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1.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210100. 13 p. tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1146075

RESUMO

El documento contiene el proceso de solicitud de productos farmacéuticos, dispositivos médicos y productos sanitarios por parte de las IPRESS Públicas, y el uso de los recursos para la adquisición y distribución de los mismos a través del Centro Nacional de Abastecimiento de Recursos Estratégicos en Salud (CENARES), a favor de afiliados al Seguro Integral de Salud en el marco del aseguramiento universal en salud.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Aparelho Sanitário , Compras em Grupo , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Equipamentos e Provisões , Boas Práticas de Distribuição
3.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(12): 1436-1439, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355380

RESUMO

The Universal Health Coverage (UHC) Day has been commemorated on 12 December every year since 2017. In 2019, the theme of the day was "Keep the Promise", referring to the Political Declaration on UHC endorsed by Heads of States at the United Nations General Assembly High-Level Meeting on 23 September 2019. In 2020, the theme is "Protect Everyone", emphasizing global and individual health security in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, attributed to SARS-CoV 2 - a virus that infected more than 4 million people in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and left over 100 000 dead in less than 12 months (6.6% and 7.1% of the global toll, respectively). Keeping the promise of UHC, while ensuring health security, is becoming a priority agenda of policy-makers and practitioners in the EMR in order to save lives, advance health and protect livelihoods.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Programas Gente Saudável , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Nações Unidas
4.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(11): 1365-1372, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132272

RESUMO

Japan's health care system can be regarded as one of the best worldwide, provided it remains sustainable. It has relatively low costs, short wait times, low disease incidence, and high life expectancy. However, universal coverage in Japan faces financial challenges due to the country's rapidly aging population. Canada is another of the few developed countries that have universal health coverage. In contrast to Japan, Canada's health care spending is still sustainable according to recent studies. Effective cost control by payers has played a major role, with providers being steered toward evidence-based and cost-effective drug therapies. Furthermore, expanded pharmacy services have been important in suppressing spending on prescription drugs and minor health care services such as vaccination, government-funded smoking cessation, and medication review programs. This article outlines the services provided by Canadian pharmacists with expanded scope of practice. The pharmaceutical profession and its advocacy body in Canada have not only played a role in regulatory changes, but also put in place technological infrastructure called PharmaNet and contributed to appropriate prescribing. Given the current economic situation and demographic trends in Japan, more options should be explored in order to maintain universal health coverage by meeting the funding gap. Utilizing community pharmacies and pharmacists is proposed as one option.


Assuntos
Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Assistência à Saúde , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica/economia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia , Canadá , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Humanos , Japão , Formulação de Políticas , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
8.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 152, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General Government Health Expenditure (GGHE) in Mauritius accounted for only 10% of General Government Expenditure for the fiscal year 2018. This is less than the pledge taken under the Abuja 2001 Declaration to allocate at least 15% of national budget to the health sector. The latest National Health Accounts also urged for an expansion in the fiscal space for health. As public hospitals in Mauritius absorb 70% of GGHE, maximising returns of hospitals is essential to achieve Universal Health Coverage. More so, as Mauritius is bracing for its worst recession in 40 years in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic public health financing will be heavily impacted. A thorough assessment of hospital efficiency and its implications on effective public health financing and fiscal space creation is, therefore, vital to inform ongoing health reform agenda. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to examine the trend in hospital technical efficiency over the period 2001-2017, to measure the elasticity of hospital output to changes in inputs variables and to assess the impact of improved hospital technical efficiency in terms of fiscal space creation. METHODS: Annual health statistics released by the Ministry of Health and Wellness and national budget of the Ministry of Finance, Economic Planning and Development were the principal sources of data. Applying Stochastic Frontier Analysis, technical efficiency of public regional hospitals was estimated under Cobb-Douglas, Translog and Multi-output distance functions, using STATA 11. Hospital beds, doctors, nurses and non-medical staff were used as input variables. Output variable combined inpatients and outpatients seen at Accident Emergency, Sorted and Unsorted departments. Efficiency scores were used to determine potential efficiency savings and fiscal space creation. FINDINGS: Mean technical efficiency scores, using the Cobb Douglas, Translog and Multi-output functions, were estimated at 0.83, 0.84 and 0.89, respectively. Nurses and beds are the most important factors in hospital production, as a 1% increase in the number of beds and nurses, result in an increase in hospital outputs by 0.73 and 0.51%, respectively. If hospitals are to increase their inputs by 1%, their outputs will increase by 1.16%. Hospital output process has an increasing return to scale. With technical efficiencies improving to scores of 0.95 and 1.0 in 2021-2022, potential savings and fiscal space creation at hospital level, would amount to MUR 633 million (US$ 16.2 million) and MUR 1161 million (US$ 29.6 million), respectively. CONCLUSION: Fiscal space creation through full technical efficiency, is estimated to represent 8.9 and 9.2% of GGHE in fiscal year 2021-2022 and 2022-2023, respectively. This will allow without any restrictions the funding of the national response for HIV, vaccine preventable diseases as well as building a resilient health system to mitigate impact of emerging infectious diseases as experienced with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Financiamento Governamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/economia , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Maurício , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
10.
J Prim Health Care ; 12(3): 193-194, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988439

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of public, universal and equal access health-care, and reminded us that challenges are always incumbent for health-care systems. Because accessible and universal health-care systems will be critical into the future, it will be crucial to earmark adequate resources, fostering the financing of sectors that for many years have been neglected such as primary care and public health, and investments in new models of care and in health-related workforce.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Organizacionais , Pandemias
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790669

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with tuberculosis (TB) symptoms have high prevalence of HIV, and should be prioritised for HIV testing. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study in Bangwe primary care clinic, Blantyre, Malawi, all adults (18 years or older) presenting with an acute illness were screened for TB symptoms (cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss). Demographic characteristics were linked to exit interview by fingerprint bioidentification. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to estimate the proportion completing same-visit HIV testing, comparing between those with and without TB symptoms. RESULTS: There were 5427 adult attendees between 21/5/2018 and 6/9/2018. Exit interviews were performed for 2402 (44%). 276 patients were excluded from the analysis, being already on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Presentation with any TB symptom was common for men (54.6%) and women (57.4%). Overall 27.6% (585/ 2121) attenders reported being offered testing and 21.5% (455/2121) completed provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) and received results. The proportions offered testing were similar among participants with and without TB symptoms (any TB symptom: 29.0% vs. 25.7%). This was consistent for each individual symptom; cough, weight loss, fever and night sweats. Multivariable regression models indicated men, younger adults and participants who had previously tested were more likely to complete PITC than women, older adults and those who had never previously tested. CONCLUSIONS: Same-visit completion of HIV testing was suboptimal, especially among groups known to have high prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. As countries approach universal coverage of ART, identifying and prioritising currently underserved groups for HIV testing will be essential.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
15.
Lancet ; 396(10258): 1250-1284, 2020 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves all people receiving the health services they need, of high quality, without experiencing financial hardship. Making progress towards UHC is a policy priority for both countries and global institutions, as highlighted by the agenda of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and WHO's Thirteenth General Programme of Work (GPW13). Measuring effective coverage at the health-system level is important for understanding whether health services are aligned with countries' health profiles and are of sufficient quality to produce health gains for populations of all ages. METHODS: Based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we assessed UHC effective coverage for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Drawing from a measurement framework developed through WHO's GPW13 consultation, we mapped 23 effective coverage indicators to a matrix representing health service types (eg, promotion, prevention, and treatment) and five population-age groups spanning from reproductive and newborn to older adults (≥65 years). Effective coverage indicators were based on intervention coverage or outcome-based measures such as mortality-to-incidence ratios to approximate access to quality care; outcome-based measures were transformed to values on a scale of 0-100 based on the 2·5th and 97·5th percentile of location-year values. We constructed the UHC effective coverage index by weighting each effective coverage indicator relative to its associated potential health gains, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years for each location-year and population-age group. For three tests of validity (content, known-groups, and convergent), UHC effective coverage index performance was generally better than that of other UHC service coverage indices from WHO (ie, the current metric for SDG indicator 3.8.1 on UHC service coverage), the World Bank, and GBD 2017. We quantified frontiers of UHC effective coverage performance on the basis of pooled health spending per capita, representing UHC effective coverage index levels achieved in 2019 relative to country-level government health spending, prepaid private expenditures, and development assistance for health. To assess current trajectories towards the GPW13 UHC billion target-1 billion more people benefiting from UHC by 2023-we estimated additional population equivalents with UHC effective coverage from 2018 to 2023. FINDINGS: Globally, performance on the UHC effective coverage index improved from 45·8 (95% uncertainty interval 44·2-47·5) in 1990 to 60·3 (58·7-61·9) in 2019, yet country-level UHC effective coverage in 2019 still spanned from 95 or higher in Japan and Iceland to lower than 25 in Somalia and the Central African Republic. Since 2010, sub-Saharan Africa showed accelerated gains on the UHC effective coverage index (at an average increase of 2·6% [1·9-3·3] per year up to 2019); by contrast, most other GBD super-regions had slowed rates of progress in 2010-2019 relative to 1990-2010. Many countries showed lagging performance on effective coverage indicators for non-communicable diseases relative to those for communicable diseases and maternal and child health, despite non-communicable diseases accounting for a greater proportion of potential health gains in 2019, suggesting that many health systems are not keeping pace with the rising non-communicable disease burden and associated population health needs. In 2019, the UHC effective coverage index was associated with pooled health spending per capita (r=0·79), although countries across the development spectrum had much lower UHC effective coverage than is potentially achievable relative to their health spending. Under maximum efficiency of translating health spending into UHC effective coverage performance, countries would need to reach $1398 pooled health spending per capita (US$ adjusted for purchasing power parity) in order to achieve 80 on the UHC effective coverage index. From 2018 to 2023, an estimated 388·9 million (358·6-421·3) more population equivalents would have UHC effective coverage, falling well short of the GPW13 target of 1 billion more people benefiting from UHC during this time. Current projections point to an estimated 3·1 billion (3·0-3·2) population equivalents still lacking UHC effective coverage in 2023, with nearly a third (968·1 million [903·5-1040·3]) residing in south Asia. INTERPRETATION: The present study demonstrates the utility of measuring effective coverage and its role in supporting improved health outcomes for all people-the ultimate goal of UHC and its achievement. Global ambitions to accelerate progress on UHC service coverage are increasingly unlikely unless concerted action on non-communicable diseases occurs and countries can better translate health spending into improved performance. Focusing on effective coverage and accounting for the world's evolving health needs lays the groundwork for better understanding how close-or how far-all populations are in benefiting from UHC. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Carga Global da Doença/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784498

RESUMO

The quality and safety of healthcare facility (HCF) services are critical to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) and yet the WHO/UNICEF joint monitoring program for water supply, sanitation and hygiene report indicates that only 51% and 23% of HCF in Sub-Saharan Africa have basic access to water and sanitation, respectively. Global commitments on improving access to water, sanitation, hygiene, waste management and environmental cleaning (WaSH) in HCF as part of implementing UHC have surged since 2015. Guided by political ecology of health theory, we explored the country level commitment to ensuring access to WaSH in HCFs as part of piloting UHC in Kisumu, Kenya. Through content analysis, 17 relevant policy documents were systematically reviewed using NVIVO. None of the national documents mentioned all the component of WaSH in healthcare facilities. Furthermore, these WaSH components are not measured as part of the universal health coverage pilot. Comprehensively incorporating WaSH measurement and monitoring in HCFs in the context of UHC policies creates a foundation for achieving SDG 6.


Assuntos
Higiene , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Saneamento , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Quênia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Abastecimento de Água
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745081

RESUMO

In line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the target for achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC), state level initiatives to promote health with "no-one left behind" are underway in India. In Kerala, reforms under the flagship Aardram mission include upgradation of Primary Health Centres (PHCs) to Family Health Centres (FHCs, similar to the national model of health and wellness centres (HWCs)), with the proactive provision of a package of primary care services for the population in an administrative area. We report on a component of Aardram's monitoring and evaluation framework for primary health care, where tracer input, output, and outcome indicators were selected using a modified Delphi process and field tested. A conceptual framework and indicator inventory were developed drawing upon literature review and stakeholder consultations, followed by mapping of manual registers currently used in PHCs to identify sources of data and processes of monitoring. The indicator inventory was reduced to a list using a modified Delphi method, followed by facility-level field testing across three districts. The modified Delphi comprised 25 participants in two rounds, who brought the list down to 23 approved and 12 recommended indicators. Three types of challenges in monitoring indicators were identified: appropriateness of indicators relative to local use, lack of clarity or procedural differences among those doing the reporting, and validity of data. Further field-testing of indicators, as well as the revision or removal of some may be required to support ongoing health systems reform, learning, monitoring and evaluation.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Academias de Ginástica/organização & administração , Academias de Ginástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 90, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social innovation (SI) in health holds potential to contribute to health systems strengthening and universal health coverage (UHC). The role of universities in SI has been well described in the context of high-income countries. An evidence gap exits on SI in healthcare delivery in the context of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as well as on the engagement of universities from these contexts. There is thus a need to build capacity for research and engagement in SI in healthcare delivery within these universities. The aim of this study was to examine the adoption and implementation of network of university hubs focused on SI in healthcare delivery within five countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America. The objectives were to describe the model, components and implementation process of the hubs; identify the enablers and barriers experienced and draw implications that could be relevant to other LMIC universities interested in SI. METHODS: A case study design was adopted to study the implementation process of a network of university hubs. Data from documentation, team discussions and post-implementation surveys were collected from 2013 to 2018 and analysed with aid of a modified policy analysis framework. RESULTS/DISCUSSION: SI university-based hubs serve as cross-disciplinary and cross-sectoral platforms, established to catalyse SI within the local health system through four core activities: research, community-building, storytelling and institutional embedding, and adhering to values of inclusion, assets, co-creation and hope. Hubs were implemented as informal structures, managed by a small core team, in existing department. Enablers of hub implementation and functioning were the availability of strong in-country social networks, legitimacy attained from being part of a global network on SI in health and receiving a capacity building package in the initial stages. Barriers encountered were internal institutional resistance, administrative challenges associated with university bureaucracy and annual funding cycles. CONCLUSIONS: This case study shows the opportunity that reside within LMIC universities to act as eco-system enablers of SI in healthcare delivery in order to fill the evidence gap on SI and enhance cross-sectoral participation in support of achieving UHC.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Inovação Organizacional , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Universidades , Humanos , América Latina , Malaui , Filipinas , Formulação de Políticas , Uganda
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