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1.
Chemosphere ; 314: 137754, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608887

RESUMO

In recent years, copper oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) have gained considerable importance in ecotoxicology studies. CONP ecotoxicity studies on amphibians are limited, particularly on Duttaphrynus melanostictus (D. melanostictus) tadpoles, and most CONP ecotoxicity studies have shown developmental effects on amphibians. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the ecotoxicity of CONPs in D. melanostictus tadpoles by assessing multi-biomarkers including bioaccumulation, antioxidants, biochemical, haematological, immunological and oxidative stress biomarkers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to characterize the morphology and physicochemical properties of CONPs. After 30 d of the experiment, blood and organs were collected to measure the levels of multiple biomarkers. The dissolution rate of copper ions in exposed media was observed in all studied groups. According to the results, significant (p < 0.05) increase in copper ion bioaccumulation (blood, liver and kidney), oxidative stress and biochemical biomarkers in the blood serum of CONPs exposed tadpoles compared to control tadpoles, which was accompanied by significant variations in morphological and haematological parameters. In contrast to the untreated tadpoles, the CONPs-exposed tadpoles showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreases in antioxidants and immunological indices of blood serum. Based on our results, we concluded that the ecotoxicity of CONPs is due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative stress in tadpoles, resulting in impairments. According to our knowledge, the present study was the first to use a multi-biomarker ecotoxicity approach on D. melanostictus tadpoles that could be used as an ecological bioindicator to assess aquatic toxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Nanopartículas , Animais , Larva , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Bufonidae , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Biomarcadores , Óxidos/farmacologia
2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 195: 37-46, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599274

RESUMO

Heavy metal (HM) toxicity is a well-known hazard which causes deleterious impact on the growth and development of plants. The impact of abscisic acid (ABA) in presence of silicon (Si) on plant development and quality traits has largely gone unexplored. The effects of ABA and Si on the growth, yield, and quality characteristics of Artemisia annua L. plants growing under copper (Cu) stress (20 and 40 mg kg-1) were investigated in a pot experiment. During this investigation, Cu stress caused severe damage to the plants but exogenous administration of Si and ABA ameliorated the harmful effects of Cu toxicity, and the plants displayed higher biomass and improved physio-biochemical attributes. Copper accumulated in the roots and shoots and its toxicity caused oxidative stress as demonstrated by the increased 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) content. It also resulted in the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, however, the exogenous Si and ABA supplementation decreased the buildup of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, alleviating the oxidative damage produced by HM stress. Copper toxicity had a considerable negative impact on glandular trichome density, ultrastructure as well as artemisinin production. However, combined Si and ABA enhanced the size and density of glandular trichomes, resulting in higher artemisinin production. Taken together, our results demonstrated that exogenous ABA and Si supplementation protect A. annua plants against Cu toxicity by improving photosynthetic characteristics, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity, protecting leaf structure and integrity, avoiding excess Cu deposition in shoot and root tissues, and helping in enhanced artemisinin biosynthesis. Our results indicate that the combined application of Si and ABA improved the overall growth of plants and may thus be used as an effective approach for the improvement of growth and yield of A. annua in Cu-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua , Artemisininas , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Silício/farmacologia
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(2): 1060-1070, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595456

RESUMO

In coastal waters, particulate metals constitute a substantial fraction of the total metals; however, the prevalent water quality criteria are primarily based on dissolved metals, seemingly neglecting the contribution of particulate metals. Here we developed a method to quantify the toxicity risk of particulate metals, and proposed a way to calculate modifying factors (MFs) for setting site-specific criteria in turbid waters. Specifically, we used a side-by-side experimental design to study copper (Cu) bioaccumulation and toxicity in an estuarine clam, Potamocorbula laevis, under the exposure to "dissolved only" and "dissolved + particulate" 65Cu. A toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model (TK-TD) was used to quantify the processes of Cu uptake, ingestion, assimilation, egestion, and elimination, and to relate mortality risk to tissue Cu. We find that particulate Cu contributes 40-67% of the Cu bioaccumulation when the suspended particulate matter (SPM) ranges from 12 to 229 mg L-1. The Cu-bearing SPM also increases the sensitivity of organisms to internalized Cu by decreasing the internal threshold concentration (CIT) from 141 to 76.8 µg g-1. MFs were derived based on the TK-TD model to consider the contribution of particulate Cu (in the studied SPM range) for increasing Cu bioaccumulation (MF = 1.3-2.2) and toxicity (MF = 2.3-3.9). Water quality criteria derived from dissolved metal exposure need to be lowered by dividing by an MF to provide adequate protection. Overall, the method we developed provides a scientifically sound framework to manage the risks of metals in turbid waters.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/análise , Qualidade da Água , Disponibilidade Biológica , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160920, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529390

RESUMO

High alkaline and low organic carbon hinder micronutrients, such as copper (Cu), bioavailability in (semi-) arid soils, affecting plant nutrient quality and productivity. This study aimed at investigating the potential beneficial effects of foliar Cu oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) and conventional chelated-Cu applications (0-400 mg Cu/L) on the biomass, physiological biomarkers of plant productivity and oxidative stress, Cu bioaugmentation, and essential oils and secondary metabolites in dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica [L.]) grown in Cu-limited alkaline soil in semi-arid condition. Employing a randomized complete block design with three replicates, two different sources of Cu (CuONPs and chelated-Cu), and a wide range of Cu concentrations (0, 40, 80, 160, and 400 mg Cu/L), plants were foliarly treated at day-60 and day-74. At day-120, plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. Results showed shoot Cu bioaccumulation, flavonoids and anthocyanin increased in a dose-dependent manner for both Cu compounds, but the beneficial effects were significantly higher with CuONPs compared to chelated-Cu treatments. Further, shoot biomass (23 %), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b; 77 and 123 %, respectively), and essential oil content and yield (70 and 104 %, respectively) increased significantly with foliar application of 80 mg/L CuONPs compared to equivalent concentration of chelated-Cu, suggesting an optimal threshold beyond which toxicity was observed. Likewise, commercially important secondary metabolites' yield (such as geranyl acetate, geranial, neral, and geraniol) was higher with 80 mg/L CuONPs compared to 160 mg/L chelated-Cu (2.3, 0.5, 2.5, and 7.1 %, respectively). TEM analyses of leaf ultrastructure revealed altered cellular organelles for both compounds at 400 mg/L, corroborating the results of oxidative stress response (malondialdehyde and H2O2). In conclusion, these findings indicate significantly higher efficacy of CuONPs, with an optimal threshold of 80 mg/L, in promoting essential oil and bioactive compound yield in dragonhead and may pave a path for the use of nano-Cu as a sustainable fertilizer promoting agricultural production in semi-arid soils that are micronutrient Cu deficient.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/análise , Biomassa , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Óxidos , Solo
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 3): 160040, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347280

RESUMO

Ocean acidification potentially influences the biotoxicity of metals and the antioxidant defense systems of marine organisms. This study investigated how pCO2-driven seawater acidification (SA) affected aqueous-phase copper (Cu) toxicity in the juvenile flounder Paralichthys olivaceus from the perspective of hepatic oxidative stress and damage to better understand the mechanisms underlying the biological effects produced by the two stressors. Fish were exposed to aqueous-phase Cu at relevant ambient and polluted concentrations (0, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200 µg L-1) at different pH levels (no SA: pH 8.10; moderate SA: pH 7.70, pCO2 ∼1353.89 µatm; extreme SA: pH 7.30, pCO2 ∼3471.27 µatm) for 28 days. A battery of biomarkers in the livers was examined to investigate their roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification in response to coexposure. Hepatic Cu accumulation (30.22-184.90 mg kg-1) was positively correlated with Cu concentrations. The biomarkers responded adaptively to different redox states following SA and Cu exposure. In unacidified seawater, increases in Cu concentrations significantly induced hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO, by up to 27.03 %), although compensatory responses in antioxidant defenses and detoxification were activated. Moderate SA helped maintain hepatic redox homeostasis and alleviated LPO through different defense strategies, depending on Cu concentrations. Under extreme SA, antioxidant-based defenses were activated to cope with oxidative stress at ambient-low Cu concentrations but failed to defend against Cu toxicity at polluted Cu levels, and LPO (by up to 63.90 %) was significantly induced. Additionally, thiols (GSH and MT) responded actively to cope with Cu toxicity under SA. SOD, CAT, EROD, and GST were also sensitively involved in defending against hepatic oxidative stress during coexposure. These findings highlight the notable interactive effects of SA and Cu and provide a basis for understanding antioxidant-based defenses in marine fish confronting environmental challenges.


Assuntos
Cobre , Linguado , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Antioxidantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Acidificação dos Oceanos , Água do Mar
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 3): 160157, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379340

RESUMO

Copper (Cu), an environmental heavy metal pollutant, has been widely researched in its toxicology. Recently, an increasing number of mitochondrial microRNAs (mitomiRs) have been shown to involve in the metabolic regulation. However, the underlying mechanisms of mitomiRs on regulating apoptosis under Cu exposure are still unclear. Here, we proved that Cu induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in porcine jejunal epithelial cells, concomitant with distinct reduction of mitomiR-504 in vivo and in vitro. The miR-504 mimic notably enhanced the mRNA and protein expressions of Bak1, Bax, Cleaved-caspase3 and Caspase-9, and significantly decreased the apoptosis rate and Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels, indicating that overexpression of mitomiR-504 attenuated the Cu-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Besides, Bak1 was confirmed as a direct target of mitomiR-504 by the bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Subsequently, transfection of siRNA targeting Bak1 significantly enhanced the alleviating effect of miR-504 mimic on the Cu-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Overall, these suggested that overexpression of mitomiR-504 alleviated the Cu-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in jejunal epithelial cells by suppressing Bak1 expression. These findings are conducive to elucidating the mechanism of Cu-induced jejunal epithelial pathologies, providing a new research idea for the Cu toxicology.


Assuntos
Cobre , MicroRNAs , Suínos , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Apoptose , Células Epiteliais , RNA Mensageiro
7.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 84(1): 18-31, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525054

RESUMO

Olfactory mucosa is well known for its lifelong ability for regeneration. Regeneration of neurons and regrowth of severed axons are the most common neural repair mechanisms in olfactory mucosa. Nonetheless, exposure to neurotoxic contaminants, such as copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and copper ions (Cu2+), may alter the reparative capacity of olfactory mucosa. Here, using RNA-sequencing, we investigated the molecular basis of neural repair mechanisms that were affected by CuNPs and Cu2+ in rainbow trout olfactory mucosa. The transcript profile of olfactory mucosa suggested that regeneration of neurons was inhibited by CuNPs. Exposure to CuNPs reduced the transcript abundances of pro-inflammatory proteins which are required to initiate neuroregeneration. Moreover, the transcript of genes encoding regeneration promoters, including canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling proteins and developmental transcription factors, were downregulated in the CuNP-treated fish. The mRNA levels of genes regulating axonal regrowth, including the growth-promoting signals secreted from olfactory ensheathing cells, were mainly increased in the CuNP treatment. However, the reduced transcript abundances of a few cell adhesion molecules and neural polarity genes may restrict axonogenesis in the CuNP-exposed olfactory mucosa. In the Cu2+-treated olfactory mucosa, both neural repair strategies were initiated at the transcript level. The stimulation of repair mechanisms can lead to the recovery of Cu2+-induced olfactory dysfunction. These results indicated CuNPs and Cu2+ differentially affected the neural repair mechanism in olfactory mucosa. Exposure to CuNP had greater effects on the expression of genes involved in olfactory repair mechanisms relative to Cu2+ and dysregulated the transcripts associated with stem cell proliferation and neural reconstitution.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Mucosa Olfatória , Íons
8.
J Plant Physiol ; 280: 153896, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525837

RESUMO

Heavy metal stress affects the quality of medicinal plants, and rare earth elements can effectively alleviate heavy metal stress. In this paper, we investigated the effects of rare earth element cerium (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/L) on the physiological and medicinal components of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. under copper (200 mg/L) stress. The results revealed that cerium (Ce) had a good alleviating effect on copper (Cu) stress, low concentrations of Ce (10-20 mg/L) significantly improved the resistance and medicinal qualities of the plant such as polysaccharide, polyphenol and flavonoid, it also increased the content of photosynthetic pigment, proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein of D. nobile Lindl., effectively balance the osmotic pressure and the generation and removal of reactive oxygen species in the plant, thereby the toxic effect of copper on D. nobile Lindl. is alleviated. From the point of view of the treatment time when the optimal relieving concentration appeared, the optimal concentration for relieving antioxidant enzyme activity all appeared at the treatment time of 10 d, the optimum concentrations of other indicators all appeared at the treatment time of 15 d. Overall, this study suggests that the optimum level of Ce (10-20 mg/L) might be promising for alleviating the adverse impacts of copper stress and promoting the accumulation of medicinal components in D. nobile Lindl.


Assuntos
Cério , Dendrobium , Plantas Medicinais , Cobre/toxicidade , Cério/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160849, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521604

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) are ubiquitous metal contaminants and can pose a threat to ecosystem and human health. Bile acids have recently received considerable attention for their role in the maintenance of health. However, there were few studies on whether Pb and Cu affect bile acid metabolism in amphibians. In this study, a combination approach of histological analysis, targeted metabolomics, 16S rDNA sequencing and qPCR was used to explore the impacts of Pb, Cu and their mixture (Mix) on bile acid in Bufo gargarizans tadpoles. The results showed that Pb, Cu, and Mix resulted in intestinal damage and altered the bile acid profiles. Specifically, Pb and Mix exposure decreased total bile acid concentrations while increased toxic bile acid levels; in contrast, Cu exposure increased total bile acid levels. And hydrophilic bile acids were reduced in all treated tadpoles. Moreover, Pb and/or Cu changed the composition of intestinal microbiota, especially Clostridia, Bacteroides and Eubacterium involved in bile acid biotransformation. qPCR revealed that the decreased total bile acid concentrations in Pb- and Mix-treated tadpoles were most likely attributed to the activation of intestinal farnesoid X receptor (Fxr), which suppressed bile acid synthesis and reabsorption. While activated fxr in the Cu treatment group may be a regulatory mechanism in response to increased bile excretion, which is a detoxification route of tadpoles under Cu stress. Collectively, Pb, Cu and Mix changed bile acid profiles by affecting intestinal microbial composition and activating Fxr signaling. This study provided insight into the impacts of Pb and Cu on bile acid metabolism and contributed to the assessment of the potential ecotoxicity of heavy metals on amphibians.


Assuntos
Cobre , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Bufonidae , Larva , Ácidos e Sais Biliares
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 127: 495-507, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522080

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) exists in a variety of forms in different aquatic environments, and affects their bioavailability. In this study we provide a systematic review on toxicity of Cu which focuses on identifying evidence in the mechanisms of Cu toxicity, and apply an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analysis to identify multiple potential mechanisms and their interactions of Cu toxicity to fish. This analysis process included the mechanisms of behavior toxicant, oxidative toxicant, ion regulation disruption toxicity, as well as endocrine disruption toxicity. It was found that at low levels of Cu exposure, swimming, avoid predators, locating prey and other sensory functions will be impaired, and the organism will suffer from metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis following the inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase active. The main pathway of acute toxicity of Cu to fish is the inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme, and lead to reduced intracellular sodium absorption, as well as Cu-induced increased cell permeability, in turn resulting in increased sodium ion loss, leading to cardiovascular collapse and respiratory insufficiency. The endocrine disruption toxicity of Cu to fish caused growth inhibition and reproductive reduction. In addition, there are several key pathways of Cu toxicity that are affected by hardness (e.g., Ca2+) and intracellular DOC concentrations, including inhibiting Cu-induction, improving branchial gas exchange, altering membrane transport functions, decreasing Na+ loss, and increasing Na+ uptake. The results of the AOP analysis will provide a robust framework for future directed research on the mechanisms of Cu toxicity.


Assuntos
Rotas de Resultados Adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Sódio , Peixes/metabolismo , Íons
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(1): e0184122, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36475883

RESUMO

Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen that is increasingly recognized as a porcine zoonotic pathogen that threatens the health of both pigs and humans. Metal homeostasis plays a critical role during the process of bacterial infection. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to identify potential candidate genes involved in the maintenance of intracellular copper homeostasis. CopA was identified as the primary copper exporter in S. suis. The copA deletion mutant strain was found to be more sensitive to copper and accumulated more intracellular copper than the wild-type (WT) parent strain. In addition, adding manganese increased the ability of S. suis to resist copper, and the manganese transporter, TroABCD, was involved in tolerance to copper. The copA deletion mutant strain accumulated less copper when supplemented with manganese. Furthermore, when cultured with copper, the double deletion mutant (ΔcopAΔtroA) exhibited improved growth compared to the copA deletion mutant strain. In addition, the double deletion mutant (ΔcopAΔtroA) accumulated less copper than the copA deletion mutant strain. These data were consistent with a model wherein defective TroABCD resulted in decreased cellular copper accumulation and protected the strain against copper poisoning. IMPORTANCE Metal homeostasis plays a critical role during the process of bacterial infection. We identified three important potential candidate genes involved in maintenance of intracellular copper homeostasis. CopA was demonstrated to be the main copper exporter in Streptococcus suis, and manganese increased the tolerance of S. suis to copper. The double deletion mutant (ΔcopAΔtroA) improved growth ability over the copA deletion mutant strain in the presence of high concentrations of copper and accumulated less copper. These findings are consistent with a model wherein defective TroABCD resulted in decreased cellular accumulation of copper and protected the strain against copper poisoning.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus suis , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Cobre/toxicidade , Streptococcus suis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Manganês , Mutação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
12.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 42(2): 449-462, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484737

RESUMO

Dissolved copper (Cu) can contribute to toxicity in aquatic systems impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD), and its bioavailability is influenced by aqueous complexation with organic ligands that predominantly include fulvic acids (FAs). Because the geochemical fractionation of FAs that accompanies sorption to hydrous aluminum oxides (HAOs) and hydrous iron oxides (HFOs) can alter Cu complexation with FA, we investigated FAs isolated from three categories of water (pristine, AMD, and in situ-fractionated mixtures of pristine and AMD collected at stream confluences) in three mining-impacted alpine watersheds in central Colorado, USA. We also conducted geochemical fractionation of field-collected FAs and Suwannee River FAs by precipitating HAOs and HFOs in the laboratory. Spectral properties of the FAs (e.g., UV-VIS absorbance) were altered by geochemical fractionation, and in acute toxicity tests with an aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna) Cu was more toxic in the presence of in situ- and laboratory-fractionated FAs (median effect concentration [EC50] 19-50 µg Cu L-1 ) than in the presence of nonfractionated FAs (EC50 48-146 µg Cu L-1 ). After adjusting for the strain-specific sensitivity of our D. magna, we improved the accuracy of Biotic Ligand Model predictions of Cu EC50 values for AMD-related FAs by using an "effective dissolved organic carbon" based on spectral properties that account for among-FA differences in protectiveness against Cu toxicity. However, some differences remained between predicted and measured EC50 values, especially for FAs from AMD-related waters that might contain important metal-binding moieties not accounted for by our measured spectral indices. Environ Toxicol Chem 2023;42:449-462. © 2022 SETAC.


Assuntos
Cobre , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/química , Daphnia , Benzopiranos , Água , Ligantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 194: 489-498, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512983

RESUMO

Nitrogen metabolism and the production of primary and secondary metabolites vary according to biotic and abiotic factors such as trace elements (TE) stress, and can, therefore, be considered biomarkers. The present study evaluated the effect of copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) TE, separately, on the metabolism of nitrogen compounds and biomass production, partitioned into shoot and roots of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., and identified possible defense mechanisms linked to nitrogen metabolism. At 120 days of cultivation, the biomass production of L. leucocephala was higher when exposed to excess Fe than Cu. Nonetheless, the biomass gain (%) of plants exposed to Cu was higher, especially the biomass gains in roots. The tolerance and biomass production of L. leucocephala is related to the regulation of nitrogen metabolism and production of secondary metabolites. The biochemistry of plant metabolism against the excess of Cu and Fe TE manifested similarly, but with some specifics regarding the chemical nature of each metal. There was a reduction in the content of ureides and proteins and an increase in amino acids in the roots in relation to the increase in Cu and Fe concentrations. There was low accumulation of proline in the roots in treatments 400 and 500 mg/dm3 compared to the control for both TE. On the other hand, the total phenolic compounds in the roots increased. Our results indicate that the increased synthesis of amino acids and the accumulation of phenolic compounds is involved in the tolerance of L. leucocephala to Cu and Fe.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Compostos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Compostos de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 313: 137539, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521750

RESUMO

Excessive copper (Cu) concentrations pose significant health risks to both plants and humans. In this study, sodium alginate (SA)-gelatin (GEL)-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)- embedded dinotefuran (DIN) microspheres were prepared using spray-drying technology. The loading content and encapsulation efficiency of optimal microspheres determined by physical modifications were 19.77% and 99.32%, respectively. In addition, the microspheres showed variable stimuli-responsive controlled release capacities in different temperatures and types of soil, as well as showed better control efficiency of larvae of Protaetia brevitarsis at pesticide application in the early stage, with the potential ability to control pest outbreaks at high temperatures. In addition, blank microspheres improved the growth and physiological activity of cucumber seedlings, reduced copper content in leaves, increased soil nutrient content, and prevented soil acidification. Further, the use of blank microspheres increased the relative abundance of soil beneficial functional bacteria communities, which mediate heavy metal (HM) immobilization/tolerance and promote plant growth. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and Spearman correlation analysis showed that these beneficial functional bacteria were mainly positively correlated with soil EC, A-N, and N-N. In summary, this study showed that the technique of combining physically modified carrier materials with pesticides has the potential to reduce Cu contamination in the surrounding agricultural soil during pesticide application, thereby reducing Cu uptake by crops.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Cobre/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Solo , Microesferas , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Alginatos
15.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 67(2): 198-212, 2022 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36546013

RESUMO

In nature, bacteria must sense copper and tightly regulate gene expression to evade copper toxicity. Here, we identify a new copper-responsive two-component system named DsbRS in the important human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa; in this system, DsbS is a sensor histidine kinase, and DsbR, its cognate response regulator, directly induces the transcription of genes involved in protein disulfide bond formation (Dsb) (i.e., the dsbDEG operon and dsbB). In the absence of copper, DsbS acts as a phosphatase toward DsbR, thus blocking the transcription of Dsb genes. In the presence of copper, the metal ion directly binds to the sensor domain of DsbS, and the Cys82 residue plays a critical role in this process. The copper-binding behavior appears to inhibit the phosphatase activity of DsbS, leading to the activation of DsbR. The copper resistance of the dsbRS knock-out mutant is restored by the ectopic expression of the dsbDEG operon, which is a DsbRS major target. Strikingly, cognates of the dsbRS-dsbDEG pair are widely distributed across eubacteria. In addition, a DsbR-binding site, which contains the consensus sequence 5'-TTA-N8-TTAA-3', is detected in the promoter region of dsbDEG homologs in these species. These findings suggest that the regulation of Dsb genes by DsbRS represents a novel mechanism by which bacterial cells cope with copper stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Cobre , Humanos , Cobre/toxicidade , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Expressão Gênica
16.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 275, 2022 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escalation in industrialization and anthropogenic activity have resulted in an increase of pollutants released into the environment. Of these pollutants, heavy metals such as copper are particularly concerning due to their bio-accumulative nature. Due to its highly heterogeneous distribution and its dual nature as an essential micronutrient and toxic element, the genetic basis of copper tolerance is likely shaped by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. RESULTS: In this study, we utilized the natural variation present in multiple populations of Drosophila melanogaster collected across Europe to screen for variation in copper tolerance. We found that latitude and the degree of urbanization at the collection sites, rather than any other combination of environmental factors, were linked to copper tolerance. While previously identified copper-related genes were not differentially expressed in tolerant vs. sensitive strains, genes involved in metabolism, reproduction, and protease induction contributed to the differential stress response. Additionally, the greatest transcriptomic and physiological responses to copper toxicity were seen in the midgut, where we found that preservation of gut acidity is strongly linked to greater tolerance. Finally, we identified transposable element insertions likely to play a role in copper stress response. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, by combining genome-wide approaches with environmental association analysis, and functional analysis of candidate genes, our study provides a unique perspective on the genetic and environmental factors that shape copper tolerance in natural D. melanogaster populations and identifies new genes, transposable elements, and physiological traits involved in this complex phenotype.


Assuntos
Cobre , Drosophila , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Genômica , Europa (Continente)
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499485

RESUMO

Copper is an essential micronutrient for the maintenance of normal cell function but is toxic in excess. Dehydrins are group two late embryogenesis abundant proteins, which facilitate plant survival in harsh environmental conditions. Here, a YSK-type dehydrin, NtDhn17, was cloned from Nicotiana tabacum under copper toxicity and characterized using a heterologous expression system and in vitro or in vivo experiments and exhibited characteristics of intrinsic disorder during in vitro analyses. Heterologous expression of NtDHN17 enhanced the tolerance of E. coli to various metals, osmotic, and oxidative stress. NtDHN17 showed no Cu2+-binding properties in vivo or in vitro, indicating that metal ion binding is not universal among dehydrins. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that NtDHN17 behaved as a potent anti-aggregation agent providing strong protection to aggregated proteins induced by excess copper ions, an effect dependent on the K-segment but not on the Y- or S-segments. In summary, the protective role of NtDHN17 towards E. coli under conditions of copper toxicity may be related to anti-aggregation ability rather than its acting as an ion scavenger, which might be a valuable target for the genetic improvement of resistance to heavy metal stresses in plants.


Assuntos
Cobre , Tabaco , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo
18.
J Insect Physiol ; 143: 104455, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368599

RESUMO

Many aquatic insects are exposed to the dual stressors of heavy metal pollution and rising water temperatures from global warming. These stresses may interact and have stronger impacts on aquatic organisms if heavy metals interfere with the ability of these organisms to handle high temperatures. Here we focus on the effect of copper on upper thermal limits of giant salmonfly nymphs (Order: Plecoptera, Pteronarcys californica), a stonefly species which is common in parts of western North America. Experimental exposure to copper reduced upper thermal limits by âˆ¼ 10 °C in some cases and depressed the hypoxia tolerance (Pcrit) of nymphs by âˆ¼ 0.5 mg L-1 DO. These results suggest that copper inhibits the delivery of oxygen, which may explain, in part, the strong reductions in CTMAX that we report. Fluorescence microscopy of Cu-exposed individuals indicated high levels of copper in chloride cells but no clear evidence of damage to or high levels of copper on the gills themselves. Our study indicates that populations of aquatic insects from copper-polluted environments may be further at risk to future warming than those from uncontaminated environments.


Assuntos
Cobre , Insetos , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Hipóxia , Oxigênio , Ninfa
19.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12252, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383801

RESUMO

Nanosized copper particles (nano Cu) have been incorporated into products in multiple industries, although studies have demonstrated that these particles are nephrotoxic. We investigated the cytotoxicity of nanosized copper particles on rat mesangial cells and measured rates of apoptosis, the expression of caspase-3, and generation of reactive oxygen species. We also measured autophagy through the acridine orange (AO) staining and expression of Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, and p62 to screen the underlying mechanism of toxicity. Nanosized copper particles inhibited mesangial cell viability, up-regulated the activity of caspase-3, and increased the rates of apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to nano Cu increased the formation of acidic vesicular organelles and the expression of Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, and p62, and treatment with an autophagy inhibitor reduced nephrotoxicity. This indicated that the autophagy pathway is involved in the toxicity induced by nanosized copper particles to mesangial cells. This finding can contribute to the development of safety guidelines for the evaluation of nanomaterials in the future.


Assuntos
Cobre , Células Mesangiais , Ratos , Animais , Caspase 3 , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/metabolismo , Células Mesangiais/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Autofagia , Apoptose , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430374

RESUMO

The contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG) formation and removal in high-pH-mediated alleviation of plant copper (Cu)-toxicity remains to be elucidated. Seedlings of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) were treated with 0.5 (non-Cu-toxicity) or 300 (Cu-toxicity) µM CuCl2 × pH 4.8, 4.0, or 3.0 for 17 weeks. Thereafter, superoxide anion production rate; H2O2 production rate; the concentrations of MG, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant metabolites (reduced glutathione, ascorbate, phytochelatins, metallothioneins, total non-protein thiols); and the activities of enzymes (antioxidant enzymes, glyoxalases, and sulfur metabolism-related enzymes) in leaves and roots were determined. High pH mitigated oxidative damage in Cu-toxic leaves and roots, thereby conferring sweet orange Cu tolerance. The alleviation of oxidative damage involved enhanced ability to maintain the balance between ROS and MG formation and removal through the downregulation of ROS and MG formation and the coordinated actions of ROS and MG detoxification systems. Low pH (pH 3.0) impaired the balance between ROS and MG formation and removal, thereby causing oxidative damage in Cu-toxic leaves and roots but not in non-Cu-toxic ones. Cu toxicity and low pH had obvious synergistic impacts on ROS and MG generation and removal in leaves and roots. Additionally, 21 (4) parameters in leaves were positively (negatively) related to the corresponding root parameters, implying that there were some similarities and differences in the responses of ROS and MG metabolisms to Cu-pH interactions between leaves and roots.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/toxicidade , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
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