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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-09-21. (OPAS/FPL/IM/COVID-19/22-0026).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56439

RESUMO

Desde o último trimestre de 2021, os países da Região das Américas têm recebido cada vez mais vacinas COVID-19, o que tem sido fundamental para resolver rapidamente as lacunas na cobertura vacinal. No entanto, esta situação levou, em alguns casos, a um aumento significativo dos estoques de vacinas. Esta publicação fornece aos países recomendações para revisão e adaptação das estratégias de vacinação COVID-19 para garantir que as doses sejam utilizadas de forma otimizada antes de atingir sua data de expiração. Ela também visa ajudar a fechar lacunas na cobertura vacinal, mitigar os riscos de hospitalização e mortalidade e alavancar investimentos na cadeia de frio para alcançar áreas remotas e populações vulneráveis.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , COVID-19 , América
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-09-14. (PAHO/FPL/IM/COVID-19/22-0026).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56418

RESUMO

Since the last quarter of 2021, countries in the Region of the Americas have received an increasing number of COVID-19 vaccines, which has been key to rapidly addressing gaps in vaccination coverage. However, this situation has led, in some cases, to a considerable increase in vaccine stockpiles. This publication provides countries with recommendations for the review and adaptation of COVID-19 vaccination strategies to ensure that doses are used optimally before reaching their expiration date. It also aims to help close gaps in vaccination coverage, mitigate hospitalization and mortality risks, and leverage investments in the cold chain to reach remote areas and vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , América
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273425, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103508

RESUMO

By the peak of COVID-19 restrictions on April 8, 2020, up to 1.5 billion students across 188 countries were affected by the suspension of physical attendance in schools. Schools were among the first services to reopen as vaccination campaigns advanced. With the emergence of new variants and infection waves, the question now is to find safe protocols for the continuation of school activities. We need to understand how reliable these protocols are under different levels of vaccination coverage, as many countries have a meager fraction of their population vaccinated, including Uganda where the coverage is about 8%. We investigate the impact of face-to-face classes under different protocols and quantify the surplus number of infected individuals in a city. Using the infection transmission when schools were closed as a baseline, we assess the impact of physical school attendance in classrooms with poor air circulation. We find that (i) resuming school activities with people only wearing low-quality masks leads to a near fivefold city-wide increase in the number of cases even if all staff is vaccinated, (ii) resuming activities with students wearing good-quality masks and staff wearing N95s leads to about a threefold increase, (iii) combining high-quality masks and active monitoring, activities may be carried out safely even with low vaccination coverage. These results highlight the effectiveness of good mask-wearing. Compared to ICU costs, high-quality masks are inexpensive and can help curb the spreading. Classes can be carried out safely, provided the correct set of measures are implemented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Cobertura Vacinal
5.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0269011, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121796

RESUMO

Population surveillance in COVID-19 Pandemic is crucial to follow up the pace of disease and its related immunological status. Here we present a cross-sectional study done in Maricá, a seaside town close to the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Three rounds of study sampling, enrolling a total of 1134 subjects, were performed during May to August 2021. Here we show that the number of individuals carrying detectable IgG antibodies and the neutralizing antibody (NAb) levels were greater in vaccinated groups compared to unvaccinated ones, highlighting the importance of vaccination to attain noticeable levels of populational immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, we found a decreased incidence of COVID-19 throughout the study, clearly correlated with the level of vaccinated individuals as well as the proportion of individuals with detectable levels of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 and NAb. The observed drop occurred even during the introduction of the Delta variant in Maricá, what suggests that the vaccination slowed down the widespread transmission of this variant. Overall, our data clearly support the use of vaccines to drop the incidence associated to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Incidência , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-08-23. (OPS/FPL/IM/COVID-19/22-0026).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56314

RESUMO

Desde el último trimestre del 2021, los países de la Región de las Américas han recibido cada vez más vacunas contra la COVID-19, lo cual ha sido clave para tratar con rapidez las brechas en las coberturas de vacunación. No obstante, esta situación ha dado pie, en algunos casos, a un incremento considerable de las existencias de vacunas. Esta publicación brinda a los países recomendaciones para la revisión y la adaptación de las estrategias de vacunación contra la COVID-19, con el fin de garantizar que las dosis se utilicen de forma óptima antes de alcanzar su fecha de caducidad. Asimismo, tiene por objetivo contribuir a cerrar las brechas en la cobertura de vacunación, mitigar los riesgos de hospitalización y mortalidad, y aprovechar las inversiones en la cadena de frío para llegar a las zonas remotas y los grupos de población en situación de vulnerabilidad.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , América
7.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 23 ago. 2022. 9 p. ilus.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1391037

RESUMO

A vacinação é a principal ferramenta de prevenção primária de doenças e uma das medidas mais bem-sucedidas em saúde pública, com melhor custo-efetividade (ABBAS et al , 2006; WHO, 2021a). Além disso, a imunização evita incapacidades e cerca de 2 a 3 milhões de mortes, em todo o mundo, a cada ano (UE, 2020; PAHO, 2022; WATSON et al., 2022). Não obstante os esforços implementados por organizações internacionais e locais, dados da OMS apontam que a cobertura vacinal global caiu de 86% em 2019 para 81% em 2021, o que significa que cerca de 25 milhões de crianças menores de 1 ano não receberam as vacinas básicas (WHO, 2021a). Já no Brasil (Figura 1), a cobertura manteve-se estável de 1999 a 2015 e em contrapartida, em 2016 e no último triênio, apresenta tendência de queda (BRASIL, 2022b). Diante dessa realidade, objetivou-se investigar as estratégias utilizadas para ampliar a vacinação, e assim, subsidiar a formulação e tomada de decisão em políticas públicas para mitigar a baixa cobertura vacinal


Vaccination is the main tool for primary disease prevention and one of the most successful and cost-effective public health measures (ABBAS et al , 2006; WHO, 2021a). In addition, immunization prevents disability and an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths worldwide each year (EU, 2020; PAHO, 2022; WATSON et al., 2022). Notwithstanding the efforts implemented by international and local organizations, WHO data indicate that global vaccination coverage dropped from 86% in 2019 to 81% in 2021, which means that about 25 million children under 1 year of age do not received the basic vaccines (WHO, 2021a). In Brazil (Figure 1), coverage remained stable from 1999 to 2015 and, on the other hand, in 2016 and in the last three years, it shows a downward trend (BRASIL, 2022b). Faced with this reality, the objective was to investigate the strategies used to expand vaccination, and thus subsidize the formulation and decision-making in public policies to mitigate the low vaccination coverage


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/tendências , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/história , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências
8.
Vaccine ; 40(37): 5471-5482, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953322

RESUMO

Vaccine hesitancy has been identified as a major obstacle preventing comprehensive coverage against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, few studies have analyzed the association between ex-ante vaccine hesitancy and ex-post vaccination coverage. This study leveraged one-year county-level data across the contiguous United States to examine whether the prospective vaccine hesitancy eventually translates into differential vaccination rates, and whether vaccine hesitancy can explain socioeconomic, racial, and partisan disparities in vaccine uptake. A set of structural equation modeling was fitted with vaccine hesitancy and vaccination rate as endogenous variables, controlling for various potential confounders. The results demonstrated a significant negative link between vaccine hesitancy and vaccination rate, with the difference between the two continuously widening over time. Counties with higher socioeconomic statuses, more Asian and Hispanic populations, more elderly residents, greater health insurance coverage, and more Democrats presented lower vaccine hesitancy and higher vaccination rates. However, underlying determinants of vaccination coverage and vaccine hesitancy were divergent regarding their different associations with exogenous variables. Mediation analysis further demonstrated that indirect effects from exogenous variables to vaccination coverage via vaccine hesitancy only partially explained corresponding total effects, challenging the popular narrative that portrays vaccine hesitancy as a root cause of disparities in vaccination. Our study highlights the need of well-funded, targeted, and ongoing initiatives to reduce persisting vaccination inequities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/métodos , Hesitação Vacinal
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271290, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921275

RESUMO

This study provides a macro-level societal and health system focused analysis of child vaccination rates in 30 European countries, exploring the effect of context on coverage. The importance of demography and health system attributes on health care delivery are recognized in other fields, but generally overlooked in vaccination. The analysis is based on correlating systematic data built up by the Models of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA) Project with data from international sources, so as to exploit a one-off opportunity to set the analysis within an overall integrated study of primary care services for children, and the learning opportunities of the 'natural European laboratory'. The descriptive analysis shows an overall persistent variation of coverage across vaccines with no specific vaccination having a low rate in all the EU and EEA countries. However, contrasting with this, variation between total uptake per vaccine across Europe suggests that the challenge of low rates is related to country contexts of either policy, delivery, or public perceptions. Econometric analysis aiming to explore whether some population, policy and/or health system characteristics may influence vaccination uptake provides important results-GDP per capita and the level of the population's higher education engagement are positively linked with higher vaccination coverage, whereas mandatory vaccination policy is related to lower uptake rates. The health system characteristics that have a significant positive effect are a cohesive management structure; a high nurse/doctor ratio; and use of practical care delivery reinforcements such as the home-based record and the presence of child components of e-health strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 919190, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937249

RESUMO

High vaccination coverage is essential to prevent and control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. Currently, the real-world acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines among adolescents aged 12-17 years in China has not been reported. We aimed to assess the acceptance rate of COVID-19 vaccination among adolescents in eastern China and to identify factors associated with the intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19. We conduct a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among adolescents from three provinces in the eastern part of China from 16 August to 28 October 2021. The questionnaires were distributed to 2,100 students, and 2,048 students completed the questionnaires. The results showed that 98.4% (2,016/2,048) of adolescents had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and 1.6% (32/2,048) declined the vaccination. The participants from rural districts, or whose parents were vaccinated, were more likely to accept the vaccine. The main reason for declining vaccination was worry about vaccine safety (25%). The main adverse event after the vaccination was pain at the injection site. In conclusion, the vaccine coverage rate reached 98.4% among the adolescents in this study, which met the criteria for herd immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The high vaccination rate is beneficial to the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36034045

RESUMO

Introduction: an increasing trend of routine immunization performance has generally been observed over the past decade in Ethiopia. However, inconsistencies were observed over time and among different sources of data. This review analyzed systematically data from various sources and produced regional and national coverage estimates for antigens offered in the infant immunization program in Ethiopia. Methods: we collated data from administrative reports, population-based surveys and other sources to produce annual estimates of vaccination coverage. We obtained relevant data for each of the 9 Regional States and 2 city administrations, for the period 2007-2016. Region level estimates were produced based on survey results, interpolation between or extrapolation. We aggregated the resulting region level estimates, using a population-weighted approach, to give national estimates. Results: we found that the national Penta 3 coverage of Ethiopia increased from 59% in 2007 to 71% in 2016. For the 110 vaccination estimates produced at region level, 71 were based on interpolation or extrapolation from empirical anchor points; 18% were based on surveys and 17% were based on administrative data. Conclusion: while we recognize the critical importance of improving the quality of information on vaccination coverage from administrative reporting systems, we are also cognizant of the expected continued need for region level surveys and improved rapid-monitoring exercises.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Cobertura Vacinal , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Humanos , Lactente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
12.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(7): e222363, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35983581

RESUMO

Importance: Several states implemented COVID-19 vaccine mandates for nursing home employees, which may have improved vaccine coverage but may have had the unintended consequence of staff departures. Objective: To assess whether state vaccine mandates for US nursing home employees are associated with staff vaccination rates and reported staff shortages. Design Setting and Participants: This cohort study performed event study analyses using National Healthcare Safety Network data from June 6, 2021, through November 14, 2021. Changes in weekly staff vaccination rates and reported staffing shortages were evaluated for nursing homes in states with mandates after the mandate announcement compared with changes in facilities in nonmandate states. An interaction between the mandates and county political leaning was considered. Data analysis was performed from February to March 2022. Exposures: Weeks after announcement of a state's COVID-19 vaccine mandate. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weekly percentage of all health care staff at a nursing home who received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccine dose, and a weekly indicator of whether a nursing home reported a staffing shortage. Results: Among 38 study-eligible states, 26 had no COVID-19 vaccine mandate for nursing home employees, 4 had a mandate with a test-out option, and 8 had a mandate with no test-out option. Ten weeks or more after mandate announcement, nursing homes in states with a mandate and no test-out option experienced a 6.9 percentage point (pp) increase in staff vaccination coverage (95% CI, -0.1 to 13.9); nursing homes in mandate states with a test-out option experienced a 3.1 pp increase (95% CI, 0.5 to 5.7) compared with facilities in nonmandate states. No significant increases were detected in the frequency of reported staffing shortages after a mandate announcement in mandate states with or without test-out options. Increases in vaccination rates in states with mandates were larger in Republican-leaning counties (14.3 pp if no test-out option; 4.3 pp with option), and there was no evidence of increased staffing shortages. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that state-level vaccine mandates were associated with increased staff vaccination coverage without increases in reported staffing shortages. Vaccination increases were largest when mandates had no test-out option and were also larger in Republican-leaning counties, which had lower mean baseline vaccination rates. These findings support the use of state mandates for booster doses for nursing home employees because they may improve vaccine coverage, even in areas with greater vaccine hesitancy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Cobertura Vacinal , Recursos Humanos
13.
Vaccine ; 40(37): 5483-5493, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely vaccination maximizes efficacy for preventing infectious diseases. In the absence of national vaccination registries, representative sample survey data hold vital information on vaccination coverage and timeliness. This study characterizes vaccination coverage and timeliness in Tanzania and provides an analytic template to inform contextually relevant interventions and evaluate immunization programs. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on 6,092 children under age 3 from the 2015-16 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey were used to examine coverage and timeliness for 14 vaccine doses recommended in the first year of life. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to model time to vaccination. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine factors associated with timely vaccination. RESULTS: Substantial rural-urban disparities in vaccination coverage and timeliness were observed for all vaccines. Across 14 recommended doses, documented coverage ranged from 52 % to 79 %. Median vaccination delays lasted up to 35 days; gaps were larger among rural than urban children and for later doses in vaccine series. Among rural children, median delays exceeded 35 days for the 3rd doses of the polio, pentavalent, and pneumococcal vaccines. Median delays among urban children were < 21 days for all doses. Among rural and urban children, lower maternal education and delivery at home were associated with increased risk of delayed vaccination. In rural settings, less household wealth and greater distance to a health facility were also associated with increased risk of delayed vaccination. DISCUSSION: This study highlights persistent gaps in uptake and timeliness of childhood vaccinations in Tanzania and substantial rural-urban disparities. While the results provide an informative situation assessment and outline strategies for identifying unvaccinated children, a national electronic registry is critical for comprehensive assessments of the performance of vaccination programs. The timeliness measure employed in this study-the amount of time children are un- or undervaccinated-may serve as a sensitive performance metric for these programs.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Cobertura Vacinal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Vacinação
14.
Vaccine ; 40(38): 5556-5561, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987875

RESUMO

With infant and child mortality rates that are among the highest in the Pacific region, and basic vaccination coverage rates that are 39% among children 12-23 months, increased coverage of vaccines is a high priority investment for Papua New Guinea (PNG). Using recently gathered household survey data for PNG, this paper contributes to the evidence-base for enhancing investments in frontline facilities by examining the implications of travel time to health facilities for basic vaccination coverage among children in PNG. We find that vaccination coverage rates among children 12-23 months old in PNG are decreasing in distance to healthcare facilities; and this holds whether the outcome is receipt of basic vaccinations (BCG; 3 dose pentavalent; OPV3; Measles), or basic vaccinations-plus (basic vaccinations + Hepatitis B + PCV3). We also find that travel time to health facilities lowers vaccination rates among children 12-23 months old in poor households to a greater extent than for children from richer households. Thus, enhanced geographical access to and resourcing of frontline facilities is likely to expand not only immunization coverage, lower mortality and increase aggregate economic gains, but also improve the distribution of immunization coverage in PNG across socioeconomic groups.


Assuntos
Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Papua Nova Guiné , Viagem
15.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(9): 1343-1353, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23) is crucial to protecting high-risk groups. This study aimed to investigate the influencing factors of PPSV-23 recommendation among healthcare workers, and PPSV-23 coverage among Chinese older adults and chronic disease patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 2019, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in ten provinces in China among older adults aged ≥65 years, chronic disease patients aged 18-64 years, and primary healthcare workers. Multiple logistic regression model was adopted to identify the influencing factors of PPSV-23 recommendation and vaccination uptake. RESULTS: Of the 1138 healthcare workers, 46.75% often recommended PPSV-23 to target groups, and public health workers were more likely to recommend than general practitioners. PPSV-23 vaccination rate was 3.29% among chronic disease patients aged <65 years, 6.69% among older adults without chronic disease(s), and 8.87% among chronic disease patients aged ≥65 years. Multiple logistic regression revealed that only general practitioners' recommendation was associated with increased PPSV-23 coverage (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlighted the suboptimal PPSV-23 coverage rate in China and the strong association between healthcare workers' recommendation and residents' vaccination uptake. Targeted and coherent PPSV-23-related training is suggested for general practitioners to encourage effective health promotion in clinical practices.


Assuntos
Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Cobertura Vacinal , Idoso , China , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Vacinação
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e061749, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyse the interventions delivered opportunistically in secondary or tertiary medical settings, focused on improving routine vaccination uptake in children and young people. DESIGN: Scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline, Embase and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for studies in English published between 1989 and 2021 detailing interventions delivered in secondary or tertiary care that aimed to improve childhood vaccination coverage. Title, abstract and full-text screening were performed by two independent reviewers. RESULTS: After deduplication, the search returned 3456 titles. Following screening and discussion between reviewers, 53 studies were included in the review. Most papers were single-centre studies from high-income countries and varied considerably in terms of their study design, population, target vaccination, clinical setting and intervention delivered. To present and analyse the study findings, and to depict the complexity of vaccination interventions in hospital settings, findings were presented and described as a sequential pathway to opportunistic vaccination in secondary and tertiary care comprising the following stages: (1) identify patients eligible for vaccination; (2) take consent and offer immunisations; (3) order/prescribe vaccine; (4) dispense vaccine; (5) administer vaccine; (6) communicate with primary care; and (7) ongoing benefits of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Most published studies report improved vaccination coverage associated with opportunistic vaccination interventions in secondary and tertiary care. Children attending hospital appear to have lower baseline vaccination coverage and are likely to benefit from vaccination interventions in these settings. Checking immunisation status is challenging, however, and electronic immunisation registers are required to enable this to be done quickly and accurately in hospital settings. Further research is required in this area, particularly multicentre studies and cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions.


Assuntos
Imunização , Vacinação , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Cobertura Vacinal
18.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 150, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the first and second COVID-19 pandemic waves, children, despite susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, appeared at lower risk of severe disease, hospitalization, and death than adults and the elderly. Moreover, they seemed to play a minor role in the diffusion of the virus. The aim of this manuscript is to show epidemiological surveillance on COVID-19 incidence and hospitalization in the pediatric cohort in order to explain the importance of an adequate COVID-19 vaccination coverage in the pediatric population. METHODS: All subjects with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed in Parma, Italy, between February 21st, 2020, and January, 31st, 2022, were recruited in this epidemiological surveillance. Diagnosis of infection was established in presence of at least one respiratory specimen positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using a validated real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. RESULTS: The number of COVID-19 pediatric cases remained very low and lower than that recorded in the general population between early February 2020 and the end of October 2021, despite in the last part of this period the Delta variant emerged. On the contrary, starting from November 2021, a sharp and significant increase in COVID-19 incidence in the pediatric population was evidenced. This was detected in all the age groups, although greater in the populations aged 5-11 and 12-17 years old. Interestingly, the peak in hospitalization rate was observed in children < 5 years old, for whom COVID-19 vaccination is not approved yet. At the beginning of November 2021 among people older than 18 years of age 85.7% had completed the primary series of COVID-19 vaccine. Almost all the infants and pre-school children were susceptible. Until January 31st, 2022, 80.4% of adolescents aged 11-17 years had received at least two doses of COVID-19 vaccine and only 52.4% received the booster. Among children 5-11 years old, on January 31st, 2022, only 28.5% had received at least one vaccine dose. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with adults and the elderly, presently a greater proportion of children and adolescents is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and could play a relevant role for the prolongation of the COVID-19 pandemic. Only a rapid increase in vaccination coverage of the pediatric populations can effectively counter this problem.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 921243, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35979460

RESUMO

Background: Increased morbidity/mortality due to vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) is encountered in type 2 diabetes (T2D) people. Aim of this study was to assess their vaccination coverage and describe trends possibly affecting compliance. Methods: Information on vaccination coverage was retrieved from either documents or interview provided by patients, and/or their vaccination record card at a specialized outpatient diabetes center. The selection of the patients was arbitrary. Results: An increasing vaccination rate for influenza was observed from 2018 to 2020 among 372 participants. The vaccination coverage for S.pneumoniae was 67.2% (PCV13), 20.4% (PPSV23), 26.3% for herpes zoster in individuals ≥60 years, 1.9% for tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis and 1.1% for hepatitis B. A 10.2% of participants were found to be unvaccinated. Vaccination uptake for influenza and PCV13 was related to age, ≥3 comorbidities and long-term follow-up. T2D individuals consecutively vaccinated for influenza were 3.78 times more likely to be also vaccinated with PCV13. Conclusions: Vaccination rates of patients with T2D show an increasing trend, especially for influenza and S. pneumoniae, although the one for S. pneumoniae was low. Older people seem more prone to vaccination, the one for herpes zoster was low with infected patients remaining unvaccinated while significantly low coverage was observed for other VPDs. The findings are important to improve effectiveness of preventative services.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Herpes Zoster , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Idoso , Grécia , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Cobertura Vacinal
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 927400, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35991053

RESUMO

Objective: Extensive vaccination coverage is one of the most effective ways to control COVID-19 vaccine, but the tendency to inject the vaccine is always hampered and there are various determinants of non-injection. Hence, the present study was done with the aim of identifying the determinants of non-injection of COVID-19 vaccine with a qualitative approach in the city of Urmia in Iran. Methods: The present study was conducted with a qualitative approach and conventional content analysis method among 36 people who refused to be vaccinated. Access to participants and data collection was done in person (28 interviews) and online (8 interviews) through targeted sampling and snowball method and semi-structured interviews. Data management was performed using MAXQDA-2018 software and its analysis was performed by Graneheim and Lundman method. Also, Guba and Lincoln criteria were observed to improve the quality of results. Results: After analyzing the data, 3 main categories and 11 subcategories were obtained including (1) Individual factors (fear of short-term side effects of vaccine, personality traits, distrust of vaccines and pharmaceutical companies), (2) Socio-cultural factors (conspiracy theory, social learning, misconceptions about COVID-19, fatalism), legal and managerial factors (incomplete information, difficult and irregular access to vaccination centers, lack of restrictions and compulsion to be vaccinated, lack of incentives to be vaccinated). Conclusion: The results showed that various determinants were involved in the non-injection of COVID-19 vaccine. Therefore, efforts to increase vaccination coverage require comprehensive measures at different levels and cross-sectoral cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions and organizations.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cobertura Vacinal
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