Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.908
Filtrar
1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(5): 696-702, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500189

RESUMO

Rapidly rising drug overdose rates in the United States during the past decade underscore the need to increase access to treatment among people with substance use disorders (SUDs). We analyzed trends in the use of treatment services among people with SUDs during the period 2010-19, using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Compared with 2013, outpatient visits for general health in the prior year increased 3.6 percentage points by the 2017-19 period. Use of any SUD treatment in the prior year remained unchanged, but treatment use among people involved in the criminal legal system increased by about 6.2 percentage points by the end of the study period. Among those receiving SUD treatment, there was a 14.9-percentage-point increase in having treatment paid for by Medicaid between 2010-13 and 2017-19. Although access to general medical care and insurance coverage have improved for people with SUD, our study findings underscore the importance of renewed efforts to increase the use of SUD treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicaid , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estados Unidos
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e229968, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503219

RESUMO

Importance: In recent years, specialized musculoskeletal urgent care centers (MUCCs) have opened across the US. Uninsured patients may increasingly turn to these orthopedic-specific urgent care centers as a lower-cost alternative to emergency department or general urgent care center visits. Objective: To assess out-of-pocket costs and factors associated with these costs at MUCCs for uninsured and underinsured patients in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this survey study, a national secret shopper survey was conducted in June 2019. Clinics identified as MUCCs in 50 states were contacted by telephone by investigators using a standardized script and posing as uninsured patients seeking information on the out-of-pocket charge for a new patient visit. Exposures: State Medicaid expansion status, clinic Medicaid acceptance status, state Medicaid reimbursement rate, median income per zip code, and clinic region. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was each clinic's out-of-pocket charge for a level 3 visit, defined as a new patient office visit requiring medical decision-making of low complexity. Linear regression was used to examine correlations of price with clinic policy against accepting Medicaid, median income per zip code, and Medicaid reimbursement for a level 3 visit. Results: Of 565 MUCCs identified, 558 MUCCs were able to be contacted (98.8%); 536 of the 558 MUCCs (96.1%) disclosed a new patient visit out-of-pocket charge. Of those, 313 (58.4%) accepted Medicaid insurance and 326 (60.8%) were located in states with expanded Medicaid at the time of the survey. The mean (SD) price of a visit to an MUCC was $250 ($110). Clinic policy against accepting Medicaid (ß, 22.91; 95% CI, 12.57-33.25; P < .001), higher median income per zip code (ß, 0.00056; 95% CI, 0.00020-0.00092; P = .003), and increased Medicaid reimbursement for a level 3 visit (ß, 0.737; 95% CI, 0.158-1.316; P = .01) were positively correlated with visit price. The overall regression was statistically significance (R2 = 0.084; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, MUCCs charged a mean price of $250 for a new patient visit. Medicaid acceptance policy, median income per zip code, and Medicaid reimbursement for a level 3 visit were associated with differences in out-of-pocket charges. These findings suggest that accessibility to orthopedic urgent care at MUCCs may be limited for underinsured and uninsured patients.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Honorários e Preços , Humanos , Medicaid , Estados Unidos
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(5): 1043-1051, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Financial hardship among adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer who receive gonadotoxic treatments may be exacerbated by the use of fertility services. This study examined whether AYA women with cancer who used fertility preservation had increased financial hardship. METHODS: AYA women with cancer in North Carolina and California completed a survey in 2018-2019. Cancer-related financial hardship was compared between women who cryopreserved oocytes or embryos for fertility preservation after cancer diagnosis (n = 65) and women who received gonadotoxic treatment and reported discussing fertility with their provider, but did not use fertility preservation (n = 491). Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Women were a median age of 33 years at diagnosis and 7 years from diagnosis at the time of survey. Women who used fertility preservation were primarily ages 25 to 34 years at diagnosis (65%), non-Hispanic White (72%), and had at least a Bachelor's degree (85%). In adjusted analysis, use of fertility preservation was associated with 1.50 times the prevalence of material financial hardship (95% CI: 1.08-2.09). The magnitude of hardship was also substantially higher among women who used fertility preservation: 12% reported debt of ≥$25,000 versus 5% in the referent group. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that cryopreserving oocytes or embryos after cancer diagnosis for future family building is associated with increased financial vulnerability. IMPACT: More legislation that mandates insurance coverage to mitigate hardships stemming from iatrogenic infertility could improve access to fertility preservation for young women with cancer.


Assuntos
Preservação da Fertilidade , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Feminino , Estresse Financeiro , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Masculino , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(5)2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) have implemented health insurance programmes to foster accessibility to healthcare and reduce catastrophic household health expenditure. However, there is little information regarding the population coverage of health insurance schemes in LMICs and on the relationship between coverage and health expenditure. This study used open-access data to assess the level of health insurance coverage in LMICs and its relationship with health expenditure. METHODS: We searched for health insurance data for all LMICs and combined this with health expenditure data. We used descriptive statistics to explore levels of and trends in health insurance coverage over time. We then used linear regression models to investigate the relationship between health insurance coverage and sources of health expenditure and catastrophic household health expenditure. RESULTS: We found health insurance data for 100 LMICs and combined this with overall health expenditure data for 99 countries and household health expenditure data for 89 countries. Mean health insurance coverage was 31.1% (range: 0%-98.7%), with wide variations across country-income groups. Average health insurance coverage was 7.9% in low-income countries, 27.3% in lower middle-income countries and 52.5% in upper middle-income countries. We did not find any association between health insurance coverage and health expenditure overall, though coverage was positively associated with public health spending. Additionally, health insurance coverage was not associated with levels of or reductions in catastrophic household health expenditure or impoverishment due to health expenditure. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that LMICs continue to have low levels of health insurance coverage and that health insurance may not necessarily reduce household health expenditure. However, the lack of regular estimates of health insurance coverage in LMICs does not allow us to draw solid conclusions on the relationship between health insurance coverage and health expenditure.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Pobreza , Saúde Pública
5.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267897, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511889

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Even in a country with a tax-based healthcare financing system, health insurance can play an important role, especially in the management of chronic diseases with high disease and economic burden such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The insurance coverage among T2DM patients in Malaysia is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the insurance status of T2DM patients in public and private healthcare facilities in Malaysia, and the association between this status and patients' sociodemographic and economic factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among T2DM patients seeking inpatient or outpatient treatment at a public tertiary hospital (Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz) and a private tertiary hospital (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Specialist Centre) in Kuala Lumpur between August 2019 and March 2020. Patients were identified via convenience sampling using a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection focused on identifying insurance status as the dependent factor while the independent factors were the patients' sociodemographic characteristics and economic factors. RESULTS: Of 400 T2DM patients, 313 responded (response rate, 78.3%) and 76.0% were uninsured. About 69.6% of the respondents had low monthly incomes of

Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267244, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507557

RESUMO

The Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansion to individuals with adults under 138 percent of the federal poverty level led to insurance coverage for millions of Americans in participating states. This study investigates Medicaid expansion's potential spillover participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; formerly the Food Stamp Program). In addition to providing public insurance, the policy connects individuals to SNAP, affecting social determinants of health such as hunger. We use difference-in-differences regression to estimate the effect of the Medicaid expansion on SNAP participation among approximately 414,000 individuals from across the United States. The Current Population Survey is used to answer the main research question, and the SNAP Quality Control Database allows for supplemental analyses. Medicaid expansion produces a 2.9 percentage point increase (p = 0.002) in SNAP participation among individuals under 138 percent of federal poverty. Subgroup analyses find a larger 5.0 percentage point increase (p = 0.002) in households under 75 percent of federal poverty without children. Able-Bodied Adults Without Dependents (ABAWDs) are a category of individuals with limited access to SNAP. Although they are a subset of adults without children, we found no spillover effect for ABAWDs. We find an increase in SNAP households with $0 income, supporting the finding that spillover was strongest for very-low-income individuals. Joint processing of Medicaid and SNAP applications helps facilitate the connection between Medicaid expansion and SNAP. Our findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that Medicaid expansion does more than improve access to health care by connecting eligible individuals to supports like SNAP. SNAP recipients have increased access to food, an important social determinant of health. Our study supports reducing administrative burdens to help connect individuals to safety net programs. Finally, we note that ABAWDs are a vulnerable group that need targeted program outreach.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicaid , Pobreza , Estados Unidos
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e229025, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476066

RESUMO

Importance: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a potentially superior technology to photon radiotherapy for tumors with complex anatomy, those surrounded by sensitive tissues, and childhood cancers. Objective: To assess patterns of use of PBT according to the present American Society of Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) clinical indications in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individuals newly diagnosed with cancer between 2004 and 2018 were selected from the National Cancer Database. Data analysis was performed from October 4, 2021, to February 22, 2022. ASTRO's Model Policies (2017) were used to classify patients into group 1, for which health insurance coverage for PBT treatment is recommended, and group 2, for which coverage is recommended only if additional requirements are met. Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of PBT. Results: Of the 5 919 368 patients eligible to receive PBT included in the study, 3 206 902 were female (54.2%), and mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 62.6 (12.3) years. Use of PBT in the US increased from 0.4% in 2004 to 1.2% in 2018 (annual percent change [APC], 8.12%; P < .001) due to increases in group 1 from 0.4% in 2010 to 2.2% in 2018 (APC, 21.97; P < .001) and increases in group 2 from 0.03% in 2014 to 0.1% in 2018 (APC, 30.57; P < .001). From 2010 to 2018, among patients in group 2, PBT targeted to the breast increased from 0.0% to 0.9% (APC, 51.95%), and PBT targeted to the lung increased from 0.1% to 0.7% (APC, 28.06%) (P < .001 for both). Use of PBT targeted to the prostate decreased from 1.4% in 2011 to 0.8% in 2014 (APC, -16.48%; P = .03) then increased to 1.3% in 2018 (APC, 12.45; P < .001). Most patients in group 1 treated with PBT had private insurance coverage in 2018 (1039 [55.4%]); Medicare was the most common insurance type among those in group 2 (1973 [52.5%]). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study show an increase in the use of PBT in the US between 2004 to 2018; prostate was the only cancer site for which PBT use decreased temporarily between 2011 and 2014, increasing again between 2014 and 2018. These findings may be especially relevant for Medicare radiation oncology coverage policies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Terapia com Prótons , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Masculino , Medicare , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
9.
Popul Health Manag ; 25(2): 235-243, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442797

RESUMO

Amid the global pandemic, it becomes more apparent that diabetes is a pressing health concern because racial/ethnic minorities with underlying diabetes conditions have been disproportionately affected. The study proposes a multiyear examination to document the role of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes health. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2011 to 2019, the study with a pre-post design investigated changes in access to care and diabetes health among non-White minorities compared with Whites before and after the ACA by conducting multivariable linear regression, with state-fixed effects and robust standard errors. Compared with Whites, racial/ethnic minorities showed significant improvements in health insurance coverage, having a personal doctor, and not seeing a doctor because of cost. Blacks (3.2% points, P ≤ 0.000), Hispanics (1.6% points, P = 0.001), and "other" racial/ethnic group (1.5% points, P = 0.003) experienced a greater increase in diagnosed prediabetes than Whites, whereas no and small differences were found in diagnosed diabetes and obesity, respectively. The yearly comparisons of changes in diagnosed prediabetes showed that Blacks compared with Whites had a growing increase from 1.2% points (P = 0.001) in 2014 to 3.3% points (P = 0.001) in 2019. Insurance coverage has declined after 2016, and obesity had an increasing trend across race/ethnicity. The ACA had a positive role in improving access to care and identifying those at risk for diabetes to a larger extent among racial/ethnic minorities. However, the policy impacts have been diminishing in recent years. Continued efforts are needed for sustained policy effects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Estado Pré-Diabético , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Obesidade , Pandemias , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(5): 508-517, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cost-related nonadherence compromises successful and effective management of chronic disease. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) and Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) aimed to increase the affordability of outpatient prescription drugs for older adults (older than age 64 years). The Medicare Part D prescription drug insurance coverage gap ("donut hole") created by the MMA was fully closed in 2020 by the ACA. OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe prescription drug coverage and financial hardship from purchasing prescription drugs among older American adults for 2021, (2) compare these results with findings from data collected before the MMA and during the progressive elimination of the Medicare Part D coverage gap, and (3) compute the likelihood for financial hardship from purchasing prescription drugs using variables for year, prescription drug insurance coverage, health-related information, and demographics. METHODS: Data were obtained from 4 nationally distributed, crosssectional surveys of older adults to track coverage for and financial hardship from purchasing prescription drugs. Surveys in 1998 and 2001 were mailed to national random samples of US seniors. Of 2,434 deliverable surveys, 700 (29%) provided useable data. Data were collected in 2015 and 2021 via online surveys sent to samples of US adults. Of 27,694 usable responses, 4,445 were from older adults. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses described relationships among financial hardship and demographics, diagnoses, and daily prescription drug use. RESULTS: Five percent of older adults lacked prescription drug coverage in 2021, continuing a downward trend from 32% in 1998, 29% in 2001, and 9% in 2015. Contrastingly, 20% of older adults reported financial hardship from prescription drug purchases in 2021, bending an upward trend from 19% in 1998, 31% in 2001, and 36% in 2015. Financial hardship from purchasing prescription drugs was more likely to be reported by older adults lacking prescription drug insurance, taking multiple medications daily, and having a low annual household income across all survey years. The latter 2 of these 3 factors were still predictive of financial hardship from purchasing prescription drugs among older adults with prescription drug insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Financial hardship from purchasing prescription drugs is still experienced by many older adults after the full implementation of the MMA and ACA. Lacking prescription drug coverage, taking more than 5 prescription drugs daily, and a low annual household income may increase the likelihood of experiencing this financial hardship. Pharmacists can be a resource for older adults making choices about their prescription drug coverages and purchases. DISCLOSURES: Funding was provided by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy New Investigator Program, the University of Minnesota Grant-in-Aid of Research Program, the Peters Endowment for Pharmacy Practice Innovation, the Chapman University Research Program, and the University Minnesota Research Program.


Assuntos
Medicare Part D , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Idoso , Estresse Financeiro , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472007

RESUMO

Whether to undergo bilateral total knee arthroplasty (BTKA) depends on patient and surgeon preferences. We used the National Inpatient Sample to compare temporal trends in BTKA utilization and in-hospital complication rates among TKA patients ≥50 with Medicare/Medicaid versus private insurance from 2007 to 2016. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between insurance type and trends in utilization and complication rates adjusting for individual-, hospital-, and community-level covariates, using unilateral TKA (UTKA) for reference. Discharge weights were used for nationwide estimates. About 132,400 (49.5%) Medicare/Medicaid patients and 135,046 (50.5%) privately insured patients underwent BTKA. Among UTKA patients, 62.7% had Medicare/Medicaid, and 37.3% had private insurance. Over the study period, BTKA utilization rate decreased from 7.18% to 5.63% among privately insured patients and from 4.59% to 3.13% among Medicaid/Medicare patients (P trend difference <0.0001). In multivariable analysis, Medicare/Medicaid patients were less likely to receive BTKA than privately insured patients. Although Medicare/Medicaid patients were more likely to develop in-hospital complications after UTKA (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.002 to 1.12; P = 0.04), this relationship was not statistically significant for BTKAs. In this nationwide sample of TKA patients, BTKA utilization rate was higher in privately insured patients compared with Medicare/Medicaid patients. Furthermore, privately insured patients had lower in-hospital complication rates than Medicare/Medicaid patients.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicaid , Medicare , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(1): 26-34, 2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude of mortality due to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) nationally and by age group, sex, state of residence and insurance status, as well as to evaluate time trends during the period 1998-2018 Materials and methods. We obtained ALL mortality data and estimated age-standardized national, state-level and health insurance mortality rates. We conducted a joinpoint regression analysis to describe mortality trends across the study period and estimate the average annual percent change (AAPC). RESULTS: In a 20-year period, age-standardized ALL mortality rates increased from 1.6 per 100 000 in 1998 to 1.7 in 2018. Nationally, a constant annual increase in mortality was observed for both sexes (1998-2002 AAPC 0.6 in boys, and 1998-2002 AAPC 0.3 in girls). We observed heteroge-neity in childhood ALL at a state level. CONCLUSION: Our results reflect the social, economic, geographic diversity of the country. Monitoring and surveillance of this disease is crucial to assess quality of care.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão
16.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(4): 172-179, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Medigap protects traditional Medicare (TM) beneficiaries against catastrophic expenses. Federal regulations around Medigap enrollment and pricing are limited to the first 6 months after turning 65 years old. Eight states institute regulations that apply to later enrollment; half use community rating (charging everyone the same premium) and half use both community rating and guaranteed issue (requiring insurers to accept any beneficiary irrespective of health conditions). We examined the impact of state-level Medigap regulations on insurance coverage and health care spending for Medicare beneficiaries. STUDY DESIGN: We used a retrospective cohort study design. Using the 2010-2016 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we identified beneficiaries with TM only, TM + Medigap, or Medicare Advantage (MA) by state-level Medigap regulations. METHODS: Outcomes were insurance coverage and health care spending. We used an instrumental variable approach to address endogenous insurance choice. We conducted 2-stage least squares regression while controlling for individual-level characteristics and area-level demographic characteristics. Then we used the recycled prediction methods to predict enrollment and spending outcomes for the 3 state-level Medigap regulation scenarios. RESULTS: Although enrollment in TM only was consistent across regulation scenarios, the scenario with community rating and guaranteed issue had lower Medigap enrollment and higher MA enrollment than the no-regulation scenario. Despite negligible health differences, TM + Medigap beneficiaries had higher Medicare spending than TM-only beneficiaries, suggesting moral hazard. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a link between additional regulations and lower Medigap and higher MA enrollment. Policy makers should consider the potential effects on insurance coverage, premiums, financial protection, and moral hazard when designing Medigap regulations.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Medicare Part C , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro de Saúde (Situações Limítrofes) , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
17.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(4): e126-e131, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the relative change in the use of clinical preventive services, prevalence of chronic disease, and share uninsured among White, Black, and Hispanic adults before and after the introduction of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey of adults aged 18 to 64 years. The regression relies on a fully interacted set of indicator variables of each racial group by 3 time periods: 2005-2009, 2010-2013, and 2014-2018. METHODS: Outcomes included indicators of mammography, colonoscopy, and lipid panel use. Several chronic conditions were examined, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and mental health status. The final outcome variables examined health insurance (uninsured or not) and out-of-pocket spending as a share of family income. Regression models were used controlling for patient characteristics (age, income, education) and for a set of fully interacted indicator variables of race and time period. We tested for relative changes in White adults vs minority adults for each outcome variable. We used the Wald test (test command in Stata) to test for relative changes over time. RESULTS: We found reductions in baseline (pre-ACA) disparities over time in several of the measures between minority adults and White adults. This included greater growth in the use of mammograms and colonoscopies among minority populations. The results also saw relative reductions in hypertension, coronary heart disease, and fair or poor mental health. Finally, the share uninsured among Hispanic adults decreased at a faster rate than among White adults pre-ACA compared with the ACA period examined. CONCLUSIONS: The ACA is associated with a reduction in baseline differences in the use of some clinical preventive services, chronic disease prevalence, health insurance coverage, and out-of-pocket spending. Continued efforts to promote prevention and further expansions of coverage would appear to pay dividends.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(4): e153-e156, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine US commercial health plans' adoption of 2018 FDA-approved drugs. STUDY DESIGN: Database analysis. METHODS: We identified novel drugs that the FDA approved in 2018 and categorized them as follows: cancer treatment, orphan drug, included in an expedited review program, and biosimilar. Using a data set of 17 large health plans' drug coverage policies and formularies, we examined coverage 1 year following FDA approval. RESULTS: The FDA approved 66 drugs in 2018 (5 were not yet marketed 1 year following approval). For 60 of 61 drugs, some plans issued coverage policies whereas other plans included the drug in their formularies. Plans imposed restrictions (eg, step therapy) in 37% (275/742) of coverage policies. Plans covered biosimilars, orphan drugs, and cancer treatments more generously than drugs not in those categories (P < .05). Plans imposed restrictions in their policies with different frequencies (range, 7%-52%). Plans imposed utilization management (UM) in 82% (3837/4697) of formulary entries. Of those entries, plans required prior authorizations in 98%, included drugs on the highest patient co-payment tier in 70%, and imposed step therapy in 3%. Plans most often placed orphan drugs and cancer treatments on the highest cost-sharing formulary tiers (68% and 64% of the time, respectively). Plans imposed UM in their formularies with different frequencies (range, 62%-100% of entries). CONCLUSIONS: Health plans imposed fewer coverage restrictions on cancer treatments, orphan drugs, and biosimilars than on drugs not in those categories. Some plans covered 2018 FDA-approved drugs more generously than others, which has implications for patients' access to innovative therapies.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Aprovação de Drogas , Humanos , Produção de Droga sem Interesse Comercial , Autorização Prévia , Estados Unidos
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227958, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438753

RESUMO

Importance: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications can be factors in prescribing practices and insurance coverage, yet the frequency with which the extrapolation of clinical characteristics from pivotal trial data to the final approved indication occurs is not well understood. Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of extrapolation beyond pivotal trial data into approved indications in relation to disease severity, disease subtype, and concomitant medication use. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a cross-sectional study, the characteristics of patients in pivotal trials of 105 novel drug approvals from 2015 to 2017 were identified and compared with the FDA-approved indications for the drugs. Main sources analyzed included FDA reviews, published material describing the pivotal trials, and the original drug labeling. The study was conducted from July 4, 2019, to June 1, 2021. Exposures: Clinical characteristics of pivotal trials used in FDA approval. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes included the nature and frequency of extrapolation from study populations to the final indications. Extrapolation was defined as the granting of an indication for use in a broader population than was included in the pivotal trials on the basis of disease severity, disease subtype, or concomitant medication use. Results: Among the 105 novel FDA drug approvals studied, 23 extrapolations of trial population characteristics to the approved indication were identified in 21 drugs (20%): 12 times (29%) in 2015, 3 times (15%) in 2016, and 6 times (14%) in 2017. Extrapolation of trial findings to patients with greater disease severity was most common (n = 14 drugs), followed by differences in disease subtype (n = 6) and concomitant medication use (n = 3). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that extrapolation from pivotal trial data to FDA-approved indications is common. Although extrapolations may be grounded in reasonable clinical predictions, they can limit the generalizability of such indications to specific prescribing decisions; these findings suggest a greater need for close postapproval monitoring to determine whether new safety issues arise, or effectiveness differs from expectations when these medications are used in broader real-world populations.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Drogas , Cobertura do Seguro , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
20.
Value Health ; 25(4): 630-637, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Affordable Care Act's Medicaid Expansion Program influences healthcare use by increasing insurance coverage. Of particular interest is how this will affect inefficient and expensive emergency department (ED) visits. We estimated the impact of the Medicaid expansion on ED use by states and payer (Medicaid, private insurance, and uninsured) 5 years after the implementation of the Medicaid expansion and illustrated the use of the generalized synthetic control method. METHODS: In this quasi-experiment study, we implemented the generalized synthetic control method to compare states with Medicaid expansion and states without Medicaid expansion. Data were from the Healthcare Cost Utilization Project Fast Stats, which cover >95% of all ED visits. We included states with complete data from 2010 to 2018. RESULTS: Overall, the Medicaid expansion increased Medicaid share of ED visits (average treatment effect on the treated [ATT] 11.39%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.76-14.02) and decreased private share of ED visits (ATT -5.80%; 95% CI -7.40 to -4.12) and uninsured share of ED visits (ATT -6.66%; 95% CI -9.78 to -3.55). CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid Expansion Program shifted ED payer mix to Medicaid ED visits from private insurance and uninsured ED visits for adults at age of 19 to 64 years, whereas its effect on total ED volume is mixed among states. States that experienced the largest increase in Medicaid enrollment seem to experience an increase in ED visits although such results did not reach statistical significance.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...