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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750089

RESUMO

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common isolates from blood culture in neonates resulting in high mortality and morbidity. This study investigated CoNS obtained from blood cultures of neonates for antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, and possible association with inflammatory response (C-reactive protein). A total of 93 CoNS isolates were collected from 76 blood cultures of neonates at the Maternity hospital in Kuwait in a six-month period and investigated for susceptibility to antibiotics, carriage of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and virulence-associated genes. The 93 CoNS isolates consisted of S. epidermidis (76; 81.7%), S. capitis (12; 12.9%), S. hominis (2; 2.1%), S. warneri (2; 2.1%) and S. haemolyticus (1; 1.0%). Eighty-six (92.4%) of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (MR-CoNS) while 49 (52.7%) expressed multi-antibiotic resistance. The methicillin-resistant isolates (MR-CoNS) carried SCCmec III, SCCmec IVa and four combinations of SCCmec types including SCCmec types I+IVa (one S. warneri and 25 S. epidermidis isolates), types I+III (one S. epidermidis isolate), types III+IVa (six S. epidermidis isolates) and types I+III+IVa (one S. epidermidis isolate). The most common virulence-related genes were icaC, seb, arc detected in 69.7%, 60.5%, 40.8% of the isolates respectively. Two isolates were positive for tst1. No association between C-reactive protein and antibiotic resistance or virulence factors was established. This study revealed that S. epidermidis carrying different SCCmec genetic elements, was the dominant CoNS species isolated from neonatal blood cultures with 90.3% and 36.6% of the isolates positive for genes for biofilm and ACME production respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Biofilmes , Coagulase/metabolismo , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Kuweit , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
2.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 138, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a reproductive tract infection that affects health of women. The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics of simple and mixed AV patients in Xi'an district and provide reference data for the clinical treatment of AV. METHODS: Patients were recruited from the outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from September 2014 to April 2019 in strict accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study principally examined the vaginal ecosystem, age distribution, levels of functional enzymes, and changes in pH levels in these women. Differences within groups were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 284 AV patients were enrolled to investigate the distribution of simple and mixed AV infection. AV infection was found to be mainly simple infection. Simple AV patients were generally aged 50-60 years, while mixed AV patients were mostly aged 30-40 years. In the present study, the density of vaginal bacteria (OR = 13.294, 95% CI = 5.869-30.115, P < 0.01), the type of predominant bacteria (OR = 3.962, 95% CI = 1.785-7.984, P < 0.01) and positive expression of coagulase (OR = 3.789, 95% CI = 1.798-7.984, P < 0.01) were considered risk factors for mixed AV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology of simple and mixed AV infection were found to be different, with density of vaginal bacteria (I or IV), species that are predominant and levels of coagulase being risk factors for mixed AV infection.


Assuntos
Bactérias Aeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginite/microbiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Bactérias Aeróbias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Coagulase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vaginite/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 457, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide long term hemodialysis. The commonest and the severe complication of CVC is the central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). This study was done to assess the etiology and infectious complications of CVC in children on long term hemodialysis. METHODS: Children newly undergoing hemodialysis and having indwelling CVC were included. They were followed up to a period of 2-years to assess infectious complications. Catheter bundle care approach was employed to prevent infections and other complications. Automated culture from the central catheter and peripheral vein and 2D echocardiography were done in each hemodialysis. Serial procalcitonin (PCT) was measured. Differential time of positivity (DTP) was used to detect CLABSI. During homestay in weekly telephone conversations were done to assess features of infection, and whenever having, we have asked to admit to the tertiary care unit. Logistic regression was performed, and the significant outcome variable was considered following multivariable analysis as a risk factor. RESULTS: Blood cultures were positive in 1090 (74.5%) out of 1462 children. According to DTP, 410 (28%) were having CLABSI, while 520 (35.6%) were having bacteremia without CLABSI. Out of 410 CLABSI patients, 79 (19.2%) were asymptomatic. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) bacteremia was significantly associated with asymptomatic CLABSI. Right-sided infective endocarditis (RS-IE) was significantly associated with asymptomatic CLABSI and asymptomatic bacteremia without CLABSI. CoNS was associated significantly in RS-IE following asymptomatic CLABSI and asymptomatic bacteremia. PCT was in asymptomatic CLABSI was 1.8 ± 0.9 ng/mL while in symptomatic CLABSI was 11.3 ± 2.5 ng/ml (P = 0.02). CoNS bloodstream infection, tunneled CVC, peripherally inserted central catheter, femoral site, the number of line days > 90, receipt of vancomycin, meropenem, or linezolid in the 5 days before CLABSI diagnosis and recurrent bacteremia were risk factors for asymptomatic CLABSI. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic CLABSI could be a rare occurrence. CoNS was predominantly isolated in patients with asymptomatic CLABSI. RS- IE is a well-known complication in long term indwelling CVC. CoNS was significantly associated with RS-IE following asymptomatic CLABSI. Regular procalcitonin, microbiological, and imaging studies would be essential to detect infectious complications in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients implanted with long term indwelling CVCs.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres de Demora/microbiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/sangue , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coagulase/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Endocardite/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka , Infecções Estafilocócicas/sangue , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 539, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a rarely encountered coagulase-negative, which grows slowly and its strictly anaerobic staphylococcus from the skin. It is usually considered a contaminant, but some rare reports have described deep-seated infections. Virulence factors remain poorly known, although, genomic analysis highlights pathogenic potential. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Staphylococcus saccharolyticus spondylodiscitis that followed kyphoplasty, a procedure associated with a low rate but possible severe infectious complication (0.46%), and have reviewed the literature. This case specifically stresses the risk of healthcare-associated S. saccharolyticus infection in high-risk patients (those with a history of alcoholism and heavy smoking). CONCLUSION: S. saccharolyticus infection is difficult to diagnose due to microbiological characteristics of this bacterium; it requires timely treatment, and improved infection control procedure should be encouraged for high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Discite/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifoplastia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Vértebras Torácicas/microbiologia , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coagulase/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Discite/tratamento farmacológico , Discite/microbiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 21(12): 1140-1153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324510

RESUMO

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are part of the microbiota of human skin and rarely linked with soft tissue infections. In recent years, CoNS species considered as one of the major nosocomial pathogens and can cause several infections such as catheter-acquired sepsis, skin infection, urinary tract infection, endophthalmitis, central nervous system shunt infection, surgical site infections, and foreign body infection. These microorganisms have a significant impact on human life and health and, as typical opportunists, cause peritonitis in individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Moreover, it is revealed that these potential pathogens are mainly related to the use of indwelling or implanted in a foreign body and cause infective endocarditis (both native valve endocarditis and prosthetic valve endocarditis) in patients. In general, approximately eight percent of all cases of native valve endocarditis is associated with CoNS species, and these organisms cause death in 25% of all native valve endocarditis cases. Moreover, it is revealed that methicillin-resistant CoNS species cause 60 % of all prosthetic valve endocarditis cases. In this review, we describe the role of the CoNS species in infective endocarditis, and we explicated the reported cases of CoNS infective endocarditis in the literature from 2000 to 2020 to determine the role of CoNS in the process of infective endocarditis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coagulase/metabolismo , Endocardite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/patogenicidade , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/microbiologia , Valvas Cardíacas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus/enzimologia
6.
Balkan Med J ; 37(4): 215-221, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270947

RESUMO

Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci, which belong to the normal microbiota of the skin and mucous membranes, are opportunistic pathogens. sasX, a newly described protein, is thought to play an important role in nasal colonization and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus virulence, and it may be acquired from coagulase-negative staphylococci by horizontal gene transfer. It has been considered that understanding the function of sasX gene may help clarify the relevance of the different adhesion mechanisms in the pathogenesis of infections associated with biofilm. Aims: To investigate the sasX gene presence, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of invasive and noninvasive coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study included a total of 180 coagulase-negative staphylococci strains. Non-invasive isolates (n=91) were obtained from the hands of healthy volunteers who do not work at the hospital (n=30), the nasal vestibule of healthy volunteer hospital workers (n=26), and central venous catheter (n=35). Invasive isolates (n=89) were isolated from peripheral blood cultures of inpatients who do not have catheters. All isolates were identified by conventional microbiological methods, automated systems, and, if needed, with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, sasX and mec gene detection, antibiotic susceptibility, and sasX gene sequence analysis were performed. Results: Peripheral blood, central venous catheter colonization, and nasal vestibule isolates were positive for the sasX gene, whereas hand isolates were negative. sasX gene was present in 17 isolates, and no statistical significance was found between invasive and noninvasive isolates (p=0.173). Sequence analysis of the sasX genes showed high homology to related proteins of Staphylococcus phage SPbeta-like and Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A. staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V was the most prevalent regardless of species. staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type II was more frequent in invasive isolates and found to be statistically important for invasive and noninvasive S. epidermidis isolates (p=0.029). Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates had the overall highest resistance rates. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin was found to be higher in isolates from catheter and blood culture. Staphylococcus hominis isolates had the highest rate for inducible clindamycin resistance. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid. Conclusion: The sasX gene is detected in 9.44% of the isolates. There is no statistical difference between the sasX-positive and -negative isolates in terms of antibacterial resistance and the presence of sasX and SCCmec types. Further studies about the role of sasX at virulence in coagulase-negative staphylococci, especially from clinical samples such as tracheal aspirate and abscess isolates, and distribution of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types are needed.


Assuntos
Coagulase/análise , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Coagulase/sangue , Coagulase/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus capitis/genética , Staphylococcus capitis/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genética , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/genética , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus hominis/genética , Staphylococcus hominis/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/genética , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus saprophyticus/genética , Staphylococcus saprophyticus/isolamento & purificação
7.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(2): 160-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084346

RESUMO

The increasing rates of nosocomial infection associated with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the rationale for this study, aiming to categorize oxacillin-resistant CoNS species recovered from blood culture specimens of inpatients at the UNESP Hospital das Clínicas in Botucatu, Brazil, over a 20-year period, and determine their sensitivity to other antimicrobial agents. The mecA gene was detected in 222 (74%) CoNS samples, and the four types of staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) were characterized in 19.4%, 3.6%, 54.5%, and 14.4% of specimens, respectively, for types I, II, III, and IV. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values to inhibit 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90) of specimens were, respectively, 2 and >256µL/mL for oxacillin, 1.5 and 2µL/mL for vancomycin, 0.25 and 0.5µL/mL for linezolid, 0.094 and 0.19µL/mL for daptomycin, 0.19 and 0.5µL/mL for quinupristin/dalfopristin, and 0.125 and 0.38µL/mL for tigecycline. Resistance to oxacillin and tigecycline and intermediate resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin were observed. Eight (2.7%) of all 300 CoNS specimens studied showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Results from this study show high resistance rates of CoNS to antimicrobial agents, reflecting the necessity of using these drugs judiciously and controlling nosocomial dissemination of these pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Coagulase/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Staphylococcus/química , Staphylococcus/genética
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 128, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci belonging to S. haemolyticus, S. hominis subsp. hominis, S. simulans, and S. warneri are often described as etiological factors of infections. Staphylococci are a phylogenetically coherent group; nevertheless, there are differences among the species which may be important to clinicians. METHODS: We investigated selected virulence factors and antibiotic resistance that were phenotypically demonstrated, the presence and expression of genes encoding the virulence factors, and the type of the SCCmec cassette. RESULTS: The differences between the tested species were revealed. A great number of isolates produced a biofilm and many of them contained single icaADBC operon genes. Clear differences between species in the lipolytic activity spectrum could be related to their ability to cause various types of infections. Our studies also revealed the presence of genes encoding virulence factors homologous to S. aureus in the analysed species such as enterotoxin and pvl genes, which were also expressed in single isolates of S. simulans and S. warneri. S. haemolyticus and S. hominis subsp. hominis isolates were resistant to all clinically important antibiotics including ß-lactams. The identified SCCmec cassettes belonged to IV, V, VII, and IX type but most of the detected cassettes were non-typeable. Among the investigated species, S. hominis subsp. hominis isolates accumulated virulence genes typical for S. aureus in the most efficient way and were widely resistant to antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly indicated significant differences between the tested species, which might be a result of the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and can lead to the formation and selection of multi-drug resistant strains as well as strains with new virulence features. Such strains can have a new clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes , Coagulase/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterotoxinas/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(5): 459-464, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870587

RESUMO

Empirical combination therapy with ß-lactams and glycopeptides is recommended for patients with presumed staphylococcal bloodstream infection (BSI). While coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) remain susceptible to vancomycin, such isolates have become less susceptible to teicoplanin. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of teicoplanin in the treatment of BSI caused by methicillin-resistant CNS according to teicoplanin susceptibility. Inclusion criteria were patients with intravascular-catheter related BSIs caused by methicillin-resistant CNS (positive for two or more specimens); teicoplanin therapy; and at least one of the signs or symptoms caused by BSI. Antimicrobial resistance was defined as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥8 µg/mL. The primary efficacy endpoint was clinical success evaluated 2 weeks after the completion of teicoplanin therapy [test of cure (TOC)]. Resistant rate of CNS was 0% for vancomycin and 22.9% for teicoplanin, and geometric mean MICs were 1.31 µg/mL and 3.41 µg/mL, respectively (p < 0.001). The catheter was removed in all patients except one, and high early clinical response at 72 h after starting therapy was obtained irrespective of teicoplanin susceptibility. The clinical success rate at TOC was 60% in patients with BSIs caused by teicoplanin-resistant strains, while 90% in patients with BSIs caused by susceptible strains (p = 0.052). In multivariate analyses, teicoplanin resistance was significant factor for decreased clinical success at TOC (adjusted odds ratio 0.138, 95% confidence interval 0.020-0.961, p = 0.045). Because of the poor clinical efficacy of teicoplanin against teicoplanin-resistant CNS, combination therapy comprising vancomycin and ß-lactam antibiotics should be considered in presumed staphylococci BSI.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência a Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Teicoplanina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Coagulase/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
10.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol ; 2019: 4149587, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871398

RESUMO

Tubo-ovarian abscess may develop in women with endometrioma following assisted reproductive technology (ART). The infection, though rare, is typically late in onset and may present several months after the procedure, and in pregnancy-with the risks of abortion and premature labor. It is thought that transcutaneous oocyte retrieval during ART is the route for bacterial contamination resulting in infection of the endometrioma. Pathogens reported in the literature include Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Group B streptococcus (GBS) but Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis), a coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS), and groin and perineal skin commensal was isolated from the endometrioma in this case. We discuss the challenges in diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition and the implications of the discovery that an organism previously dismissed as a contaminant has emerged as a causative organism in severe, deep-seated infections of soft tissues in recent literature.


Assuntos
Coagulase/metabolismo , Endometriose/microbiologia , Cistos Ovarianos/microbiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/metabolismo , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalexina/administração & dosagem , Cefalexina/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/administração & dosagem , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Recuperação de Oócitos/efeitos adversos , Cistos Ovarianos/cirurgia , Gravidez , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/cirurgia , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Clin Lab ; 65(10)2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to methicillin and mupirocin in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is considered as one of the most important issues. Meanwhile, use of phenotypic methods in detecting the resistance to methicillin and mupirocin has a lower accuracy and speed compared to other molecular methods, such as High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRM). In this study, HRM technique was used to identify CoNS resistance stains. METHODS: This experimental study was done on 86 isolates of CoNS strains isolated at Hamadan Hospital. Pheno-typic tests were used to identify Staphylococcus saprophyticus and S. epidermidis. Methicillin and Mupirocin resistant strains were tested using the MIC and HRM methods, and sensitivity and specificity of the primers were determined based on melting curve temperature range. In addition, data was analyzed by Applied Biosystems StepOne v 2.3 and Applied Biosystems HRM v 3.0.1 software. RESULTS: Eighty-six (86) coagulase-negative isolates were isolated from different clinical specimens. Among these, 69 isolates of S. epidermidis and 17 isolates of S. saprophyticus were identified. Of the 69 S. epidermidis isolates, 19 isolates with oxacillin MIC ≥ 0.5 µg/mL and methicillin-resistant, and 11 isolates with mupirocin MIC ≥ 32 µg/mL and resistant to mupirocin. Of the 17 S. saprophyticus isolates, three isolates with oxacillin MIC ≥ 0.5 µg/mL were also methicillin-resistant, and one isolate with mupirocin MIC ≥ 32 µg/mL was resistant to mupirocin. Melting curve analysis for mecA and mupA primers was determined 81.7 ± 0.5°C and 74 ± 0.5°C, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of HRM assay for detection of methicillin and mupirocin strains testing were 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of methicillin and mupirocin resistance in CoNSs using the HRM method has high sensitivity and specificity. Molecular methods are more accurate and faster than phenotypic methods and can identify a large number of resistant isolates in a short time.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Meticilina/farmacologia , Mupirocina/farmacologia , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Coagulase/genética , Coagulase/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Humanos , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Especificidade da Espécie , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/genética
12.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 50, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651349

RESUMO

Biofilm production is a well-known causative factor of catheter- and medical device-related sepsis. Its high prevalence in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) has recently been reported. Information on biofilm production in CoNS isolated from wild animals is lacking. Herein, we studied the biofilm formation capabilities of CoNS isolated from rescued wild animals in the Republic of Korea. Swab samples were collected from the conjunctiva, nasal cavity, perianal area, and rectum for mammals while the sampling was done from the conjunctiva, oral mucosa, pericloacal area, and cloaca for birds. Isolation of CoNS was based on morphological and biochemical analyses along with molecular typing. Biofilm production was analyzed using 96-well plate based quantitative adherence assays. The studies demonstrated that CoNS of mammalian origin have higher biofilm-producing ability (70.4%) than the isolates from birds (62.5%). In particular, all methicillin-resistant (MR) CoNS isolated from mammals were capable of biofilm formation while only 63.3% of MR CoNS isolated from birds could produce biofilms. The MR CoNS isolated from mammals also had a significantly higher ability to form biofilms (100%) than methicillin susceptible CoNS (60.0%) than those isolates from birds. The findings show that wild animals may act as reservoirs as well as possible transmitters of biofilm-mediated antibiotic resistant genes.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Coagulase/metabolismo , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
13.
Nano Lett ; 19(10): 7400-7410, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532212

RESUMO

Binding of the Staphylococcus aureus surface protein clumping factor A (ClfA) to endothelial cell integrin αVß3 plays a crucial role during sepsis, by causing endothelial cell apoptosis and loss of barrier integrity. ClfA uses the blood plasma protein fibrinogen (Fg) to bind to αVß3 but how this is achieved at the molecular level is not known. Here we investigate the mechanical strength of the three-component ClfA-Fg-αVß3 interaction on living bacteria, by means of single-molecule experiments. We find that the ClfA-Fg-αVß3 ternary complex is extremely stable, being able to sustain forces (∼800 pN) that are much stronger than those of classical bonds between integrins and the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide sequence (∼100 pN). Adhesion forces between single bacteria and αVß3 are strongly inhibited by an anti-αVß3 antibody, the RGD peptide, and the cyclic RGD peptide cilengitide, showing that formation of the complex involves RGD-dependent binding sites and can be efficiently inhibited by αVß3 blockers. Collectively, our experiments favor a binding mechanism involving the extraordinary elasticity of Fg. In the absence of mechanical stress, RGD572-574 sequences in the Aα chains mediate weak binding to αVß3, whereas under high mechanical stress exposure of cryptic Aα chain RGD95-97 sequences leads to extremely strong binding to the integrin. Our results identify an unexpected and previously undescribed force-dependent binding mechanism between ClfA and αVß3 on endothelial cells, which could represent a potential target to fight staphylococcal bloodstream infections.


Assuntos
Coagulase/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Aderência Bacteriana , Células Endoteliais/microbiologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Estresse Mecânico
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 109, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the difference in vaginal microecology, local immunity and HPV infection among childbearing-age women with different degrees of cervical lesions. METHODS: A total of 432 patients were included in this study. Among these patients, 136 patients had LSIL, 263 patients had HSIL and 33 patients had CSCC. These patients were assigned as the research groups. In addition, 100 healthy females were enrolled and assigned as the control group. RESULTS: The microbiological indexes of vaginal secretions were evaluated. Furthermore, the concentrations of SIgA, IgG, IL-2 and IL-10 in vaginal lavage fluid, as well as the presence of HPV, mycoplasma and Chlamydia in cervical secretions, were detected. The results is that: (1) Differences in evaluation indexes of vaginal microecology among all research groups and the control group were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). As the degree of cervical lesions increased, the number of Lactobacillus decreased, and there was an increase in prevalence of bacterial imbalance, and the diversity, density and normal proportion of bacteria was reduced. Furthermore, the incidence of HPV, trichomonads, clue cell and Chlamydia infection increased. Moreover, the positive rate of H2O2 decreased, while the positive rates of SNa and GADP increased. (2) Differences in the ratio of IL-2 and IL-10 in the female genital tract among all research groups and the control group were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: As the degree of cervical lesions increased, IL-2 decreased, IL-10 increased and IL-2/IL-10 decreased, while SIgA and IgG were elevated. The reduction of dominant Lactobacillus in the vagina, impairment of H2O2 function, flora ratio imbalance, pathogen infections, reduction in IL-2/IL-10 ratio, and changes in SIgA and IgG levels could all be potential factors that influenced the pathogenicity of HPV infection and the occurrence and development of cervical lesions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/epidemiologia , Vagina/imunologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Coagulase/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Food Biochem ; 43(4): e12785, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353594

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of fermented Inula britannica extract (FIBE) against Staphylococcus aureus strains including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). I. britannica extract was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P, and the pathogenicity of S. aureus strains was determined via assessment of coagulase, DNase, and hemolytic activities. Epicatechin concentration increased from 4.38 to 6.05 µg/mg during fermentation (p < 0.01). FIBE treatment inhibited coagulase release from S. aureus to levels below the inhibitory concentration. FIBE promoted the release of intracellular nucleic acids and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine absorption. In three S. aureus strains, damaged cells exhibited 21.58, 16.79, and 17.65% decreases in membrane potential induced by cell membrane depolarization, respectively (p < 0.05). Upon FIBE treatment in culture, the minimum inhibitory concentration of FIBE exerted a bacteriostatic effect. In conclusion, FIBE possesses antimicrobial properties, including inhibition of virulence factors, damage to cell membranes, and inhibition of bacterial growth. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious concern in hospitals because of its known antibiotic resistance. Vancomycin and tigecycline are used for treating MRSA, but the appearance of vancomycin-intermediate and multidrug-resistant strains of these bacteria has created a demand for new antimicrobial agents. This study demonstrates the effective application of Inula britannica and fermentation technology for developing natural antimicrobial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Coagulase/antagonistas & inibidores , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Coagulase/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Inula/química , Inula/metabolismo , Inula/microbiologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Drug Discov Ther ; 13(3): 145-149, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231110

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance crisis occasioned by sporadic appearance of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in human pathogens to clinically applied antimicrobials is a serious threat to global health. In this study, we investigated the drug resistant phenotype of Gram-positive cocci isolates from environment. Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus colonies were isolated on mannitol-salt agar plates supplemented with tetracycline. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolates via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination was examined. Isolates showed decreased sensitivity to clinically applied antimicrobial agents: tetracycline, kanamycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, teicoplanin, and ampicillin. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of multiple antibiotic resistant genes in these bacteria, suggesting the origin of the multiple antimicrobials resistant phenotype. Tetracycline resistance of these isolates was transduced to Staphylococcus aureus-RN4220 strain. These findings indicate the presence of multiple antimicrobials resistant S. capitis and S. haemolyticus strain in a non-hospital setting. Moreover, the presence of plethora of genes responsible for MDR suggest that these strains could present potential threat to human health by serving as reservoir for lateral transference of antimicrobial resistance conferring foreign genetic elements to other clinically relevant pathogens.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Staphylococcus capitis/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Composição de Bases , Coagulase/metabolismo , Tamanho do Genoma , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus capitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus capitis/genética , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/genética
17.
Eur Heart J ; 40(39): 3237-3244, 2019 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145782

RESUMO

AIMS: Increasing attention has been given to the risk of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with certain blood stream infections (BSIs). Previous studies have been conducted on selected patient cohorts, yet unselected data are sparse. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of IE in BSIs with bacteria typically associated with IE. METHODS AND RESULTS: By crosslinking nationwide registries from 2010 to 2017, we identified patients with BSIs typically associated with IE: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus spp., and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) and examined the concurrent IE prevalence. A trend test was used to examine temporal changes in the prevalence of IE. In total 69 021, distributed with 15 350, 16 726, 19 251, and 17 694 BSIs were identified in the periods of 2010-2011, 2012-2013, 2014-2015, and 2016-2017, respectively. Patients with E. faecalis had the highest prevalence of IE (16.7%) followed by S. aureus (10.1%), Streptococcus spp. (7.3%), and CoNS (1.6%). Throughout the study period, the prevalence of IE among patients with E. faecalis and Streptococcus spp. increased significantly (P = 0.0005 and P = 0.03, respectively). Male patients had a higher prevalence of IE for E. faecalis, Streptococcus spp., and CoNS compared with females. A significant increase in the prevalence of IE was seen for E. faecalis, Streptococcus spp., and CoNS with increasing age. CONCLUSION: For E. faecalis BSI, 1 in 6 had IE, for S. aureus BSI 1 in 10 had IE, and for Streptococcus spp. 1 in 14 had IE. Our results suggest that screening for IE seems reasonable in patients with E. faecalis BSI, S. aureus BSI, or Streptococcus spp. BSI.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Hemocultura , Coagulase/metabolismo , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Enterococcus faecalis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Infecções Estafilocócicas/enzimologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia
18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(7): 4808-4818, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094081

RESUMO

Coagulase (Coa) activity is essential for the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), one of the most important pathogenic bacteria leading to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). We have demonstrated that the mutation of coagulase improved outcomes in disease models of S aureus CRBSI, suggesting that targeting Coa may represent a novel antiinfective strategy for CRBSI. Here, we found that quercetin, a natural compound that does not affect S aureus viability, could inhibit Coa activity. Chemical biological analysis revealed that the direct engagement of quercetin with the active site (residues Tyr187, Leu221 and His228) of Coa inhibited its activity. Furthermore, treatment with quercetin reduced the retention of bacteria on catheter surfaces, decreased the bacterial load in the kidneys and alleviated kidney abscesses in vivo. These data suggest that antiinfective therapy targeting Coa with quercetin may represent a novel strategy and provide a new leading compound with which to combat bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Coagulase/antagonistas & inibidores , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Coagulase/genética , Coagulase/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação/genética , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Coelhos , Ratos Wistar , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/ultraestrutura , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
19.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 64: 125-129, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094318

RESUMO

This work was focused to determine the prevalence and the species diversity of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in wild boars, and to study their antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype. Nasal samples of 371 wild boars from six Spanish regions were collected for CoNS recovery. The identification was performed by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility for eight antimicrobial agents was studied by disc-diffusion method and the presence of 31 antimicrobial resistance genes by PCR. CoNS were detected in nasal samples of 136/371 animals tested (36.6%), and 161 isolates were obtained (1-3/animal); a high diversity of species was found (n = 17), with predominance of S. sciuri (n = 64), S. xylosus (n = 21) and S. chromogenes (n = 17). Among CoNS isolates, 22.4% showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial tested. Tetracycline-resistance phenotype was the most frequently detected (10.5%), generally mediated by tet(K) gene [associated or not with tet(L)]. Other relevant resistance genes were identified including unusual ones [mecA, erm(B), erm(F), mphC, erm(43), msr(A)/msr(B), lnu(A), dfrG, fexA, and catpC221]. This is the first study in which CoNS isolates from wild boars are analysed. The knowledge of antimicrobial phenotype and genotype of CoNS in natural ecosystems is highly important since these staphylococcal species can act as vectors of relevant antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Coagulase/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Variação Genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nariz/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
20.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(490)2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043573

RESUMO

Colonization of the skin by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with exacerbation of atopic dermatitis (AD), but any direct mechanism through which dysbiosis of the skin microbiome may influence the development of AD is unknown. Here, we show that proteases and phenol-soluble modulin α (PSMα) secreted by S. aureus lead to endogenous epidermal proteolysis and skin barrier damage that promoted inflammation in mice. We further show that clinical isolates of different coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) species residing on normal skin produced autoinducing peptides that inhibited the S. aureus agr system, in turn decreasing PSMα expression. These autoinducing peptides from skin microbiome CoNS species potently suppressed PSMα expression in S. aureus isolates from subjects with AD without inhibiting S. aureus growth. Metagenomic analysis of the AD skin microbiome revealed that the increase in the relative abundance of S. aureus in patients with active AD correlated with a lower CoNS autoinducing peptides to S. aureus ratio, thus overcoming the peptides' capacity to inhibit the S. aureus agr system. Characterization of a S. hominis clinical isolate identified an autoinducing peptide (SYNVCGGYF) as a highly potent inhibitor of S. aureus agr activity, capable of preventing S. aureus-mediated epithelial damage and inflammation on murine skin. Together, these findings show how members of the normal human skin microbiome can contribute to epithelial barrier homeostasis by using quorum sensing to inhibit S. aureus toxin production.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Epiderme/lesões , Epiderme/microbiologia , Percepção de Quorum , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas , Coagulase/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Queratinócitos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Staphylococcus/fisiologia
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