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2.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 0, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775785

RESUMO

In many African countries, hundreds of health-related NGOs are fed by a chaotic tangle of donor funding streams. The case of Mozambique illustrates how this NGO model impedes Universal Health Coverage. In the 1990s, NGOs multiplied across post-war Mozambique: the country's structural adjustment program constrained public and foreign aid expenditures on the public health system, while donors favored private contractors and NGOs. In the 2000s, funding for HIV/AIDS and other vertical aid from many donors increased dramatically. In 2004, the United States introduced PEPFAR in Mozambique at nearly 500 million USD per year, roughly equivalent to the entire budget of the Ministry of Health. To be sure, PEPFAR funding has helped thousands access antiretroviral treatment, but over 90% of resources flow "off-budget" to NGO "implementing partners," with little left for the public health system. After a decade of this major donor funding to NGOs, public sector health system coverage had barely changed. In 2014, the workforce/ population ratio was still among the five worst in the world at 71/10000; the health facility/per capita ratio worsened since 2009 to only 1 per 16,795. Achieving UHC will require rejection of austerity constraints on public sector health systems, and rechanneling of aid to public systems building rather than to NGOs.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Organizações/economia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Humanos , Moçambique , Setor Público/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
3.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 72, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775796

RESUMO

The triple goals of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) are to cover the whole population, to reduce patients' costs, and to expand coverage to all effective services, equitably available to all. This paper analyses the experience of Japan in achieving these goals, focusing on the central role played by the payment system. The payment system, or fee schedule, sets the price of services and pharmaceuticals, as well as the conditions that providers must comply with in order to receive payment. The fee schedule was first introduced following the enactment of social health insurance (SHI) in 1922. Initially, the SHI program covered only manual workers, who comprised a mere 3% of the population. However, the fee schedule of the largest SHI plan was subsequently adopted by all other SHI plans. From 1958, there has been only one fee schedule. Population coverage was achieved in 1961 by mandating all residing in Japan to enroll in SHI, thereby making everyone entitled to all the services and pharmaceuticals listed in the fee schedule. Next, co-insurance was capped to an affordable level by the introduction of catastrophic coverage in 1973. Lastly, extra billing and balance billing were explicitly restricted in 1984. The key to achieving and sustaining UHC goals in Japan lies in being able to contain costs and reallocate resources by revising the fee schedule.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Metas , Humanos , Japão
4.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 75, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775851

RESUMO

Sri Lanka reports impressive health indicators compared to its peers in the South Asian region. Maternal and infant mortality are relatively low, and several intractable communicable diseases have been eliminated. The publicly financed and delivered "free" healthcare system has been critical to these health achievements. Placing the country's healthcare system in historical context, this commentary analyses the contradictions and political tensions surrounding Sri Lanka's 2018 Universal Health Coverage (UHC) policy, with attention to the Ministry of Health's plans for public-private partnerships (PPP). As economic exigencies and private interests increasingly erode the 1951 "Free Health" policy, this commentary calls for a re-envisioning of UHC that can meet people's aspirations for health and social justice.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Previsões , Humanos , Sri Lanka
5.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 0, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775869

RESUMO

The presumed global consensus on achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) masks crucial issues regarding the principles and politics of what constitutes "universality" and what matters, past and present, in the struggle for health (care) justice. This article focuses on three dimensions of the problematic: 1) we unpack the rhetoric of UHC in terms of each of its three components: universal, health, and coverage; 2) paying special attention to Latin America, we revisit the neoliberal coup d'état against past and contemporary struggles for health justice, and we consider how the current neoliberal phase of capitalism has sought to arrest these struggles, co-opt their language, and narrow their vision; and 3) we re-imagine the contemporary challenges/dilemmas concerning health justice, transcending the false technocratic consensus around UHC and re-infusing the profoundly political nature of this struggle. In sum, as with the universe writ large, a range of matters matter: socio-political contexts at national and international levels, agenda-setting power, the battle over language, real policy effects, conceptual narratives, and people's struggles for justice.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Justiça Social , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , América Latina , Política
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 675, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ghana Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) initiative is a national strategy for improving access to primary health care services for underserved communities. Following a successful trial in the North Eastern part of the country, CHPS was adopted as Ghana's flagship programme for achieving the Universal Health Coverage. Recent empirical evidence suggests, however, that scale-up of CHPS has not necessarily replicated the successes of the pilot study. This study examines the community's perspective of the performance of CHPS and how the scale up could potentially align with the original experimental study. METHOD: Applying a qualitative research methodology, this study analysed transcripts from 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) in four functional CHPS zones in separate districts of the Northern and Volta Regions of Ghana to understand the community's assessment of CHPS. The study employed the thematic analysis to explore the content of the CHPS service provision, delivery and how community members feel about the service. In addition, ordinary least regression model was applied in interpreting 126 scores consigned to CHPS by the study respondents. RESULTS: Two broad areas of consensus were observed: general favourable and general unfavourable thematic areas. Favourable themes were informed by approval, appreciation, hard work and recognition of excellent services. The unfavourable thematic area was informed by rudeness, extortion, inappropriate and unprofessional behaviour, lack of basic equipment and disappointments. The findings show that mothers of children under the age of five, adolescent girls without children, and community leaders generally expressed favourable perceptions of CHPS while fathers of children under the age of five and adolescent boys without children had unfavourable expressions about the CHPS program. A narrow focus on maternal and child health explains the demographic divide on the perception of CHPS. The study revealed wide disparities in actual CHPS deliverables and community expectations. CONCLUSIONS: A communication gap between health care providers and community members explains the high and unrealistic expectations of CHPS. Efforts to improve program acceptability and impact should address the need for more general outreach to social networks and men rather than a sole focus on facility-based maternal and child health care.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gana , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 670, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health systems reform is inevitable due to the never-ending changing nature of societal health needs and policy dynamism. Today, the Health Transformation Plan (HTP) remains the major tool to facilitate the achievements of universal health coverage (UHC) in Iran. It was initially implemented in hospital-based setting and later expanded to primary health care (PHC). This study aimed to analyze the HTP at the PHC level in Iran. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected through document analysis, round-table discussion, and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at the micro, meso and macro levels of the health system. A tailored version of Walt & Gilson's policy triangle model incorporating the stages heuristic model was used to guide data analysis. RESULTS: The HTP emerged through a political process. Although the initiative aimed to facilitate the achievements of UHC by improving the entire health system of Iran, little attention was given to PHC especially during the first phases of policy development - a gap that occurred because politicians were in a great haste to fulfil a campaign promise. CONCLUSIONS: Health reforms targeting UHC and the health-related Sustainable Development Goals require the political will to improve PHC through engagements of all stakeholders of the health system, plus improved fiscal capacity of the country and financial commitments to implement evidence-informed initiatives.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Política , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500288

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to measure universal health coverage in Emerging 7 (E7) economies. Within this framework, five different dimensions and 14 different criteria are selected by considering the explanations of World Health Organization and United Nations regarding universal health coverage. While weighting the dimensions and criteria, the Decision-making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) is considered with the triangular fuzzy numbers. Additionally, Multi-Objective Optimization on the basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA) approach is used to rank E7 economies regarding Universal Health Coverage (UHC) performance. The novelty of this study is that both service and financial based factors are taken into consideration at the same time. Additionally, fuzzy DEMATEL and MOORA methodologies are firstly used in this study with respect to the evaluation of universal health coverage. The findings show that catastrophic out of pocket health spending, pushed below an international poverty line and annual growth rate of real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita are the most significant criteria for universal health coverage performance. Moreover, it is also concluded that Russia is the country that has the highest universal health coverage performance whereas China, India and Brazil are in the last ranks. It can be understood that macroeconomic conditions play a very significant role on the performance of universal health coverage. Hence, economic conditions should be improved in these countries to have better universal health coverage performance. Furthermore, it is necessary to establish programs that provide exemptions or lower out-of-pocket expenditures which will not prevent the use of health services. This situation can protect people against the financial risks related to health expenditures. In addition to them, it is also obvious that high population has also negative influence on the countries such as, China and India. It indicates that it would be appropriate for these countries to make population planning for this purpose.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 140, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488220

RESUMO

This article aims to clarify the moral underpinning of the policy framework of Healthy Ageing. It is a policy adopted by the World Health Organization designed to operate in alignment with the United Nations (UN) framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the urgency given for the achievement of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). It particularly reflects on what, if anything, justifies protecting the most basic rights to health and well-being of older adults from possible policy trade-offs on the path to UHC.It argues that the dignity of older adults-under which are nested more specific ideas of self-respect, respect for autonomy, as well as the ethical priority for living well-underpins a categorical moral injunction against imposing the familiar utilitarian calculus as the default criterion for policy trade-offs across age groups. Respect for the dignity of older persons marks the moral threshold that every society ought to uphold even under conditions of relative resource scarcity.The moral constraint on permissible policy trade-offs relating to the health of older adults must reflect an understanding of older persons as active agents in the social structure of (their) well-being, not merely as passive vessels through which a good healthy life may or may not occur. We argue that there are three main domains where trade-offs are unacceptable from the moral point of view: it is impermissible (1) to prioritise key service(s) across different (vulnerable) age groups on the basis of actual or future contribution to society, (2) to prioritise across different age groups when co-prioritisation is warranted by the ethical theory, and (3), to always prioritise (by default) services that improve well-being over those that foster respect for dignity and autonomy.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/ética , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Lancet ; 394(10196): 432-442, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379334

RESUMO

New Zealand was one of the first countries to establish a universal, tax-funded national health service. Unique features include innovative Maori services, the no-fault accident compensation scheme, and the Pharmaceutical Management Agency, which negotiates with pharmaceutical companies to get the best value for medicines purchased by public money. The so-called universal orientation of the health system, along with a strong commitment to social service provision, have contributed to New Zealand's favourable health statistics. However, despite a long-standing commitment to reducing health inequities, problems with access to care persist and the system is not delivering the promise of equitable health outcomes for all population groups. Primary health services and hospital-based services have developed largely independently, and major restructuring during the 1990s did not produce the expected efficiency gains. A focus on individual-level secondary services and performance targets has been prioritised over tackling issues such as suicide, obesity, and poverty-related diseases through community-based health promotion, preventive activities, and primary care. Future changes need to focus on strengthening the culture and capacity of the system to improve equity of outcomes, including expanding Maori health service provision, integrating existing services and structures with new ones, aligning resources with need to achieve pro-equity outcomes, and strengthening population-based approaches to tackling contemporary drivers of health status.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia , Financiamento Governamental , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Nova Zelândia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração
14.
Global Health ; 15(1): 50, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health challenges and health systems set-ups differ, warranting contextualised healthcare interventions to move towards universal health coverage. As such, there is emphasis on generation of contextualized evidence to solve local challenges. However, weak research capacity and inadequate resources remain an impendiment to quality research in the African region. WHO African Region (WHO AFR) facilitated the adoption of a regional strategy for strengthening national health research systems (NHRS) in 2015. We assessed the progress in strengthening NHRS among the 47 member states of the WHO AFR. METHODS: We employed a cross sectional survey design using a semi structured questionnaire. All the 47member states of WHO AFR were surveyed. We assessed performance against indicators of the regional research strategy, explored facilitating factors and barriers to strengthening NHRS. Using the research barometer, which is a metric developed for the WHO AFR we assessed the strength of NHRS of member states. Data were analysed in Excel Software to calculate barometer scores for NHRS function and sub-function. Thematic content was employed in analysing the qualitative data. Data for 2014 were compared to 2018 to assess progress. RESULTS: WHO AFR member states have made significant progress in strengthening their NHRS. Some of the indicators have either attained or exceeded the 2025 targets. The average regional barometer score improved from 43% in 2014 to 61% in 2018. Significant improvements were registered in the governance of research for health (R4H); developing and sustaining research resources and producing and using research. Financing R4H improved only modestly. Among the constraints are the lengthy ethical clearance processes, weak research coordination mechanisms, weak enforcement of research laws and regulation, inadequate research infrastructure, limited resource mobilisation skills and donor dependence. CONCLUSION: There has been significant improvement in the NHRS of member states of the WHO AFRO since the last assessment in 2014. Improvement across the different objectives of the regional research strategy is however varied which compromises overall performance. The survey highlighted the areas with slow improvement that require a concerted effort. Furthermore, the study provides an opportunity for countries to share best practice in areas of excellence.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , África , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Global Health ; 15(1): 41, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The international community's health focus is shifting from achieving disease-specific targets towards aiming for universal health coverage. Integrating the global HIV/AIDS response into universal health coverage may be inevitable to secure its achievements in the long run, and for expanding these achievements beyond addressing a single disease. However, this integration comes at a time when international financial support for the global HIV/AIDS response is declining, while political support for universal health coverage is not translated into financial support. To assess the risks, challenges and opportunities of the integration of the global HIV/AIDS response into national universal health coverage plans, we carried out assessments in Indonesia, Kenya, Uganda and Ukraine, based on key informant interviews with civil society, policy-makers and development partners, as well as on a review of grey and academic literature. RESULTS: In the absence of international financial support, governments are turning towards national health insurance schemes to finance universal health coverage, making access to healthcare contingent on regular financial contributions. It is not clear how AIDS treatment will be fit in. While the global HIV/AIDS response accords special attention to exclusion due to sexual orientation and gender identity, sex work or drug use, efforts to achieve universal health coverage focus on exclusion due to poverty, gender and geographical inequalities. Policies aiming for universal health coverage try to include private healthcare providers in the health system, which could create a sustainable framework for civil society organisations providing HIV/AIDS-related services. While the global HIV/AIDS response insisted on the inclusion of civil society in decision-making policies, that is not (yet) the case for policies aiming for universal health coverage. DISCUSSION: While there are many obstacles to successful integration of the global HIV/AIDS response into universal health coverage policies, integration seems inevitable and is happening. Successful integration will require expanding the principle of 'shared responsibility' which emerged with the global HIV/AIDS response to universal health coverage, rather than relying solely on domestic efforts for universal health coverage. The preference for national health insurance as the best way to achieve universal health coverage should be reconsidered. An alliance between HIV/AIDS advocates and proponents of universal health coverage requires mutual condemnation of discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, sex work or drug use, as well as addressing of exclusion based on poverty and other factors. The fulfilment of the promise to include civil society in decision-making processes about universal health coverage is long overdue.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Cooperação Internacional , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Humanos
18.
Issue Brief (Commonw Fund) ; 2019: 1-10, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990595

RESUMO

Issue: When discussing universal health insurance coverage in the United States, policymakers often draw a contrast between the U.S. and high-income nations that have achieved universal coverage. Some will refer to these countries having "single payer" systems, often implying they are all alike. Yet such a label can be misleading, as considerable differences exist among universal health care systems. Goal: To compare universal coverage systems across three areas: distribution of responsibilities and resources between levels of government; breadth of benefits covered and extent of cost-sharing in public insurance; and role of private insurance. Methods: Data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Commonwealth Fund, and other sources are used to compare 12 high-income countries. Key Findings and Conclusion: Countries differ in the extent to which financial and regulatory control over the system rests with the national government or is devolved to regional or local government. They also differ in scope of benefits and degree of cost-sharing required at the point of service. Finally, while virtually all systems incorporate private insurance, its importance varies considerably from country to country. A more nuanced understanding of the variations in other countries' systems could provide U.S. policymakers with more options for moving forward.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos , Sistema de Fonte Pagadora Única/organização & administração , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Benefícios do Seguro , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Estados Unidos
19.
Global Health ; 15(1): 24, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has been implementing a community health extension program (HEP) since 2003. We aimed to assess the successes and challenges of the HEP over time, and develop a framework that may assist the implementation of the program toward universal primary healthcare services. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of the literature on the HEP in Ethiopia between 2003 and 2018. Literature search was accomplished in PubMed, Embase and Google scholar databases. Literature search strategies were developed using medical subject headings (MeSH) and text words related to the aim of the review. We used a three-stage screening process to select the publications. Data extraction was conducted by three reviewers using pre-prepared data extraction form. We conducted an interpretive (not aggregative) synthesis of studies. FINDINGS: The HEP enabled Ethiopia to achieve significant improvements in maternal and child health, communicable diseases, hygiene and sanitation, knowledge and health care seeking. The HEP has been a learning organization that adapts itself to community demands. The program is also dynamic enough to shift tasks between health centers and community. The community has been a key player in the successful implementation of the HEP. In spite of these successes, the program is currently facing challenges that remain to be addressed. These challenges are related to productivity and efficiency of health extension workers (HEWs); working and living conditions of HEWs; capacity of health posts; and, social determinants of health. These require a systemic approach that involves the wider health system, community, and sectors responsible for social determinants of health. We developed a framework that may assist in the implementation of the HEP. CONCLUSION: The HEP has enabled Ethiopia to achieve significant improvements. However, several challenges remain to be addressed. The framework can be utilized to improve community health programs toward universal coverage for primary healthcare services.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Etiópia , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
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