mechanistic insights that the exposure duration to warming can play an important role in modulating the impact of pesticides under warming. Therefore, including ecologically relevant temporal scenarios of exposure to warming is important in ecotoxicological studies.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta , Larva , Praguicidas/toxicidade
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 179: 104977, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802527

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (0,0-diethyl 0-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)-phosphorothioate; (CPF)) is a widely used lipophilic organophosphorus insecticide that primarily manifests into central and peripheral nervous system toxicity. However, it is poorly investigated as a developmental neurotoxicant and thus remains less explored for pharmacological interventions as well. Berberine (BBR) is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, primarily found in the plants of Berberidaceae family, and is used for the synthesis of several bioactive derivatives. The goal of this study was to evaluate the CPF-induced neuronal damage through lactational route and analyze the neuroprotective efficacy of berberine (BBR), a potent antioxidant compound in the F1 generation. The environmentally relevant dose of CPF (3 mg/kg b.wt.) was administered via gavage to pregnant dams from postnatal day 1 to day 20 (PND 1-20). BBR (10 mg/kg b.wt.) was administered concurrently with CPF for the same duration as a co-treatment. Levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, membrane bound ATPases (Na+K+ATPase, Ca2+ATPase, and Mg2+ATPase), DNA damage, histomorphological alterations, cellular apoptosis were increased, and activities of glutathione reductase, endogenous antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GST, and GR) were decreased in cerebellum and cerebrum regions of CPF exposed pups. CPF triggered neuronal apoptosis by upregulating Bax and caspase-3 and downregulating Bcl-2. Co-treatment of BBR significantly attenuated these effects of CPF signifying oxidative stress mediated chlorpyrifos induced neuronal apoptosis. Berberine treatment ameliorated the CPF-induced downregulation of Bcl-2, Bax translocation, and up-regulation of caspase-3 in F1 pups. Therefore, BBR owing to its multiple pharmacological properties can be further explored for its therapeutic potential as an alternative neuroprotective agent against lactational exposure of chlorpyrifos-induced developmental neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Berberina , Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Animais , Berberina/toxicidade , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682526

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical products, as well as insecticides and antimicrobials, have been extensively studied, but knowledge of their effects-especially those caused by their mixtures with microplastics-on aquatic organisms remains limited. However, it should be borne in mind that the state of knowledge on acute and chronic effects in aquatic organisms for pharmaceuticals and pesticides is not similar. In response, this investigation analyzed the presence of microplastics (polyvinyl chloride) and their impacts on the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (an insecticide) and triclosan (an antibacterial) when they coincide in the environment, alongside the two most consumed drugs of their type (hypolipemic and anticonvulsant, respectively), namely simvastatin and carbamazepine, in Artemia salina. LC50 and cholinesterase enzyme activity were calculated to determine the possible neurotoxicity associated with emergent contaminants in the treatments. The LC50 values obtained were 0.006 mg/dm3 for chlorpyrifos, 0.012 mg/dm3 for chlorpyrifos associated with microplastics, 4.979 mg/dm3 for triclosan, 4.957 mg/dm3 for triclosan associated with microplastics, 9.35 mg/dm3 for simvastatin, 10.29 mg/dm3 for simvastatin associated with microplastics, 43.25 mg/dm3 for carbamazepine and 46.50 mg/dm3 for carbamazepine associated with microplastics in acute exposure. These results indicate that the presence of microplastics in the medium reduces toxicity, considering the LC50 values. However, exposure to chlorpyrifos and carbamazepine, both alone and associated with microplastics, showed a decline in cholinesterase activity, confirming their neurotoxic effect. Nevertheless, no significant differences were observed with the biomarker cholinesterase between the toxicant and the toxicant with microplastics.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Artemia , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Microplásticos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Plásticos , Cloreto de Polivinila , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 240: 105980, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614477

RESUMO

Exposure to pesticides is a major stressor in freshwater ecosystems. While populations can evolve tolerance to pesticides and thereby ensure their persistence in contaminated environments, this may have important consequences for their sensitivity to other pollutants. Indeed, tolerance to one pollutant may both increase (as a cost of tolerance) or decrease (cross-tolerance) the sensitivity to other pollutants. Despite the increasing concern of pharmaceuticals in waterbodies, no patterns of pesticide-induced (cross-)tolerance have been studied. We conducted 48 h acute toxicity assays with a range of concentrations of different pollutants to determine how the evolution of tolerance to the insecticide chlorpyrifos affects the sensitivity to other pesticides and a pharmaceutical in the water flea Daphnia magna, a keystone zooplankton species in aquatic food webs. We capitalized on an experimental evolution trial with chlorpyrifos, hence could unambiguously identify any patterns in increased tolerance or sensitivity to the other pollutants as a direct result of the evolution of tolerance to chlorpyrifos. We found that evolution of tolerance to chlorpyrifos conferred cross-tolerance to another organophosphate, namely malathion (mean change in EC50,48h: factor 3.1), and to the carbamate carbaryl (factor 1.7), confirming that a shared mode of action favours the evolution of cross-tolerance. While the evolution of tolerance to chlorpyrifos did not affect the sensitivity to the pyrethroid esfenvalerate, it increased the sensitivity to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid as shown by the decrease in EC50,48h (factor 0.6). Notably, we demonstrated for the first time that the evolution of tolerance to a pesticide increased the sensitivity to a pharmaceutical, namely fluoxetine (decrease in EC50,48h with factor 0.7), thereby identifying an overlooked cost of tolerance to a pesticide. Given the increasing exposure to pesticides and pharmaceuticals, our results highlight that considering cross-tolerance and costs of tolerance is crucial in risk assessment of both pesticides and pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carbamatos , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Neonicotinoides , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624943

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the effect of chlorpyrifos on the expression of autophagy related proteins in rat hippocampal neurons, and to explore the role of autophagy in central nerve injury caused by acute chlorpyrifos poisoning. Methods: In October 2018, 35 male clean grade SD rats were randomly divided into 7 groups according to the observation time point, namely 0.5 d, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 5 d and 7 d groups and the control group, with 5 rats in each group. Each observation group was given 81.5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos by gavage, and the control group was given olive oil by gavage. The general conditions and poisoning symptoms of rats were observed continuously after exposure. The expressions of autophagy related proteins Beclin1, P62/SQSTM1 and LC3 in hippocampus were detected by Western blot. The cell morphology and LC3 expression in brain were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Results: Western blot results showed that compared with the control group, the expression of Beclin1 protein in hippocampal neurons of rats in the 1 d, 2 d, and 3 d groups increased, while the expression of P62/SQSTM1 protein in the 0.5 d, 1 d, and 2 d groups decreased, and the expression of LC3 protein was decreased in the 2 d group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) . The results of immunohistochemistry showed that the hippocampal neurons of rats in the 5 d group were arranged disorderly, and some nuclei contours disappeared, especially in the 7 d group. The LC3 protein was expressed in the cytoplasm, and the expression level gradually increased, reaching a peak on the second day. Conclusion: The early activation of autophagy in rats with acute chlorpyrifos poisoning may be involved in chlorpyrifos induced hippocampal neuronal injury.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Hipocampo , Masculino , Neurônios , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112790, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653840

RESUMO

The organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides are responsible for inhibition of the Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. The AChE activity, therefore, has been demonstrated to be a potent biomarker for these insecticides in terrestrial and aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of AChE in the brain of four-week old fingerlings of silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus exposed to OP and CB insecticides. The fish fingeling were exposed to three OPs and one CB insecticide as individual and their binary mixtures for 48 h. The OP insecticides with oxon (PO) as well as thion (PS) group gets oxidized to oxon analogs in biological systems. The 50% AChE inhibition (48 h EC50) in fingerling exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF) and triazophos (TRZ) was evident at 2.3 and 6.7 µg/L, respectively. The toxicological interaction of three OPs and one CB insecticide was evaluated using the toxic unit method. A strong synergism was observed for binary combination of CPF with profenofos (PRF), and CPF with TAZ. In contrast, the mixture of TAZ with PRF and carbofuran (CBF) with CPF and PRF showed antagonistic behavior. Although OP and CB insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that non-target aquatic biota may be exposed to mixtures of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months, in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year. And at environmentally relevant concentrations such mixtures may lead to deleterious effects in non-target organisms.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Percas , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade
10.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(9): 1255-1277, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553733

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CP) is a class of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, which find extensive applications as acaricide, insecticide and termiticide. The use of CP has been indicated in environmental contamination and disturbance in the biogeochemical cycles. CP has been reported to be neurotoxic and has a detrimental effect on immunological and psychological health. Therefore, it is necessary to design and develop effective degradation methods for the removal of CP from the environment. In the past few years, physicochemical (advanced oxidation process) and biological treatment approaches have been widely employed for the pesticide removal. However, the byproducts of this process are more toxic than the parent compound and along with an incomplete degradation of CP. This review focuses on the toxicity of CP, the sources of contamination, degradation pathways, physicochemical, biological, and nano-technology based methods employed for the degradation of CP. In addition, consolidated information on various detection methods and materials used for the detection have been provided in this review.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Oxirredução
11.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118061, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523523

RESUMO

Pesticides used in agriculture can be transported at a medium-high distance due to the drift effect, reaching even remote areas as mountain regions, glaciers, and snow cover. With the melting process, pesticides enter freshwater glacier ecosystems, becoming a threat to wildlife fauna, mainly dominated by Diptera Chironomidae. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), as one of the most commonly used pesticides in alpine vineyards and apple orchards, is frequently detected in icemelt waters. We selected as target species, larvae of the cold stenothermal chironomid Diamesa zernyi, collected in two glacier-fed streams (Presena and Amola) in the Italian Alps. Firstly, a de novo transcriptome was obtained, and secondly, a gene array was designed to study the molecular response of a wild population of D. zernyi exposed to three sub-lethal CPF concentrations corresponding to 1/100 LC10 (0.011 µg/L), 1/10 LC10 (0.11 µg/L), and LC10 (1.1 µg/L), for 24 h. The sub-organismal response was evaluated by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), employing 40 genes related to essential metabolic routes as future candidates for biomarkers in wildlife chironomids. After 24 h, the endocrine system (E75, E93, EcR, and Met), detoxification response (GSTO3, GSTS1), and stress response (hsp75, hsp83, HYOU1) were altered. CPF seems to act as an endocrine disruptor and could lead to defective larval development, disrupted cellular homeostasis through heat shock proteins (HSPs) alteration (defective protein folding and mitochondrial functions), as well as oxidative damage (confirmed by increased GST expression). For the first time, molecular studies detected early alarm signals in wildlife in glacier environments. Our findings confirm the high environmental risk of CPF affecting aquatic insect metabolism and raise the level of concern about this pesticide in high altitude water bodies, generally considered pristine. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the incipient need to use non-model organisms for the evaluation of natural ecosystems. We also highlight the demand for research into new molecular biomarkers, and the importance of including molecular approaches in toxicology evaluations to detect the early adverse effects of pollutants.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Clorpirifos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118217, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583267

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, is prevalent in aquatic systems globally and is often implicated in aquatic toxicity during storm events. Chlorpyrifos induces toxicity by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which has been related to alterations to fish swimming performance. Resistance to organophosphate insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, is prevalent in populations of the epibenthic amphipod Hyalella azteca in areas with known OP exposure. Previous studies have demonstrated an elevated bioaccumulation potential of insecticide-resistant prey items, however the potential for trophic transfer of chlorpyrifos from OP-resistant prey items and associated neurotoxic effects in fish predators has not been studied. Consequently, the present study aimed to determine the potential for trophic transfer of chlorpyrifos from OP-resistant H. azteca to a known predator, the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina at two temperatures (18 and 23 °C) to simulate temperature changes associated with global climate change (GCC). Fish were fed either 14C-chlorpyrifos-dosed H. azteca or control animals for 7 d, after which total bioaccumulation, percent parent chlorpyrifos, brain AChE activity and swimming performance (ramp-Ucrit) were determined. Fish fed chlorpyrifos-dosed H. azteca bioaccumulated chlorpyrifos ranging from 29.9 to 1250 ng/g lipid, demonstrating the potential for trophic transfer. Lower bioaccumulation and greater biotransformation were observed in M. beryllina at 23 °C as compared to 18 °C, though this was not statistically significant. A significant 36.5% reduction in brain AChE activity was observed in fish fed chlorpyrifos-dosed H. azteca at 23 °C only, which may be attributed to increased biotransformation of parent chlorpyrifos to more potent AChE-inhibiting metabolites. Dietary chlorpyrifos exposure had no significant effect on swimming performance in M. beryllina, though ramp-Ucrit was significantly increased by 25% at 23 as compared to 18 °C. These findings confirm the potential for trophic transfer of chlorpyrifos from OP-resistant prey to fish predators and the potential for elevated temperatures to exacerbate the neurotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/análise , Natação , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378759

RESUMO

The toxic effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, and the herbicide glyphosate on the growth, biovolume and ultrastructure of the green microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum were evaluated. Concentrations between 9.37-150 mg L-1 of chlorpyrifos, 3.12-100 mg L-1 of cypermethrin and 4.7-60 mg L-1 of glyphosate were assayed along with a control culture. The assayed concentrations were prepared using commercial formulations. After 48 h all tested concentrations of the three pesticides reduced significantly the population growth. The 96 h effective concentration 50 (EC50) was 14.45 mg L-1 for chlorpyrifos, 12.37 mg L-1 for cypermethrin and 15.60 mg L-1 for glyphosate. Cells exposed to the three pesticides showed an increase in the cellular size related to the increase in pesticide concentration and exposure time. The most significant damages observed on the ultrastructure of cells exposed to the three pesticides included thylakoids and mitochondria disruption, formation of electrodense bodies, accumulation of lipids and increase in the size and number of starch granules. The present study demonstrates that the effects of pesticides also extend to non-target organisms having significant ecological implications.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 103724, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416397

RESUMO

The testicular deficiency associated with exposure to three widely used insecticides in Egyptian agriculture was evaluated. Animals were orally treated with sub-lethal dose (1/50 of the oral LD50) of cypermethrin (CYP), imidacloprid (IMC), and chlorpyrifos (CPF) at 5, 9 and 1.9 mg/kg/day, respectively, five times a week for one month. The CYP, IMC, and CPF exposure resulted in a significant decline in animal body weight, sperm count, motility, normality, and viability with increased head and tail deformities. Significant reduction in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testis superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. In contrast, catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) levels were significantly stimulated. Jointly, obtained results were confirmed by microscopic examination of testis sections. The present data concluded that the CYP, IMC, and CPF have a public health impact and violently interferes with male rat reproductive system.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5163, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453052

RESUMO

Obesity results from a caloric imbalance between energy intake, absorption and expenditure. In both rodents and humans, diet-induced thermogenesis contributes to energy expenditure and involves the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). We hypothesize that environmental toxicants commonly used as food additives or pesticides might reduce BAT thermogenesis through suppression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and this may contribute to the development of obesity. Using a step-wise screening approach, we discover that the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos suppresses UCP1 and mitochondrial respiration in BAT at concentrations as low as 1 pM. In mice housed at thermoneutrality and fed a high-fat diet, chlorpyrifos impairs BAT mitochondrial function and diet-induced thermogenesis, promoting greater obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. This is associated with reductions in cAMP; activation of p38MAPK and AMPK; protein kinases critical for maintaining UCP1 and mitophagy, respectively in BAT. These data indicate that the commonly used pesticide chlorpyrifos, suppresses diet-induced thermogenesis and the activation of BAT, suggesting its use may contribute to the obesity epidemic.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiopatologia , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/metabolismo , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
16.
Theriogenology ; 173: 249-260, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399389

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF), as one of the most extensively applied organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in agricultural and domestic settings, causes a potential threat to human and animal health. Various reproductive toxicities of CPF have been reported, however, little information is available on whether CPF exposure could exert toxic effects on mammalian oocytes. Herein, the effects of CPF on the meiotic maturation and developmental capability of porcine oocytes were investigated, and the possible toxic mechanisms of CPF were also explored. Porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were treated with 0, 5, 10, or 20 µM CPF for 44 h during in vitro maturation (IVM), and the results showed that the first polar body (PB1) extrusion rate was significantly decreased, and the subsequent developmental competence of the resulting metaphase II (MII) oocytes was also impaired when the concentration of CPF reached 10 µM. In addition, a higher percentage of CPF-exposed oocytes were arrested at the anaphase-telophase I (ATI) stage, accompanied by misaligned chromosomes and aberrant spindles. Furthermore, higher levels of ROS and upregulated antioxidant-related genes (CAT, SOD1, SOD2, GPX) were detected in CPF-treated oocytes. Additionally, CPF treatment led to the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c). Simultaneously, the apoptotic rate of the oocytes was significantly increased, and the expression levels of Bax and CASPASE3 were significantly upregulated after CFP exposure. Together, exposure to 10 µM CPF can disrupt the meiotic cycle progression, lead to aberrant spindles and mitochondrial dysfunction, which eventually induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in porcine oocytes.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Animais , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Mitocôndrias , Oócitos/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Suínos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117900, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391048

RESUMO

Given extensive use of pesticides in agriculture, there is concern for unintended consequences to non-target species. The non-target freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca has been found to show resistance to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide, chlorpyrifos, resulting from an amino acid substitution in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), suggesting a selective pressure of unintended pesticide exposure. Since resistant organisms can survive in contaminated habitats, there is potential for them to accumulate higher concentrations of insecticides, increasing the risk for trophic transfer. In the present study, we estimated the uptake and elimination of chlorpyrifos in non-resistant US Lab, and resistant Ulatis Creek (ULC Resistant), H. azteca populations by conducting 24-h uptake and 48-h elimination toxicokinetic experiments with 14C-chlorpyrifos. Our results indicated that non-resistant H. azteca had a larger uptake clearance coefficient (1467 mL g-1 h-1) than resistant animals (557 mL g-1 h-1). The half-life derived from the toxicokinetic models also estimated that steady state conditions were reached at 13.5 and 32.5 h for US Lab and ULC, respectively. Bioaccumulation was compared between non-resistant and resistant H. azteca by exposing animals to six different environmentally relevant concentrations for 28 h. Detection of chlorpyrifos in animal tissues indicated that resistant animals exposed to high concentrations of chlorpyrifos were capable of accumulating the insecticide up to 10-fold higher compared to non-resistant animals. Metabolite analysis from the 28-h concentration experiments showed that between 20 and 50 % parent compound was detected in H. azteca. These results imply that bioaccumulation potential can be more significant in chlorpyrifos resistant H. azteca and may be an essential factor in assessing the full impacts of toxicants on critical food webs, especially in the face of increasing pesticide and chemical runoff.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Anfípodes/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Toxicology ; 460: 152883, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352351

RESUMO

3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is an important biomarker and one of the final metabolites of chlorpyrifos (CPF). TCP inhibits secretion of sex hormones. Similar to CPF, TCP can bind to sex steroid hormone receptors and decrease the secretion of sex hormones. However, little attention has been paid to the ability of TCP and CPF to interfere with androgen receptor (AR) in Sertoli cells. This study aimed to explain how TCP promotes the inhibitory effect of CPF on the paracrine function of Sertoli cells. Western blotting indicated that after 20 weeks of exposure, expression of AR in testes was significantly reduced by CPF. An in vitro assay measured the cytotoxicity of CPF, TCP and diethylphosphate (DEP) on viability of Sertoli cells by Cell Counting Kit-8. CPF cytotoxicity was greater than that of TCP, and TCP cytotoxicity was greater than that of DEP at concentrations of 1000 µmol/L. Western blotting indicated that TCP and CPF both decreased expression of AR and cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation, while DEP had no effect in Sertoli cells, which are important in regulating paracrine function of Sertoli cells. The fluorescence measurements and docking studies revealed that testosterone, CPF and TCP showed four types of intermolecular interactions with AR, highlighting alkyl bonds with some of the same amino acids. Compared with testosterone, CPF and TCP also showed significant synergistic interaction with AR. CPF interacted with more amino acids and interaction energy than TCP did. This research elucidates TCP in the antiandrogenic effect of CPF on the paracrine function and suggests that TCP or chemicals with a trichloropyridine structure must be considered during reproductive toxicity assessment of potential environmental pollutants.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/toxicidade , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Comunicação Parácrina/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridonas/toxicidade , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Clorpirifos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Herbicidas/administração & dosagem , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Comunicação Parácrina/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104920, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446196

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate pesticide, commonly detected in water and food. Despite CPF toxicity on aquatic species has been extensively studied, few studies analyze the effects of CPF on fish transcriptional pathways. The Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor that is activated by binding to a wide variety of ligands and regulates the transcription of enzymes involved in the metabolism and transport of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. We evaluated the mRNA expression of PXR-regulated-genes (PXR, CYP3A27, CYP2K1, ABCB1, UGT, and ABCC2) in intestine and liver of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed in vivo to an environmentally relevant CPF concentration. Our results demonstrate that the expression of PXR and PXR-regulated genes is increased in O. mykiss liver and intestine upon exposure to CPF. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of CPF on other cellular pathway involved in xenobiotic metabolism, the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) pathway, and on the expression and activity of different biotransformation enzymes (CYP2M1, GST, FMO1, or cholinesterases (ChEs)). In contrast to PXR, the expression of AhR, and its target gene CYP1A, are reduced upon CPF exposure. Furthermore, ChE and CYP1A activities are significantly inhibited by CPF, in both the intestine and the liver. CPF activates the PXR pathway in O. mykiss in the intestine and liver, with a more profound effect in the intestine. Likewise, our results support regulatory crosstalk between PXR and AhR pathways, where the induction of PXR coincides with the downregulation of AhR-mediated CYP1A mRNA expression and activity in the intestine.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Receptor de Pregnano X/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética
20.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104938, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446205

RESUMO

The adverse effects of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, and imidacloprid on mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress biomarkers were studied in rat liver. The liver deficiency was also confirmed by histological analysis and gel electrophoresis. Each insecticide was administered orally with five doses per week for 28 days to male albino rats at 1/50 of the LD50 per insecticide. The results demonstrated that the mitochondrial dysfunction was confirmed by a significant decrease in NADH dehydrogenase and ATPase activities. Oxidative stress biomarkers include malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were significantly increased. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in the mitochondria of the rat liver. HPLC analysis showed a significant increase of the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-2DG) as a biomarker of the DNA damage in rat liver. In addition, the residue levels of 0.96 and 0.29 µg/mL serum were found for cypermethrin and imidacloprid, respectively. However, chlorpyrifos not detected using the HPLC analysis. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis showed a change in the pattern and sequence of complexions of the electron transport chain in liver mitochondria with treatment by such insecticides. The hepatic histological examination also showed symptoms of abnormalities after exposure to these insecticides.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Estresse Oxidativo , Carbonilação Proteica , Piretrinas , Ratos
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