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1.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(5): 634-647, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892155

RESUMO

Long-term administration of some antiepileptic drugs often increases blood lipid levels. In this study, we investigated its molecular mechanism by focusing on the nuclear receptors constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), which are key transcription factors for enzyme induction and lipid metabolism, respectively, in the liver. Treatment of mice with the CAR activator phenobarbital, an antiepileptic drug, increased plasma triglyceride levels and decreased the hepatic expression of PPARα target genes related to lipid metabolism. The increase in PPARα target gene expression induced by fenofibrate, a PPARα ligand, was inhibited by cotreatment with phenobarbital. CAR suppressed PPARα-dependent gene transcription in HepG2 cells but not in COS-1 cells. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), a coactivator for both CAR and PPARα, in COS-1 cells was much lower than in HepG2 cells. In reporter assays with COS-1 cells overexpressing PGC1α, CAR suppressed PPARα-dependent gene transcription, depending on the coactivator-binding motif. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, CAR attenuated the interaction between PGC1α and PPARα Chemical inhibition of PGC1α prevented phenobarbital-dependent increases in plasma triglyceride levels and the inhibition of PPARα target gene expression. These results suggest that CAR inhibits the interaction between PPARα and PGC1α, attenuating PPARα-dependent lipid metabolism. This might explain the antiepileptic drug-induced elevation of blood triglyceride levels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Constitutive active/androstane receptor activated by antiepileptic drugs inhibits the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-dependent transcription of genes related to lipid metabolism and upregulates blood triglyceride levels. The molecular mechanism of this inhibition involves competition between these nuclear receptors for coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α binding.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenofibrato/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenobarbital/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4664, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938919

RESUMO

Cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS4) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the pathogenic mechanisms remain elusive. Here we report that morphological and functional changes in myocardial mitochondria are observed in CKD mice, especially decreases in oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism. High phosphate (HP), a hallmark of CKD, contributes to myocardial energy metabolism dysfunction by downregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α). Furthermore, the transcriptional factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) is revealed as the key molecule upregulated by HP through histone H3K9 acetylation, and responsible for the HP-mediated transcriptional inhibition of PGC1α by directly binding to its promoter region. Conversely, restoration of PGC1α expression or genetic knockdown of IRF1 significantly attenuates HP-induced alterations in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that IRF1-PGC1α axis-mediated myocardial energy metabolism remodeling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CRS4.


Assuntos
Síndrome Cardiorrenal/metabolismo , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Metabolismo Energético , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucuronidase/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ratos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239428, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997697

RESUMO

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced endogenously in the gut by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber have been studied as nutrients that act as signaling molecules to activate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as GPR41 and GPR43. GPR43 functioning involves the suppression of lipid accumulation and maintaining body energy homeostasis, and is activated by acetic acid or propionic acid. Previously, we reported that the orally administered acetic acid improves lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscles and suppresses obesity, thus improving glucose tolerance. Acetic acid stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through its metabolic pathway in skeletal muscle cells. We hypothesized that acetic acid would stimulate GPR43 in skeletal muscle cells and has function in modulating gene expression related to muscle characteristics through its signal pathway. The objective of the current study was to clarify this effect of acetic acid. The GPR43 expression, observed in the differentiated myotube cells, was increased upon acetic acid treatment. Acetic acid induced the intracellular calcium influx in the cells and this induction was significantly inhibited by the GPR43-specific siRNA treatment. The calcineurin molecule is activated by calcium/calmodulin and is associated with proliferation of slow-twitch fibers. Calcineurin was activated by acetic acid treatment and inhibited by the concomitant treatment with GPR43-siRNA. Acetic acid induced nuclear localization of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and nuclear factor of activated t cells c1 (NFATc1). However, these localizations were abolished by the treatment with GPR43-siRNA. It was concluded that acetic acid plays a role in the activation of GPR43 and involves the proliferation of slow-twitch fibers in L6 skeletal muscles through the calcium-signaling pathway caused by induction of intracellular calcium influx.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/deficiência , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética
4.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(9): 788-793, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967762

RESUMO

Objective To investigate SIRT1-PGC-1α signaling pathway-mediated effect of hyperoxia on mitochondrial function in A549 human alveolar epithelial cells and its possible mechanism. Methods Human alveolar epithelial cells in logarithmic growth phase were randomly divided into control group and hyperoxia group. The control group was cultured in a 37DegreesCelsius, 50 mL/L CO2 saturated humidity incubator, and the hyperoxia group was treated with 950 mL/L O2. Following 24-hour culture, Mito SOXTM staining was used to detect the level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (Mito-ROS) and JC-1 staining to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to detect the mitochondrial DNA content and the mRNA levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and Western blotting to detect the protein levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1 and TFAM. Results Compared with the control group, the Mito-ROS of the hyperoxia group increased significantly, while the membrane potential decreased obviously; the mitochondrial DNA content of the hyperoxia group went down, and the mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1 and TFAM dropped. Conclusion Hyperoxia induces mitochondrial dysfunction in human alveolar epithelial cells by inhibiting the expression of SIRT1 and PGC-1α.


Assuntos
Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Sirtuína 1/genética , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784428

RESUMO

Cold exposure in conjunction with aerobic exercise stimulates gene expression of PGC-1α, the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. PGC-1α can be expressed as multiple isoforms due to alternative splicing mechanisms. Among these isoforms is NT-PGC-1α, which produces a truncated form of the PGC-1α protein, as well as isoforms derived from the first exon of the transcript, PGC-1α-a, PGC-1α-b, and PGC-1α-c. Relatively little is known about the individual responses of these isoforms to exercise and environmental temperature. Therefore, we determined the expression of PGC-1α isoforms following an acute bout of cycling in cold (C) and room temperature (RT) conditions. Nine male participants cycled for 1h at 65% Wmax at -2 °C and 20 °C. A muscle biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis before and 3h post-exercise. RT-qPCR was used to analyze gene expression of PGC-1α isoforms. Gene expression of all PGC-1α isoforms increased due to the exercise intervention (p < 0.05). Exercise and cold exposure induced a greater increase in gene expression for total PGC-1α (p = 0.028) and its truncated isoform, NT-PGC-1α (p = 0.034), but there was no temperature-dependent response in the other PGC-1α isoforms measured. It appears that NT-PGC-1α may have a significant contribution to the reported alterations in the exercise- and temperature-induced PGC-1α response.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Exercício Físico , Músculo Esquelético , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Isoformas de RNA , Humanos , Masculino , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22204-22213, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848060

RESUMO

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that controls expression of metabolic/energetic genes, programming cellular responses to nutrient and environmental adaptations such as fasting, cold, or exercise. Unlike other coactivators, PGC-1α contains protein domains involved in RNA regulation such as serine/arginine (SR) and RNA recognition motifs (RRMs). However, the RNA targets of PGC-1α and how they pertain to metabolism are unknown. To address this, we performed enhanced ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking and immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (eCLIP-seq) in primary hepatocytes induced with glucagon. A large fraction of RNAs bound to PGC-1α were intronic sequences of genes involved in transcriptional, signaling, or metabolic function linked to glucagon and fasting responses, but were not the canonical direct transcriptional PGC-1α targets such as OXPHOS or gluconeogenic genes. Among the top-scoring RNA sequences bound to PGC-1α were Foxo1, Camk1δ, Per1, Klf15, Pln4, Cluh, Trpc5, Gfra1, and Slc25a25 PGC-1α depletion decreased a fraction of these glucagon-induced messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels. Importantly, knockdown of several of these genes affected glucagon-dependent glucose production, a PGC-1α-regulated metabolic pathway. These studies show that PGC-1α binds to intronic RNA sequences, some of them controlling transcript levels associated with glucagon action.


Assuntos
Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucagon/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Gluconeogênese/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Ligação Proteica , Transcriptoma
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111089, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810645

RESUMO

Early molecular events after the exposure of heavy metals, such as aberrant DNA methylation, suggest that DNA methylation was important in regulating physiological processes for animals and accordingly could be used as environmental biomarkers. In the present study, we found that copper (Cu) exposure increased lipid content and induced the DNA hypermethylation at the whole genome level. Especially, Cu induced hypermethylation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (pgc1α). CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) could bind to the methylated sequence of grp78, whereas C/EBPß could not bind to the methylated sequence of grp78. These synergistically influenced grp78 expression and increased lipogenesis. In contrast, DNA methylation of PGC1α blocked the specific protein 1 (SP1) binding and interfered mitochondrial function. Moreover, Cu increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and damaged mitochondrial function, and accordingly increased lipid deposition. Notably, we found a new toxicological mechanism for Cu-induced lipid deposition at DNA methylation level. The measurement of DNA methylation facilitated the use of these epigenetic biomarkers for the evaluation of environmental risk.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Metilação , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4313, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855402

RESUMO

It has been suggested that beige fat thermogenesis is tightly controlled by epigenetic regulators that sense environmental cues such as temperature. Here, we report that subcutaneous adipose expression of the DNA demethylase TET1 is suppressed by cold and other stimulators of beige adipocyte thermogenesis. TET1 acts as an autonomous repressor of key thermogenic genes, including Ucp1 and Ppargc1a, in beige adipocytes. Adipose-selective Tet1 knockout mice generated by using Fabp4-Cre improves cold tolerance and increases energy expenditure and protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover, the suppressive role of TET1 in the thermogenic gene regulation of beige adipocytes is largely DNA demethylase-independent. Rather, TET1 coordinates with HDAC1 to mediate the epigenetic changes to suppress thermogenic gene transcription. Taken together, TET1 is a potent beige-selective epigenetic breaker of the thermogenic gene program. Our findings may lead to a therapeutic strategy to increase energy expenditure in obesity and related metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Termogênese/genética , Animais , Calorimetria Indireta , Linhagem Celular , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/etiologia , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , RNA-Seq , Gordura Subcutânea/citologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
9.
Gene ; 763: 145071, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827682

RESUMO

The previous study indicated that transport stress resulted in oxidative damage and autophagy/mitophagy elevation, companied by NOX1 over- expression in the jejunal tissues of pigs. However, the transportation-related gene expression profile and NOX1 function in intestine remain to be explicated. In the current study, differentially expressed genes involved in PI3K-Akt and NF-κB pathways, oxidative stress and autophagy process have been identified in pig jejunal tissues after transcriptome analysis following transportation. The physiological functions of NOX1 down-regulation were explored against oxidative damage and excessive autophagy in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-1) following NOX1 inhibitor ML171 and H2O2 treatments. NOX1 down-regulation could decrease the content of Malondialdehyde (MDA), Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and up-regulate superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential and content were restored, and the expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1) were also increased. Additionally, NOX1 inhibitior could down-regulate the expression of autophagy-associated proteins (ATG5, LC3, p62), accompanied by activating SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway. NOX1 down-regulation might alleviate oxidative stress-induced mitochondria damage and intestinal mucosal injury via modulating excessive autophagy and SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling pathway. The data will shed light on the molecular mechanism of NOX1 on intestine oxidative damage following pig transportation.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Enterócitos/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 1/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 1/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/genética , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Suínos
10.
Life Sci ; 256: 117971, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553925

RESUMO

AIMS: Multiple myeloma (MM) was recently reported to rely on increased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for survival, providing a potential opportunity for MM therapy. Herein, we aimed to propose a novel targeted drug for MM treatment, followed by the exploration of reason for OXPHOS enhancement in MM cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of OXPHOS genes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) was analyzed using bioinformatics analyses, followed by verification in MM cell lines. The effects of SR18292 on OXPHOS were measured by qRT-PCR, Western blot, transmission electron microscopy, oxygen consumption rate and so on. The proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by CCK-8, flow cytometry and Western blot. The efficiency and safety of SR18292 were assessed in a mouse model of MM. KEY FINDINGS: The OXPHOS genes were generally overexpressed in MM cells, which was associated with poorer prognosis of MM patients. PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator, was upregulated in MM cells, and MM patients with higher PGC-1α expression exhibited increased enrichment of the OXPHOS gene set. Treatment with SR18292 (an inhibitor of PGC-1α) significantly impaired the proliferation and survival of MM cells due to OXPHOS metabolism dysfunction, which leads to energy exhaustion and oxidative damage. Besides, SR18292 potently inhibited tumor growth at a well-tolerated dose in MM model mice. SIGNIFICANCE: The overexpression of OXPHOS gene set mediated by upregulated PGC-1α provides a structural basis for enhanced OXPHOS in MM cells, and SR18292 (a PGC-1α inhibitor) exerts potent antimyeloma effects, offering a potential tangible avenue for MM therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Propanóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/ultraestrutura , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Propanóis/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Life Sci ; 256: 117920, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522571

RESUMO

AIM: We investigated the effects of high-intensity interval and continuous short-term exercise on body composition and cardiac function after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in obese rats. METHODS: Rats fed with a standard chow diet (SC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks underwent systolic blood pressure (SBP), glycemia and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analyses. Then, animals fed with HFD were subdivided into three groups: sedentary (HFD-SED); moderate-intensity continuous training (HFD-MICT); and high-intensity interval training (HFD-HIIT). Exercised groups underwent four isocaloric aerobic exercise sessions, in which HFD-MICT maintained the intensity continuously and HFD-HIIT alternated it. After exercise sessions, all groups underwent global IRI and myocardial infarct size (IS) was determined histologically. Fat and muscle mass were weighted, and protein levels involved in muscle metabolism were assessed in skeletal muscle. RESULTS: HFD-fed versus SC-fed rats reduced lean body mass by 31% (P < 0.001), while SBP, glycemia and body fat percentage were increased by 10% (P = 0.04), 30% (P = 0.006) and 54% (P < 0.001); respectively. HFD-induced muscle atrophy was restored in exercised groups, as only HFD-SED presented lower gastrocnemius (32%; P = 0.001) and quadriceps mass (62%; P < 0.001) than SC. PGC1-α expression was 2.7-fold higher in HFD-HIIT versus HFD-SED (P = 0.04), whereas HFD-HIIT and HFD-MICT exhibited 1.7-fold increase in p-mTORSer2481 levels compared to HFD-SED (P = 0.04). Although no difference was detected among groups for IS (P = 0.30), only HFD-HIIT preserved left-ventricle developed pressure after IRI (+0.7 mmHg; P = 0.9). SIGNIFICANCE: Short-term exercise, continuous or HIIT, restored HFD-induced muscle atrophy and increased mTOR expression, but only HIIT maintained myocardial contractility following IRI in obese animals.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sarcopenia/etiologia
12.
Cell Prolif ; 53(6): e12818, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MI/R injury are unclear. This study investigated the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Oip5-as1 in regulating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis during MI/R injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MI/R induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion. H9c2 cells were incubated under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) conditions to mimic in vivo MI/R. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to evaluate gene and protein levels. CCK-8 assay, biochemical assay and flow cytometric analysis were performed to assess the function of Oip5-as1. The dual-luciferase gene reporter assay and RIP assay were conducted as needed. RESULTS: Oip5-as1 expression was downregulated in the hearts of rats with MI/R and in H9c2 cells treated with OGD/R. Oip5-as1 overexpression alleviated reactive oxygen species-driven mitochondrial injury and consequently decreased apoptosis in MI/R rats and H9c2 cells exposed to OGD/R. Mechanistically, Oip5-as1 acted as a competing endogenous RNA of miR-29a and thus decreased its expression. Inhibition of miR-29a reduced the oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by OGD/R. Overexpression of miR-29a reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of Oip5-as1 in H9c2 cells treated with OGD/R. Further experiments identified SIRT1 as a downstream target of miR-29a. Oip5-as1 upregulated SIRT1 expression and activated the AMPK/PGC1α pathway by targeting miR-29a, thus reducing the apoptosis triggered by OGD/R. However, these effects were reversed by a selective SIRT1 inhibitor, EX527. CONCLUSIONS: Oip5-as1 suppresses miR-29a leading to activation of the SIRT1/AMPK/PGC1α pathway, which attenuates mitochondria-mediated apoptosis during MI/R injury. Our findings thus provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of MI/R injury.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Life Sci ; 254: 117762, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437795

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have less tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver than those with the healthy liver; hence have a higher incidence of severe complications after surgery. This study aimed to investigate the dynamics of the liver and mitochondrial damage and the impact of TLR4 knockout (TLR4KO) on Mfn2 expression in the composite model of NAFLD and IRI. MAIN METHODS: We performed high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and ischemia reperfusion (IR) on wild type (WT) and TLR4 knockout TLR4KO mice. KEY FINDINGS: The degree of structural and functional injuries to the liver and mitochondria (NAFLD and IRI) is greater than that caused by a single factor (NAFLD or IRI) or a simple superposition of both. The IL-6 and TNF-α expressions were significantly suppressed (P < .05), while PGC-1α and Mfn2 expressions were up-regulated considerably (P < .05) after TLR4KO. Furthermore, mitochondrial fusion increased, while ATP consumption and ROS production decreased significantly after TLR4KO (P < .05). The degree of reduction of compound injury by TLR4KO is more significant than the reduction degree of single factor injury. Also, TNF-α and IL-6 levels can be used predictive markers for mitochondrial damage and liver tolerance to NAFLD and IRI. SIGNIFICANCE: TLR4KO upregulates the expression of Mfn2 and PGC-1α in the composite model of NAFLD and IRI. This pathway may be related to IL-6 and TNF-α. This evidence provides theoretical and experimental basis for the subsequent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) receptor targeted therapy.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/biossíntese , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/biossíntese , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Reperfusão , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/deficiência , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
14.
Metabolism ; 109: 154280, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is recognized as the cause of multiple metabolic diseases and is rapidly increasing worldwide. As obesity is due to an imbalance in energy homeostasis, the promotion of energy consumption through browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy to counter the obesity epidemic. However, the molecular mechanisms of the browning process are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of the GATA family of transcription factors on the browning process. METHODS: We used qPCR to analyze the expression of GATA family members during WAT browning. In order to investigate the function of GATA3 in the browning process, we used the lentivirus system for the ectopic expression and knockdown of GATA3. Western blot and real-time qPCR analyses revealed the regulation of thermogenic genes upon ectopic expression and knockdown of GATA3. Luciferase reporter assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to demonstrate that GATA3 interacts with proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α) to regulate the promoter activity of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1). Enhanced energy expenditure by GATA3 was confirmed using oxygen consumption assays, and the mitochondrial content was assessed using MitoTracker. Furthermore, we examined the in vivo effects of lentiviral GATA3 overexpression and knockdown in inguinal adipose tissue of mice. RESULTS: Gata3 expression levels were significantly elevated in the inguinal adipose tissue of mice exposed to cold conditions. Ectopic expression of GATA3 enhanced the expression of UCP-1 and thermogenic genes upon treatment with norepinephrine whereas GATA3 knockdown had the opposite effect. Luciferase reporter assays using the UCP-1 promoter region showed that UCP-1 expression was increased in a dose-dependent manner by GATA3 regardless of norepinephrine treatment. GATA3 was found to directly bind to the promoter region of UCP-1. Furthermore, our results indicated that GATA3 interacts with the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α to increase the expression of UCP-1. Taken together, we demonstrate that GATA3 has an important role in enhancing energy expenditure by increasing the expression of thermogenic genes both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: GATA3 may represent a promising target for the prevention and treatment of obesity by regulating thermogenic capacity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Metabolismo Energético , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Termogênese/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Regulação para Cima
15.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(5): 631-638, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350615

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disuse-induced bone loss is caused by a suppression of osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption. There are few data available for the effects of environmental conditions, i.e., atmospheric pressure and/or oxygen concentration, on osteoporosis. This study examined the effects of mild hyperbaric oxygen at 1317 hPa with 40% oxygen on unloading-induced osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen 8-week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control for 21 days without unloading and mild hyperbaric oxygen (NOR, n = 6), the unloading for 21 days and recovery for 10 days without mild hyperbaric oxygen (HU + NOR, n = 6), and the unloading for 21 days and recovery for 10 days with mild hyperbaric oxygen (HU + MHO, n = 6). RESULTS: The cortical thickness and trabecular bone surface area were decreased in the HU + NOR group compared to the NOR group. There were no differences between the NOR and HU + MHO groups. Osteoclast surface area and Sclerostin (Sost) mRNA expression levels were decreased in the HU + MHO group compared to the HU + NOR group. These results suggested that the loss of the cortical and trabecular bone is inhibited by mild hyperbaric oxygen, because of an inhibition of osteoclasts and enhancement of bone formation with decreased Sost expression. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that exposure to mild hyperbaric oxygen partially protects from the osteoporosis induced by hindlimb unloading.


Assuntos
Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/fisiologia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Osso Esponjoso/fisiopatologia , Osso Cortical/patologia , Osso Cortical/fisiopatologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Lâmina de Crescimento/patologia , Masculino , Osteocalcina/genética , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteoporose/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2306, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385399

RESUMO

During ß-adrenergic stimulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), p38 phosphorylates the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) which then translocates to the nucleus to activate the expression of Ucp1 and Pgc-1α. The mechanisms underlying ATF2 target activation are unknown. Here we demonstrate that p62 (Sqstm1) binds to ATF2 to orchestrate activation of the Ucp1 enhancer and Pgc-1α promoter. P62Δ69-251 mice show reduced expression of Ucp1 and Pgc-1α with impaired ATF2 genomic binding. Modulation of Ucp1 and Pgc-1α expression through p62 regulation of ATF2 signaling is demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in p62Δ69-251 mice, global p62-/- and Ucp1-Cre p62flx/flx mice. BAT dysfunction resulting from p62 deficiency is manifest after birth and obesity subsequently develops despite normal food intake, intestinal nutrient absorption and locomotor activity. In summary, our data identify p62 as a master regulator of BAT function in that it controls the Ucp1 pathway through regulation of ATF2 genomic binding.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Ligação Proteica , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2669-2683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368048

RESUMO

Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterials in a variety of fields such as industrial, pharmaceutical, and household applications. Increasing evidence suggests that ZnO NPs could elicit unignorable harmful effect to the cardiovascular system, but the potential deleterious effects to human cardiomyocytes remain to be elucidated. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have been increasingly used as a promising in vitro model of cardiomyocyte in various fields such as drug cardiac safety evaluation. Herein, the present study was designed to elucidate the cardiac adverse effects of ZnO NPs and explore the possible underlying mechanism using hiPSC-CMs. Methods: ZnO NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The cytotoxicity induced by ZnO NPs in hiPSC-CMs was evaluated by determination of cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase release. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured by high-content analysis (HCA). Mitochondrial biogenesis was assayed by detection of mtDNA copy number and PGC-1α pathway. Moreover, microelectrode array techniques were used to investigate cardiac electrophysiological alterations. Results: We demonstrated that ZnO NPs concentration- and time-dependently elicited cytotoxicity in hiPSC-CMs. The results from HCA revealed that ZnO NPs exposure at low-cytotoxic concentrations significantly promoted ROS generation and induced mitochondrial dysfunction. We further demonstrated that ZnO NPs could impair mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibit PGC-1α pathway. In addition, ZnO NPs at insignificantly cytotoxic concentrations were found to trigger cardiac electrophysiological alterations as evidenced by decreases of beat rate and spike amplitude. Conclusion: Our findings unveiled the potential harmful effects of ZnO NPs to human cardiomyocytes that involve mitochondrial biogenesis and the PGC-1α pathway that could affect cardiac electrophysiological function.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Biogênese de Organelas , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo
18.
Life Sci ; 254: 117785, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416167

RESUMO

As the most important bioactive substance in Garcinia cambogia, (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is widely used in food additives to regulate obesity and diabetes in animals or humans, while the mechanism is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the regulatory effect and mechanism of (-)-HCA in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in chicken primary hepatocytes. The results showed that (-)-HCA obviously decreased triglyceride content through inhibiting the fatty acid synthase protein level, and enhancing the protein level of phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase, enoyl coenzyme A hydratase short chain 1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A in hepatocytes. Moreover, (-)-HCA markedly enhanced the protein level of phosphofructokinase-1, pyruvate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase A and complex IV, and which led to the enhancing of glucose uptake and catabolism in hepatocytes. Importantly, the regulation of (-)-HCA on these key factors associated with lipid and glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was mainly achieved through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α-nuclear respiratory factor 1 signaling pathway. These results convincingly demonstrated the mechanism of (-)-HCA's regulating on glucose and lipid metabolism, and provided a strategy in prevention of diseases associated with glycolipid metabolic abnormalities in animals, even in humans.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Citratos/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fator 1 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Galinhas , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Enoil-CoA Hidratase/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fosfofrutoquinase-1/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Piruvato Desidrogenase (Lipoamida)/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2379, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404872

RESUMO

Brown and beige fat share a remarkably similar transcriptional program that supports fuel oxidation and thermogenesis. The chromatin-remodeling machinery that governs genome accessibility and renders adipocytes poised for thermogenic activation remains elusive. Here we show that BAF60a, a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes, serves an indispensable role in cold-induced thermogenesis in brown fat. BAF60a maintains chromatin accessibility at PPARγ and EBF2 binding sites for key thermogenic genes. Surprisingly, fat-specific BAF60a inactivation triggers more pronounced cold-induced browning of inguinal white adipose tissue that is linked to induction of MC2R, a receptor for the pituitary hormone ACTH. Elevated MC2R expression sensitizes adipocytes and BAF60a-deficient adipose tissue to thermogenic activation in response to ACTH stimulation. These observations reveal an unexpected dichotomous role of BAF60a-mediated chromatin remodeling in transcriptional control of brown and beige gene programs and illustrate a pituitary-adipose signaling axis in the control of thermogenesis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/deficiência , Temperatura Baixa , Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/ultraestrutura , Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/genética
20.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(3): 631-650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329640

RESUMO

The loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is a serious consequence of chronic diseases and aging. BST204 is a purified ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng) extract that has been processed using ginsenoside-ß-glucosidase and acid hydrolysis to enrich ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 from the crude ginseng. BST204 has a broad range of health benefits, but its effects and mechanism on muscle atrophy are currently unknown. In this study, we have examined the effects and underlying mechanisms of BST204 on myotube formation and myotube atrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). BST204 promotes myogenic differentiation and multinucleated myotube formation through Akt activation. BST204 prevents myotube atrophy induced by TNF-α through the activation of Akt/mTOR signaling and down-regulation of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1, and Atrogin-1. Furthermore, BST204 treatment in atrophic myotubes suppresses mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and regulates mitochondrial transcription factors such as NRF1 and Tfam, through enhancing the activity and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC1α). Collectively, our findings indicate that BST204 improves myotube formation and PGC1α-mediated mitochondrial function, suggesting that BST204 is a potential therapeutic or neutraceutical remedy to intervene muscle weakness and atrophy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Atrofia/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
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