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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6389, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319778

RESUMO

Our knowledge about the gut microbiota of pigs is still scarce, despite the importance of these animals for biomedical research and agriculture. Here, we present a collection of cultured bacteria from the pig gut, including 110 species across 40 families and nine phyla. We provide taxonomic descriptions for 22 novel species and 16 genera. Meta-analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequence data and metagenome-assembled genomes reveal prevalent and pig-specific species within Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Enterococcus, Fusobacterium, and several new genera described in this study. Potentially interesting functions discovered in these organisms include a fucosyltransferase encoded in the genome of the novel species Clostridium porci, and prevalent gene clusters for biosynthesis of sactipeptide-like peptides. Many strains deconjugate primary bile acids in in vitro assays, and a Clostridium scindens strain produces secondary bile acids via dehydroxylation. In addition, cells of the novel species Bullifex porci are coccoidal or spherical under the culture conditions tested, in contrast with the usual helical shape of other members of the family Spirochaetaceae. The strain collection, called 'Pig intestinal bacterial collection' (PiBAC), is publicly available at www.dsmz.de/pibac and opens new avenues for functional studies of the pig gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Suínos/microbiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Clostridium/classificação , Clostridium/genética , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Família Multigênica , RNA Ribossômico 16S
2.
Intern Med ; 59(17): 2089-2094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879200

RESUMO

Objective The relationship between gut microbiota and portal hypertension remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the gut microbiota in portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices and liver cirrhosis. Methods Thirty-six patients (12 patients with portal hypertension, 12 healthy controls, and 12 non-cirrhosis patients) were enrolled in this university hospital study. Intestinal bacteria and statistical analyses were performed up to the genus level using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes, with diversified regions characterizing each bacterium. Results Levels of Lactobacillales were significantly higher (p=0.045) and those of Clostridium cluster IV significantly lower (p=0.014) in patients with portal hypertension than in other patients. This Clostridium cluster contains many butanoic acid-producing strains, including Ruminococcace and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Clostridium cluster IX levels were also significantly lower (p=0.045) in portal hypertension patients than in other patients. There are many strains of Clostridium that produce propionic acid, and the effects on the host and the function of these bacterial species in the human intestine remain unknown. Regarding the Bifidobacterium genus, which is supposed to decrease as a result of cirrhosis, no significant decrease was observed in this study. Conclusion In the present study, we provided information on the characteristics of the gut microbiota of portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices due to liver cirrhosis. In the future, we aim to develop probiotic treatments following further analyses that include the species level, such as the intestinal flora analysis method and next-generation sequencers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão Portal/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
3.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7_Supple_B): 52-56, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600208

RESUMO

AIMS: Of growing concern in arthroplasty is the emergence of atypical infections, particularly Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) sp. infections. Currently, the dermal colonization rate of Cutibacterium about the hip is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate colonization rates of Cutibacterium sp. at locations approximating anterior and posterolateral approaches to the hip joint. METHODS: For this non-randomized non-blinded study, 101 adult patients scheduled for hip or knee surgery were recruited. For each, four 3 mm dermal punch biopsies were collected after administration of anaesthesia, but prior to antibiotics. Prebiopsy skin preparation consisted of a standardized preoperative 2% chlorhexidine skin cleansing protocol and an additional 70% isopropyl alcohol mechanical skin scrub immediately prior to biopsy collection. Two skin samples 10 cm apart were collected from a location approximating a standard direct anterior skin incision, and two samples 10 cm apart were collected from a lateral skin incision (suitable for posterior, direct-lateral, or anterolateral approaches). Samples were cultured for two weeks using a protocol optimized for Cutibacterium. RESULTS: A total of 23 out of 404 cultures (collected from 101 patients) were positive for a microorganism, with a total of 22 patients having a positive culture (22%). Overall, 15 of the cultures in 14 patients were positive for Cutibacterium sp. (65%), of which Cutibacterium acnes comprised the majority (n = 13; 87%). Other isolated microorganisms include coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (n = 6), Clostridium (n = 1), and Corynebacterium (n = 1). Of all positive cultures, 15 were obtained from the anterior location (65%), of which seven (60%) were from the most proximal biopsy location. However, these findings were not statistically significant (anterior vs lateral, p = 0.076; proximal vs distal, p =0.238). CONCLUSION: Approximately 14% (14/101) of the patients demonstrated a positive Cutibacterium colonization about the hip, the majority anteriorly. Given the high colonization rate of Cutibacterium, alternative skin preparations for total hip arthroplasty should be considered. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):52-56.


Assuntos
Quadril/microbiologia , Propionibacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Pele/microbiologia , Coxa da Perna/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril , Biópsia , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
5.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(5): 456-460, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392607

RESUMO

Clostridium (C.) ventriculi (known as Sarcina ventriculi) is a ubiquitous gram-positive, anaerobic, acidophilic coccus found in patients with gastric motility disorders. The microorganisms can be identified histologically by their characteristic presentation in tetrads or packets of 8 in hematoxylin and eosin stains. Severe cases of emphysematous gastritis or gastric perforation have been described. Nevertheless, the significance of C. ventriculi in an upper gastrointestinal tract and its pathogenic character remain unclear. We present a 67-year-old woman who underwent hiatoplasty with gastropexy. After 3 months, she underwent a gastroscopy showing gastroesophageal reflux. Biopsies showed ulcerative reflux esophagitis with presence of C.ventriculi, subsequently confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. The barium swallow study revealed an atonic stomach with delayed gastric emptying. The patient was treated with PPI and domperidone. On follow up, 15 months post-operatively, a control gastroscopy showed a stomach with food residues and reflux-associated small erosions. The Clostridium organisms were detected only in oxyntic mucosa biopsies without erosions or ulcerations. We speculate that the recognition of the organisms in the biopsy material is important and suggests dysmotility disorder. However, in our opinion, the presence of C. ventriculi, even in combination with mucosal damage, does not necessarily prompt antibiotic treatment since no complications occurred and inflammation as well as gastric function improved under PPI and prokinetic therapy in our patient. Larger study groups with long-term follow-up are needed to understand whether these organisms could behave as pathogens or are only bystanders in the setting of delayed gastric emptying.


Assuntos
Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Domperidona/uso terapêutico , Esofagite Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Esofagite Péptica/microbiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Esofagite Péptica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico por imagem , Gastropexia , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Estômago/cirurgia
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2111-2116, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954557

RESUMO

One of the most severe quality defects in hard and semi-hard cheese, the late blowing defect, is caused by endospore-forming bacteria of the genus Clostridium. To minimize financial losses and waste of resources due to cheese spoilage, raw milk with elevated clostridial spore counts should not be used for the production of certain cheese types. In this context, threshold values of clostridial spore concentrations that cause quality defects in cheese are still under debate. To improve our understanding about late blowing defects, further information on the correlation between clostridial spore concentrations in milk and cheese quality is indispensable. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor the microbiological quality of milk used for Alpine cheese production regarding clostridial endospore levels to facilitate the establishment of threshold spore concentrations that guarantee the absence of quality defects in Austrian cheese. For this purpose, we monitored clostridial endospore levels in vat milk of 4 Alpine dairies throughout the summer grazing period in 2018. Surprisingly, we observed almost complete absence of butyric acid-producing clostridia in milk and no blowing defects in cheese. Hence, critical clostridial spore concentrations could not be verified. Moreover, the observed low spore levels reveal that the prohibition of silage feeding and good farming practices effectively minimize clostridial endospore counts in milk and ensure the manufacture of high-quality cheese even if technological possibilities are limited.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Esporos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Áustria , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos
8.
Anaerobe ; 61: 102096, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493499

RESUMO

An anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium strain SP17-B1, isolated from dog saliva, was taxonomically characterized on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic characteristics. It was cultured in 4% (w/v) NaCl at a pH range of 5.0-8.0 (optimally at pH 7) and at 30°C-40 °C (optimally at 37 °C). Its major cellular fatty acids are C16:0 (36.3%), C17:0 cyclo (9.7%), C16:1ω9c (13.9%), and C18:1ω9c (10.7%), and its DNA guanine-cytosine content is 40.8 mol%. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it was determined that the strain belonged to the genus Clostridium and was closely related to C. amygdalinum BR-10T (97.8%), C. saccharolyticum WM1T (97.8%), and C. celleracrescens DSM 5628T (97.7%). This strain showed a low level of DNA-DNA relatedness with the closely related strains, suggesting that it is a novel species in the genus Clostridium. Recent studies have demonstrated the production of succinic acid using Clostridium strains. Strain SP17-B1 produced 25.1 ±â€¯1.3 and 15.3 ±â€¯1.5 g/L of succinic acid from 40 g/L of glucose and 30 g/L of hevea wood waste hydrolysate (HH), respectively, after 24 h. When detoxified HH was used as a substrate, the lag phase was reduced and cell growth was enhanced by 7 fold (OD660 0.4-3.0) within 12 h. Detoxification using granular activated carbon may have reduced the levels of furfural and HMF without interfering with the amount of sugars in HH.


Assuntos
Clostridium/fisiologia , Fermentação , Hevea , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Resíduos , Madeira , Clostridium/química , Clostridium/classificação , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Fenótipo , Filogenia
9.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(1): 13-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627244

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential causative agents for vacuum-packaged pork that had shown gross package extension during a routine storage life study in a Canadian pork plant using both conventional and culture-independent methods. The spoilage-associated bacteria in purge samples from two packages were enumerated using selective media and profiled using 16S rDNA amplicon analysis. The presence of Clostridium estertheticum was detected using species-specific real-time PCR. An enrichment procedure was used to isolate C. estertheticum from one of the purge samples. The average population density in the two purge samples of total aerobes, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), coliforms and Brochothrix thermosphacta was 9·4, 9·1, 6·0 and 4·6 log CFU per ml respectively, as determined by plating. The estimated numbers of C. estertheticum were >7 log cells per ml. Clostridium estertheticum was recovered although the enrichment condition used for isolation favoured the growth of LAB more than that of Clostridium spp. Based on 16S rDNA amplicon analysis, the microbiota in the two purge samples had 64·7 and 20·7% of Clostridium spp., and 32·5 and 70·1% of LAB respectively. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged meat may lead to severe economic losses and is often associated with beef, venison and lamb. This study is the first to report vacuum-packaged chilled pork can also be subject to blown pack spoilage, and data support the conclusion that the causative agent is likely Clostridium estertheticum. The lysozyme-digestion step greatly improved the isolation efficiency for C. estertheticum, a spore-forming anaerobic organism that has been proven to be difficult to recover. This method can be used for isolating spore-forming organisms from food samples.


Assuntos
Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Canadá , Bovinos , Clostridium/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Suínos , Vácuo
10.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(10): 5190-5196, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199222

RESUMO

An anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium, designated strain PYR-10T, was isolated from a mesophilic methanogenic consortium. Cells were 0.7-1.2×6.0-6.3 µm, straight or slightly curved rods, with flagellar motility. Growth was observed in PYG (peptone-yeast glucose) medium at pH 5.5-8.0 (optimum, pH 6.5), 30-55 °C (45 °C) and in NaCl concentrations of 0-15 g l-1 (0 g l-1). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain PYR-10T belongs to the genus Clostridium. The strain showed 95.4, 93.7, 93.5 and 93.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Clostridium swellfunianum DSM 27788T, Clostridium pascui DSM 10365T, Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525T and Clostridium punense DSM 28650T, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 27.7 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain PYR-10T were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, C16 : 0 DMA, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C14 : 0. The main polar lipids were glycolipid, phosphoaminoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids, phosphatidylethanolamine and lipids. An unknown menaquinone was detected. 2,6-Diaminopimelic acid was not detected. The whole-cell sugars contained ribose and lower amounts of glucose. Based on the results of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses, strain PYR-10T represents a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium prolinivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain PYR-10T (=JCM 33161T=CCAM 531T=CGMCC 1.5286T).


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Clostridium/classificação , Filogenia , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Propionatos/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
11.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 52(3): 196-201, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778089

RESUMO

Introduction: Clostridium perfringens and other gas gangrene-forming clostridia are commensals of the human gut and vaginal microbiota, but can cause serious or even fatal infections. As there are relatively few published studies on antibiotic susceptibility of these bacteria, we decided to perform a 10-year retrospective study in a South-Eastern Hungarian clinical centre.Methods: A total of 372 gas gangrene-forming Clostridium spp. were isolated from clinically relevant samples and identified with rapid ID 32A (bioMérieux, France) and MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltinics, Germany) methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined with E-tests.Results: We identified 313 C. perfringens, 20 C. septicum, 10 C. sordellii, 10 C. sporogenes, 9 C. tertium, 6 C. bifermentans, 4 C. histolyticum isolates. In C. perfringens isolates, the rate of penicillin resistance was 2.6% and the rate of clindamycin resistance 3.8%. Penicillin resistance was found in 6.8% and clindamycin resistance in 8.5% of the non-perfringens Clostridium spp. isolates.Conclusion: The antibiotic susceptibility of C. perfringens isolates was in good agreement with previous publications. The rates of resistance to penicillin and clindamycin were very low. The resistance rates of non-perfringens Clostridium spp. isolates were higher than those of C. perfringens strains, but lower than those published in the literature.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Clostridium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gangrena Gasosa/microbiologia , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/farmacologia , Cefoxitina/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium bifermentans/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium bifermentans/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium histolyticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium histolyticum/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium septicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium septicum/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium sordellii/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium sordellii/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium tertium/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium tertium/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Gangrena Gasosa/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hungria , Imipenem/farmacologia , Lactente , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Meropeném/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Microb Pathog ; 139: 103805, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790791

RESUMO

Studies on understanding the human microbiome continue to grow rapidly; nonetheless, reports on alterations in the microbiome post HIV infection are limited. Human microbiome is an aggregate of bacteria, fungi, viruses and archaea that have co-evolved with humans. These microbes have important roles in immune modulation, vitamin synthesis, metabolism etc. The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides in the junction between digestive and respiratory tracts, might have a key role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, akin to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. The respiratory tract is constantly exposed to various environmental and endogenous microbes; however, unlike other similar mucosal surfaces, there has been limited investigation of the microbiome of the respiratory tract. HIV infection is associated with alterations in the respiratory microbiome. The aim of this study was to use next-generation sequencing to determine the composition of the oropharyngeal microbiome in a HIV-positive individual. The bacterial composition was determined by illumina sequencing using MiSeq of partial 16S rRNA genes (V3-V4). A total of 3, 57,926 reads were analyzed. Overall, the genera Proteus, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Prevotella and Clostridium were most prevalent bacterial populations in the oropharynx of an HIV positive patient.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Microbiota , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Micrococcus/isolamento & purificação , Micrococcus/metabolismo , Faringe/microbiologia , Filogenia , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella/metabolismo , Proteus/isolamento & purificação , Proteus/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
In Vivo ; 34(1): 291-298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of post-traumatic open fractures resulting from severe injuries of the lower extremity continues to challenge orthopedic and reconstructive surgeons. Moreover, post-traumatic osteoarticular infections due to Clostridium species are rare, with few reports in the literature. We describe possible pathomechanisms and propose treatment options for cases of delayed diagnosis of osteoarticular infections with Clostridium spp. CASE REPORTS: Two patients sustained severe osteoarticular infection due to Clostridium spp. after open epi- and metaphyseal fractures of the lower extremity. In combination with radical debridement, ankle arthrodesis and long-term antibiotic treatment, satisfactory results were achieved after a follow-up of 18 months and 24 years. CONCLUSION: Clostridium species are difficult to identify, treatment is usually delayed and most patients have unfavourable outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/patologia , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Feminino , Fraturas Expostas/patologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
14.
J Food Prot ; 83(1): 56-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825674

RESUMO

"Blown pack" spoilage (BPS) of chilled vacuum-packed meat is mainly caused by anaerobic and psychrophilic Clostridium spp., including C. estertheticum, C. gasigenes, C. frigoriphilum, and C. frigidicarnis. Recently, its occurrence has been reported in several countries, especially in internationally traded meat. Therefore, this study aimed at detecting the occurrence of psychrophilic Clostridium spp. causing BPS in meat juice samples (MJS) from chilled vacuum-packed beef and lamb meat imported from other countries to Switzerland. One hundred fifty-four MJS (n = 78 from beef; n = 76 from lamb meat) were screened for psychrophilic Clostridium spp. by quantitative PCR, whereby MJS with a crossing point PCR cycle value <35 and >35 were considered positive and negative, respectively. Psychrophilic Clostridium spp. were detected in 10 MJS, of which 2 were from beef and 8 were from lamb meat. The two beef MJS originated from Spain and Lithuania, whereas the lamb MJS originated from New Zealand (six) and Australia (two). This is the first report of psychrophilic Clostridium spp. in MJS from chilled vacuum-packed beef and lamb meat imported from other countries to Switzerland and provides further evidence that the risk of BPS in lamb meat is higher than in beef.


Assuntos
Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lituânia , Nova Zelândia , Ovinos , Espanha , Suíça , Vácuo
15.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 113(3): 417-425, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713080

RESUMO

An obligately anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacterial strain (MJB2T) was isolated from sediments of saline in Xinjiang province of China. Cells were Gram-stain-positive rods and motile by means of flagella and formed endospores. The novel strain MJB2T was able to grow at 15-37 °C (optimum 28-30 °C), pH 5.8-9.4 (optimum 7.8) and with 1.0-7.0% NaCl (optimum 5.0-6.0%, w/v). Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, nitrite and Fe(III) were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Oxidase and catalase reactions were positive. H2S was producted from L-cystine. Complex substrates such as beef extract, peptone and yeast extract can be used as sole energy sources. The DNA G+C content was 29.4 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids (> 10%) were C14:0, C16:1 cis 7 and C16:1 cis 9. The main polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified amino lipids, one unidentified amino glycolipid, two unidentified glycolipid, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified lipids. No respiratory quinones were detected. According to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MJB2T was affiliated to the family Clostridiaceae (order Clostridiales) with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.3% to Crassaminicella profunda Ra1766HT. Strain MJB2T exhibited 74.9% ANI values to C. profunda Ra1766HT. In silico DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain MJB2T and C. profunda Ra1766HT was 19.5%. The distinct biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic differences from the previously described taxa supported that strain MJB2T represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Anaerophilus nitritogenes gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJB2T (=KCTC 15800T=MCCC 1K03631T).


Assuntos
Clostridium/classificação , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Lagos/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , China , Clostridium/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 941, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been rapidly developed and widely used as an analytical technique in clinical laboratories with high accuracy in microorganism identification. OBJECTIVE: To validate the efficacy of MALDI-TOF MS in identification of clinical pathogenic anaerobes. METHODS: Twenty-eight studies covering 6685 strains of anaerobic bacteria were included in this meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models based on the P-value and the I-squared were used for meta-analysis to consider the possibility of heterogeneity between studies. Statistical analyses were performed by using STATA 12.0. RESULTS: The identification accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS was 84% for species (I2 = 98.0%, P < 0.1), and 92% for genus (I2 = 96.6%, P < 0.1). Thereinto, the identification accuracy of Bacteroides was the highest at 96% with a 95% CI of 95-97%, followed by Lactobacillus spp., Parabacteroides spp., Clostridium spp., Propionibacterium spp., Prevotella spp., Veillonella spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., and their correct identification rates were all above 90%, while the accuracy of rare anaerobic bacteria was relatively low. Meanwhile, the overall capabilities of two MALDI-TOF MS systems were different. The identification accuracy rate was 90% for VITEK MS vs. 86% for MALDI biotyper system. CONCLUSIONS: Our research showed that MALDI-TOF-MS was satisfactory in genus identification of clinical pathogenic anaerobic bacteria. However, this method still suffers from different drawbacks in precise identification of rare anaerobe and species levels of common anaerobic bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Bactérias Anaeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides/química , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium/química , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/química , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella/química , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16396, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705027

RESUMO

Although the intestinal microbiome has been increasingly implicated in autoimmune diseases, much is unknown about its roles in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Our aim was to compare the microbiome between treatment-naïve MS subjects early in their disease course and controls, and between Caucasian (CA), Hispanic (HA), and African American (AA) MS subjects. From fecal samples, we performed 16S rRNA V4 sequencing and analysis from 45 MS subjects (15 CA, 16 HA, 14 AA) and 44 matched healthy controls, and whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing from 24 MS subjects (all newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, and steroid-free) and 24 controls. In all three ethnic groups, there was an increased relative abundance of the same single genus, Clostridium, compared to ethnicity-matched controls. Analysis of microbiota networks showed significant changes in the network characteristics between combined MS cohorts and controls, suggesting global differences not restricted to individual taxa. Metagenomic analysis revealed significant enrichment of individual species within Clostridia as well as particular functional pathways in the MS subjects. The increased relative abundance of Clostridia in all three early MS cohorts compared to controls provides candidate taxa for further study as biomarkers or as etiologic agents in MS.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Esclerose Múltipla/microbiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clostridium/classificação , Clostridium/genética , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Hispano-Americanos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Microbiologyopen ; 8(10): e872, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568706

RESUMO

The number of agricultural biogas plants has been increasing in the past decades in some European countries. Digestates obtained after anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure are usually spread on agricultural land; however, their hygiene status regarding pathogens posing public health and/or animal health challenges has been poorly characterized up to now in France. In this study, three replicates of manure and digestate were collected from five farm biogas plants receiving animal manure in order to assess the occurrence and concentrations of sporulating (Clostridium botulinum, Clostridioides difficile, Clostridium perfringens) and nonsporulating (Listeria monocytogenes, thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., Salmonella, Escherichia coli, enterococci) bacteria. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens in digestates ranged from 102 to 104 , 104 to 105 , and <103 to 7 × 105  CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and C. difficile were detected in manure and digestate from the five biogas plants at concentrations ranging from <1.3 to >7 × 102  MPN/g and from 1.3 to 3 × 102  MPN/g, respectively. Thermotolerant Campylobacter, detected in all the manures, was only found in two digestates at a concentration of cells ranging from <10 to 2.6 × 102  CFU/g. Listeria monocytogenes and C. botulinum were detected in three manures and four digestates. The bacterial counts of L. monocytogenes and C. botulinum did not exceed 3 × 102 and 14 MPN/g, respectively. C. botulinum type B was detected at very low level in both the manure and digestate of farm biogas plants with no botulism history. The levels of pathogenic bacteria in both manure and digestate suggested that some bacteria can persist throughout AD.


Assuntos
Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Esterco/microbiologia , Biocombustíveis/microbiologia , Clostridium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , França , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(5): 645-649, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625063

RESUMO

Infectious process even at the initial stage after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced rapid changes in vaginal microbiota in mice. Rapid decrease in both the quantity and diversity of microbiota was noted, and then, partial recovery of normal flora was observed. Changes in vaginal microbiota was detected as soon as in 3-7 days after lung infection, while inflammatory changes appeared by day 35. At the early stage of infection, no signs of inflammation were observed, neither M. tuberculosis nor its DNA were detected in mouse genital organs.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Microbiota , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/patologia , Eubacterium/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Inflamação , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Peptostreptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Porphyromonas/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia
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