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1.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(3): 198-204, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395708

RESUMO

The COVID-19 illness can occur as an occupational disease or work-related accident. According to the German list of occupational diseases, recognition as an occupational disease 3101 requires occupational exposure of an insured person who has been exposed to an increased risk of infection compared to the general population as a result of their occupational activity in one of the four areas: (1) health service or (2) social welfare sector, (3) laboratory or (4) during activities with increased risk of infection comparable to (1) to (3). The insurance cover covers employees, self-employed people - if not exempted from insurance cover - and honorary workers. The COVID-19 disease is subject to legal notification, mostly in conjunction with a contemporary SARS-CoV-2 virus detection. Regarding insured people who are not included within the aforementioned areas (1) to (4), the COVID-19 illness can be acknowledged as an occupational accident if the intense and direct contact with infected people - not intended as in the case of occupational disease 3101 - but otherwise situationally results from the insured activity itself.


Assuntos
/economia , Cobertura do Seguro , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , /isolamento & purificação , Notificação de Doenças/legislação & jurisprudência , Notificação de Doenças/normas , Alemanha , Ocupações em Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/normas , Laboratórios , Exposição Ocupacional , Fatores de Risco , Seguridade Social , Voluntários
2.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(1): 105-112, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400569

RESUMO

The return of a Democratic administration to the White House, coupled with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-induced contractions of job-based insurance, may reignite debate over public coverage expansion and its costs. Decades of research demonstrate that uninsured people and people with copays and deductibles use less care than people with first-dollar coverage. Hence, most economic analyses of Medicare for All proposals and other coverage expansions project increased utilization and associated costs. We review the utilization surges that such analyses have predicted and contrast them with the more modest utilization increments observed after past coverage expansions in the US and other affluent nations. The discrepancy between predicted and observed utilization changes suggests that analysts underestimate the role of supply-side constraints-for example, the finite number of physicians and hospital beds. Our review of the utilization effects of past coverage expansions suggests that a first-dollar universal coverage expansion would increase ambulatory visits by 7-10 percent and hospital use by 0-3 percent. Modest administrative savings could offset the costs of such increases.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência de Saúde Universal , Humanos , Medicaid/economia , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Medicare/economia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Estados Unidos
3.
J Urol ; 205(1): 115-121, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658588

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Optimal treatment of intermediate risk prostate cancer remains unclear. National Comprehensive Cancer Network® guidelines recommend active surveillance, prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Recent trials demonstrated no difference in prostate cancer specific mortality for men undergoing active surveillance for low risk prostate cancer compared to prostatectomy or radiotherapy. The use of active surveillance for intermediate risk prostate cancer is less clear. In this study we characterize U.S. national trends for demographic, clinical and socioeconomic factors associated with active surveillance for men with intermediate risk prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined 176,122 men diagnosed with intermediate risk prostate cancer from 2010 to 2016 in the National Cancer Database. Temporal trends in demographic, clinical and socioeconomic factors among men with intermediate risk prostate cancer and association with the use of active surveillance were characterized. The analysis was performed in April 2020. RESULTS: In total, 176,122 men were identified with intermediate risk prostate cancer from 2010 to 2016. Of these men 57.3% underwent prostatectomy, 36.4% underwent radiotherapy and 3.2% underwent active surveillance. Active surveillance nearly tripled from 1.6% in 2010 to 4.6% in 2016 (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis use of active surveillance was associated with older age, diagnosis in recent years, lower Gleason score and tumor stage, type of insurance, treatment at an academic center and proximity to facility, and attaining higher education (p <0.05). Race and comorbidities were not associated with active surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight increasing active surveillance use for men with intermediate risk prostate cancer demonstrating clinical and socioeconomic disparities. Prospective data and improved risk stratification are needed to guide optimal treatment for men with intermediate risk prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/economia , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radioterapia/economia , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Conduta Expectante/economia
4.
J Urol ; 205(1): 257-263, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Among some populations access to neonatal circumcision has become increasingly limited despite evidence of its benefits. This study examines national neonatal circumcision trends before and after the 2012 American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for neonatal circumcision reimbursement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of boys aged 28 days or less was conducted using data from the Kids' Inpatient Database (2003 to 2016). Boys who underwent neonatal circumcision prior to discharge were compared to boys who did not. Boys with coagulopathies, penile anomalies or a history of prematurity were excluded. RESULTS: An estimated 8,038,289 boys comprised the final cohort. Boys were primarily White (53.7%), privately insured (49.1%) and cared for at large (60.8%) teaching (49.4%) hospitals in metropolitan areas (84.1%). While 55.0% underwent circumcision prior to discharge, neonatal circumcision rates decreased significantly over time (p <0.0001). Black (68.0%) or White (66.0%) boys, boys in the highest income quartile (60.7%) and Midwestern boys (75.0%) were most likely to be circumcised. Neonatal circumcision was significantly more common among privately (64.9%) than publicly (44.6%) insured boys after controlling for demographics, region, hospital characteristics and year (p <0.0001). The odds of circumcision over time were not significantly different in the years before vs after 2012 (p=0.28). CONCLUSIONS: Among approximately 8 million boys sampled over a 13-year period 55.0% underwent neonatal circumcision. The rate of neonatal circumcision varied widely by region, race and socioeconomic status. The finding that boys with public insurance have lower circumcision rates in all years may be related to lack of circumcision access for boys with public insurance.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/tendências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Circuncisão Masculina/economia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Classe Social , Estados Unidos
5.
J Urol ; 205(1): 213-218, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856985

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction is a significant source of morbidity for individuals with spinal cord injury and is managed with a range of treatment options that differ in efficacy, tolerability and cost. The effect of insurance coverage on bladder management, symptoms and quality of life is not known. We hypothesized that private insurance is associated with fewer bladder symptoms and better quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of 1,226 surveys collected as part of the prospective Neurogenic Bladder Research Group SCI Registry. We included patients with complete insurance information, which was classified as private or public insurance. The relationship between insurance and bladder management, bladder symptoms and quality of life was modeled using multinomial logistic regression analysis. Spinal cord injury quality of life was measured by the Neurogenic Bladder Symptom Score. RESULTS: We identified 654 privately insured and 572 publicly insured individuals. The demographics of these groups differed by race, education, prevalence of chronic pain and bladder management. Publicly insured patients were more likely to be treated with indwelling catheters or spontaneous voiding and less likely to take bladder medication compared to those with private insurance. On multivariate analysis insurance type was not associated with differences in bladder symptoms (total Neurogenic Bladder Symptom Score) or in urinary quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between insurance coverage and the type of bladder management used following spinal cord injury, as publicly insured patients are more likely to be treated with indwelling catheters. However, insurance status, controlling for bladder management, did not impact bladder symptoms or quality of life.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/terapia , Adulto , Cateteres de Demora/economia , Cateteres de Demora/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente/economia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/economia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/diagnóstico , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/economia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/etiologia , Cateterismo Urinário/economia , Cateterismo Urinário/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 127e-136e, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduction mammaplasty is the standard of care for symptomatic macromastia. The process of requesting insurance coverage for reduction mammaplasty is cumbersome and potentially controversial, and insurance policies vary significantly. The goal of our analysis is to identify trends in insurance coverage rates, assess for the presence of disparities, and propose ways to increase chances of successful preauthorization. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective review of preauthorizations for reduction mammaplasty at a single institution from 2012 to 2017. Insurance company names were deidentified. Preauthorization denial rates were assessed by year, insurance carrier, and reason for denial. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors for predetermination denial by insurance companies. RESULTS: Among 295 preauthorizations, 212 were approved (72 percent) and 83 were denied (28 percent), among which 18 were appealed, 13 successfully. Rates of insurance denials have been increasing steadily, from 18 percent to 41 percent. Medicaid had the lowest denial rates (9.3 percent), whereas private carriers denials ranged from 21.4 to 62.1 percent. In terms of reason for denial, 30 percent were because of contract exclusion, 39 percent were because of inadequate documentation or not meeting medical criteria, and 12 percent were because of inadequate predicted resection weight. Certain private insurance carriers were the only independent predictors of predetermination denial. CONCLUSIONS: Rate of preauthorization denials is high and has been increasing steadily. Insurance criteria remain arbitrary. A proper documentation and appeal process by the plastic surgeon may improve rates of insurance approval. Although resection weight does not correlate with symptom relief, predicted breast tissue resection weight continues to be critical for insurance approval.


Assuntos
Mama/anormalidades , Hipertrofia/cirurgia , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Mamoplastia/economia , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Adulto , Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853228

RESUMO

This study aims to understand the difference in trauma patients' use of health services in Korea according to insurance type and the Injury Severity Score. Andersen's behavioral model of health service use is employed to identify the factors influencing their use. Claims data from January 1 to December 31, 2016 were extracted from both the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service and the automobile insurance screening center for all the medical treatments identified with the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale and Injury Severity Score. Using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service's remote statistical analysis system, hierarchical regression and negative binomial analyses were conducted to determine the effect of predisposing, enabling, and need factors on health service use. The results demonstrate that the use of Korean health services is relatively equitable since medical expenses for trauma patients are greatly influenced by need factors. However, the length of time trauma patients stay in the hospital appears to differ according to insurance type. This study suggests that healthcare policies need to increase coverage benefits and improve medical billing for patients with severe trauma, as well as develop a more robust screening system for patients with mild to moderate impairments.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/economia , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003247, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) who are hospitalized for serious infections requiring prolonged intravenous antibiotics may face barriers to discharge, which could prolong hospital length of stay (LOS) and increase financial burden. We investigated differences in LOS, discharge disposition, and charges between hospitalizations for serious infections in patients with and without OUD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We utilized the 2016 National Inpatient Sample-a nationally representative database of all discharges from US acute care hospitals. The population of interest was all hospitalizations for infective endocarditis, epidural abscess, septic arthritis, or osteomyelitis. The exposure was OUD, and the primary outcome was LOS until discharge, assessed by using a competing risks analysis to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of discharge disposition and adjusted differences in hospital charges were also reported. Of 95,470 estimated hospitalizations for serious infections (infective endocarditis, epidural abscess, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis), the mean age was 49 years and 35% were female. 46% had Medicare (government-based insurance coverage for people age 65+ years), and 70% were non-Hispanic white. After adjustment for potential confounders, OUD was associated with a lower probability of discharge at any given LOS (aHR 0.61; 95% CI 0.59-0.63; p < 0.001). OUD was also associated with lower odds of discharge to home (aOR 0.38; 95% CI 0.33-0.43; p < 0.001) and higher odds of discharge to a post-acute care facility (aOR 1.85; 95% CI 1.57-2.17; p < 0.001) or patient-directed discharge (also referred to as "discharge against medical advice") (aOR 3.47; 95% CI 2.80-4.29; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in average total hospital charges, though daily hospital charges were significantly lower for patients with OUD. Limitations include the potential for unmeasured confounders and the use of billing codes to identify cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that among hospitalizations for some serious infections, those involving patients with OUD were associated with longer LOS, higher odds of discharge to post-acute care facilities or patient-directed discharge, and similar total hospital charges, despite lower daily charges. These findings highlight opportunities to improve care for patients with OUD hospitalized with serious infections, and to reduce the growing associated costs.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Infecções/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Infecções/economia , Infecções/terapia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/tendências , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Medicare/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Public insurance (Medicaid) covered 42% of all U.S. births in 2018. This paper describes and analyzes the self-reported experiences of women with Medicaid versus commercial insurance relating to autonomy, control and respectful treatment in maternity care. METHODS: The sampling frame for the Listening to Mothers in California survey was drawn from 2016 California birth certificate files. The 30-minute survey had a 55% response rate. A secondary multivariable analysis of results from the survey included 2,318 women with commercial private insurance (1,087) or public (Medi-Cal) (1,231) coverage. Results were weighted and were representative of all births in 2016 in California. The multivariable analysis of variables related to maternal agency included engagement in decision making regarding interventions such as vaginal birth after cesarean and episiotomy, feeling pressured to have interventions and sense of fair treatment. We examined their relationship to insurance status adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, nativity and attitude toward birth as well as type of prenatal provider, type of birth attendant and pregnancy complications. RESULTS: Women with Medi-Cal had a demographic profile distinct from those with commercial insurance. In multivariable analysis, women with Medi-Cal reported less control over their maternity care experience than women with commercial insurance, including less choice of prenatal provider (AOR 1.61 95%C.I. 1.20, 2.17), or a vaginal birth after cesarean (AOR 2.93 95%C.I. 1.49, 5.73). Mothers on Medi-Cal were also less likely to be consulted before experiencing an episiotomy (AOR 0.30 95%C.I. 0.09, 0.94). They were more likely to report feeling pressure to have a primary cesarean (AOR 2.54 95%C.I. 1.55, 4.16) and less likely to be encouraged by staff to make their own decisions (AOR 0.63 95%C.I. 0.47, 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Childbearing women with public insurance in California clearly and consistently reported less opportunity to choose their care than women with private insurance. These inequities are a call to action for increased accountability and quality improvement relating to care of the many childbearing women with Medicaid coverage.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Respeito , Adulto , California , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Idade Materna , Serviços de Saúde Materna/economia , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 18939-18947, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719129

RESUMO

Changes in the way health insurers pay healthcare providers may not only directly affect the insurer's patients but may also affect patients covered by other insurers. We provide evidence of such spillovers in the context of a nationwide Medicare bundled payment reform that was implemented in some areas of the country but not in others, via random assignment. We estimate that the payment reform-which targeted traditional Medicare patients-had effects of similar magnitude on the healthcare experience of nontargeted, privately insured Medicare Advantage patients. We discuss the implications of these findings for estimates of the impact of healthcare payment reforms and more generally for the design of healthcare policy.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/economia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Estados Unidos
13.
Tex Med ; 116(5): 37-39, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645188

RESUMO

From electronic health records to quality reporting, today's physicians deal with plenty of distractions from patient care. Starting in 2021, hospital-employed physicians may find themselves adding another one: explaining to patients the difference between their hospital's multiple published prices for the same service.


Assuntos
Economia Hospitalar/legislação & jurisprudência , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/economia , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/legislação & jurisprudência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistema de Pagamento Prospectivo/legislação & jurisprudência , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia
15.
Int J Health Serv ; 50(4): 408-414, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605414

RESUMO

Four decades of neoliberal health policies have left the United States with a health care system that prioritizes the profits of large corporate actors, denies needed care to tens of millions, is extraordinarily fragmented and inefficient, and was ill prepared to address the COVID-19 pandemic. The payment system has long rewarded hospitals for providing elective surgical procedures to well-insured patients while penalizing those providing the most essential and urgent services, causing hospital revenues to plummet as elective procedures were cancelled during the pandemic. Before the recession caused by the pandemic, tens of millions of Americans were unable to afford care, compromising their physical and financial health; deep-pocketed corporate interests were increasingly dominating the hospital industry and taking over physicians' practices; and insurers' profits hit record levels. Meanwhile, yawning class-based and racial inequities in care and health outcomes remain and have even widened. Recent data highlight the failure of policy strategies based on market models and the need to shift to a nonprofit social insurance model.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Custos e Análise de Custo , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/economia , Pandemias , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Public Health ; 185: 130-138, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Health insurance availability and affordability are vital elements in diagnosis and treatment of patients with cancer and thus constitute clinical significance as well. Although past studies have explored the disparity in mortality figures for patients with different insurance statuses, this population-based study is pioneering in analyzing the changes in cancer mortality risks over time amid macroeconomic shifts. STUDY DESIGN: The study uses Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data of 424,889 non-elderly patients with breast, cervical, ovarian, and uterine cancer diagnosed during 2007-2010 and 2011-2015. METHODS: In addition to discussing incidence figures and insurance patterns, the study uses Kaplan-Meier and Cox's proportional hazard models to examine the changes in survival probability and mortality risks for insurance-stratified patients with female-specific cancer across the two time periods. RESULTS: Patients without insurance have an increased risk of mortality over time relative to insured patients. Moreover, uninsured patients face this heightened risk more than Medicaid patients. DISCUSSION: Despite public policy measures as well as advancements in diagnostic facilities and treatment technology, the increased relative mortality of patients without insurance limits the long-term affordability of cancer treatment for economically vulnerable patients in comparison with insured patients.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Medicaid/economia , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias Uterinas/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21016, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629722

RESUMO

We evaluated the statewide burden of obesity and its complications among government and state funded programs (Medicare and Medicaid) and commercial insurance.We calculated the prevalence of obesity and the prevalence of relevant comorbidities among different demographic groups and based on health insurance, among adults (18-65 years old) who visited a statewide health network in the state of Rhode Island, in 2017.The overall prevalence of obesity among 74,089 individuals was 38.88% [Asians 16.77%, Whites 37.49%, Hispanics 44.23%, and Blacks 48.44%]. Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries were 26% and 27%, respectively, more likely to have obesity than those who had commercial insurance (Odds Ratio:1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.20-1.32; Odds Ratio:1.27, 95%CI:1.22-1.32). Moreover, Medicaid and Medicare beneficiaries with obesity had a higher prevalence of diabetes compared with privately insured with obesity (10.58% and 10.44% vs 4.45%). Medicare beneficiaries with obesity had a statistically higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease (4.34%, 95%CI: 3.77-4.91) than privately insured (3.21%, 95%CI: 2.94-3.47).Based on statewide data among 18 to 65 years old adults, Medicare and Medicaid provide health coverage to 40% of individuals with obesity and 46% of those with the obesity-related comorbidities and complications. State and federal health care programs need to support and expand obesity-related services and coverage.


Assuntos
Demografia/tendências , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Obesidade/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/economia , Medicare/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Prevalência , Rhode Island/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Med Care ; 58(7): 632-642, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uninsured patients with end-stage renal disease face barriers to peritoneal dialysis (PD), a type of home dialysis that is associated with improved quality of life and reduced Medicare costs. Although uninsured patients using PD at dialysis start receive retroactive Medicare coverage for required predialysis services, coverage only applies for the calendar month of dialysis start. Thus, initiating dialysis later in the month yields longer retroactive coverage. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether differences in retroactive Medicare were associated with decreased long-term PD use. RESEARCH DESIGN: We exploited the dialysis start date using a regression discontinuity design on a national cohort from the US Renal Data System. SUBJECTS: 36,256 uninsured adults starting dialysis between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2014. MEASURES: PD use at dialysis days 1, 90, 180, and 360. RESULTS: Starting dialysis on the first versus last day of the calendar month was associated with an absolute decrease in PD use of 2.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5%-3.9%], or a relative decrease of 20% (95% CI, 12%-27%) at dialysis day 360. The absolute decrease was 5.5% (95% CI, 3.5%-7.2%) after Medicare established provider incentives for PD in 2011 and 7.2% (95% CI, 2.5%-11.9%) after Medicaid expansion in 2014. Patients were unlikely to switch from hemodialysis to PD after the first month of dialysis (probability of 6.9% in month 1, 1.5% in month 2, and 0.9% in month 4). CONCLUSIONS: Extending retroactive coverage for preparatory dialysis services could increase PD use and reduce overall Medicare spending in the uninsured.


Assuntos
Hemodiálise no Domicílio/normas , Cobertura do Seguro/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hemodiálise no Domicílio/economia , Hemodiálise no Domicílio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
20.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(4): 248-259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United States has a relatively high preterm birth rate compared with other developed nations. Before the enactment of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, many women at risk of a preterm birth were not able to access affordable health insurance or a wide array of preventive and maternity care services needed before, during, and after pregnancy. The various health insurance market reforms and coverage expansions contained in the Affordable Care Act sought in part to address these problems. This analysis aims to describe changes in the patterns of payer mix of preterm births in the context of a post-Affordable Care Act insurance market, explore possible factors for the observed changes, and discuss some of the implications for the Medicaid program. METHODS: We applied a repeated cross-sectional study design to explore payment mix patterns of all births and preterm births between 2011 and 2016, using publicly available National Vital Statistics Birth Data. We included an equal number of years with payment source available in the dataset before and after January 1, 2014, when the coverage expansions became effective. RESULTS: We found a small relative change in payment mix during the study period. Private health insurance (PHI) paid for a higher percentage of all births and this rate increased steadily between 2011 and 2016. Preterm births paid by PHI increased by 1.4 percentage points between 2011 and 2016 and self-pay/uninsured preterm births decreased by 0.3 percentage points over the same time period. Medicaid had the highest, and a relatively stable, preterm birth coverage percentage (48.9% in 2011, 49.2% in 2014, and 48.9% in 2016). Medicaid was also more likely to pay for preterm births than PHI, but this likelihood decreased by more than one-half after 2014 (8.2% in 2013 vs. 3.8% in 2014). CONCLUSIONS: After the 2010 reforms, Medicaid remained a constant source of coverage for the most vulnerable women in society when faced with the high cost of a preterm birth. Nationwide, of the 64 million women ages 15 to 44, 4% gained PHI (directly purchased or employer sponsored) and another 4% Medicaid, with a concomitant 8% decrease in uninsured women of reproductive age between 2013 and 2017. More research is needed to conclude with certainty that the reforms worked as intended, but the important role of Medicaid as a financial safety net is undeniable.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Nascimento Prematuro/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Parto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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