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1.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 97-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386191

RESUMO

Understanding trends in substance use by gender among jail-based treatment program participants can inform policies and programs tailored to this population. Preprogram assessment data from 3509 individuals entering a jail-based substance use disorder treatment program in Missouri between 1998 and 2016 were analyzed. Primary outcome was program participants' strongly preferred substances. Demographic covariates and drug preferences were compared between males and females. Average yearly trends in preferred substances were calculated. While 25.8% of the sample preferred heroin, it was more strongly preferred by women (36.4%) than men (22.0%, p < 0.0001). Alcohol and marijuana were preferred more by males. Overall, preferences for heroin and methamphetamine increased over time while alcohol, marijuana, and other stimulants decreased. Women being more likely to prefer heroin and the increasing preference for heroin over time are consistent with national trends. Offering evidence-based treatment like pharmacotherapy and gender-sensitive approaches can help address the needs of this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Prisioneiros , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cannabis , Cocaína , Cocaína Crack , Feminino , Heroína , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina , Missouri/epidemiologia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Distribuição por Sexo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Adulto Jovem
2.
Lancet ; 394(10209): 1652-1667, 2019 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668409

RESUMO

We did a global review to synthesise data on the prevalence, harms, and interventions for stimulant use, focusing specifically on the use of cocaine and amphetamines. Modelling estimated the effect of cocaine and amphetamine use on mortality, suicidality, and blood borne virus incidence. The estimated global prevalence of cocaine use was 0·4% and amphetamine use was 0·7%, with dependence affecting 16% of people who used cocaine and 11% of those who used amphetamine. Stimulant use was associated with elevated mortality, increased incidence of HIV and hepatitis C infection, poor mental health (suicidality, psychosis, depression, and violence), and increased risk of cardiovascular events. No effective pharmacotherapies are available that reduce stimulant use, and the available psychosocial interventions (except for contingency management) had a weak overall effect. Generic approaches can address mental health and blood borne virus infection risk if better tailored to mitigate the harms associated with stimulant use. Substantial and sustained investment is needed to develop more effective interventions to reduce stimulant use.


Assuntos
Anfetaminas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/mortalidade , Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anfetaminas/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Hepatite C/induzido quimicamente , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Viroses/sangue , Viroses/induzido quimicamente , Viroses/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 1986-1999, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719672

RESUMO

The importance of neuronal ensembles, termed engram cells, in storing and retrieving memory is increasingly being appreciated, but less is known about how these engram cells operate within neural circuits. Here we tagged engram cells in the ventral CA1 region of the hippocampus (vCA1) and the core of the nucleus accumbens (AcbC) during cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) training and show that the vCA1 engram projects preferentially to the AcbC and that the engram circuit from the vCA1 to the AcbC mediates memory recall. Direct activation of the AcbC engram while suppressing the vCA1 engram is sufficient for cocaine CPP. The AcbC engram primarily consists of D1 medium spiny neurons, but not D2 medium spiny neurons. The preferential synaptic strengthening of the vCA1→AcbC engram circuit evoked by cocaine conditioning mediates the retrieval of cocaine CPP memory. Our data suggest that the vCA1 engram stores specific contextual information, while the AcbC D1 engram and its downstream network store both cocaine reward and associated contextual information, providing a potential mechanism by which cocaine CPP memory is stored.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Cocaína/farmacologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Clozapina/análogos & derivados , Clozapina/farmacologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Optogenética , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia
4.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 341-345, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184124

RESUMO

Objetivo. Conocer la epidemiología de las consultas en urgencias por amnesia global transitoria (AGT), ya sea pura, asociada al consumo de tóxicos o en el contexto de una agresión sexual. Método. Estudio retrospectivo de enero a diciembre de 2018. Se revisaron las AGT atendidas en intoxicados (AGTtox), en víctimas de agresiones sexuales (AGTsex) y las amnesias puras (AGTpur), evaluando la presencia de tóxicos. Resultados. Se identificaron 287 AGT: 169 AGTsex (58,9%), 62 AGTpur (21,6%) y 56 AGTtox (19,5%). De ellas, 218 (76%) fueron mujeres y la edad osciló entre 16 y 90 años (60,6% menores de 30 años). Reconocieron consumo de alcohol 201 casos (72,8%), con etanolemia positiva en 105 (49,1%) (media de 0,74 g/l y máxima de 3,9 g/l). Admitieron consumo de cannabis 20 pacientes (7,1%), con analítica positiva en 39 casos (17,3%); cocaína 14 (4,9%), con analítica positiva en 28 (12,4%), y anfetaminas 5 (1,7%), con analítica positiva en 20 (8,8%). Presentaron sínto-mas de intoxicación 58 casos (20,1%). Cuatro pacientes ingresaron en coma. Se realizó una tomografía computariza-da (TC) craneal a 66 pacientes (23%), se hospitalizaron 7 y no hubo ningún fallecimiento. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de AGT es mayor si se incluyen los intoxicados y las agresiones sexuales, modificando la determinación de tóxicos la epidemiología de la AGT en urgencias


Objectives. To study the epidemiology of emergency department visits for transient global amnesia (TGA) by itself or associated with substance abuse or sexual assault. Methods. Retrospective study of cases treated from January to December 2018. Data for all patients with TGA were extracted, and cases were classified as associated with substance abuse (TGASUB), sexual assault (TGASEX), or neither (TGAONLY). Results. A total of 287 TGA cases were found: 169 (58.9%) were TGASEX, 62 (21.6%) TGAONLY, and 56 (19.5%) TGASUB. Two hundred eighteen (76%) were female and 69 (24%) were male. Ages ranged from 16 to 90 years; 174 (60.6%) were under the age of 30 years. Two hundred one patients (72.8%) reported consuming alcohol; and 105 (49.1%) were positive on testing (mean blood alcohol concentration, 0.74 g/L; maximum, 3.9 g/L. Twenty patients (7.1%) reported using cannabis, and 39 (17.3%) had positive test results; 14 reported using cocaine (4.9%) and 28 (12.4%) tested positive; 5 (1.7%) reported using amphetamines and 20 (8.8%) tested positive. Fifty-eight (20.1%) had symptoms of intoxication. Four were admitted in coma. A computed tomography scan was ordered for 66 patients (23%), 7 patients were hospitalized, and none died. Conclusions. The prevalence of TGA is higher if cases of substance abuse and sexual assault are counted. Toxicolgy testing changes the epidemiology of TGA in emergencies


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amnésia Global Transitória/complicações , Amnésia Global Transitória/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Delitos Sexuais , Sintomas Toxicológicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coma/complicações , Coma/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão , Etanol/toxicidade , Cocaína/toxicidade , Cannabis/toxicidade , Anfetaminas/toxicidade , Análise de Variância
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3934, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477694

RESUMO

Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder of compulsive drug use. Studies of the neurobehavioral factors that promote drug relapse have yet to produce an effective treatment. Here we take a different approach and examine the factors that suppress-rather than promote-relapse. Adapting Pavlovian procedures to suppress operant drug response, we determined the anti-relapse action of environmental cues that signal drug omission (unavailability) in rats. Under laboratory conditions linked to compulsive drug use and heightened relapse risk, drug omission cues suppressed three major modes of relapse-promotion (drug-predictive cues, stress, and drug exposure) for cocaine and alcohol. This relapse-suppression is, in part, driven by omission cue-reactive neurons, which constitute small subsets of glutamatergic and GABAergic cells, in the infralimbic cortex. Future studies of such neural activity-based cellular units (neuronal ensembles/memory engram cells) for relapse-suppression can be used to identify alternate targets for addiction medicine through functional characterization of anti-relapse mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cocaína/farmacologia , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Animais , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Ratos Long-Evans , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Transgênicos , Recidiva , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1082: 98-105, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472717

RESUMO

Storage and quantitative analysis of small volumes of biofluids are challenging, especially when low concentrations of analytes are to be detected in the presence of complex matrices. In this study, we describe an integrated thread-based approach for stabilizing small blood volumes in the dry-state at room temperature, while also offering direct analysis capabilities via thread spray mass spectrometry. The analytical merits of this novel microsampling platform was demonstrated via the direct analysis of diazepam and cocaine in dried blood samples stored for 42 days. In-situ in-capillary blood processing from hydrophobic threads enabled limits of detection as low as parts-per-quadrillion to be reached. We validated this ultra-sensitivity by analyzing small tissue-like residues collected after pushing a thread through the sample once. The implications of this sample collection, storage, and analysis platform can be extensive with direct applications in forensics and clinical studies.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Anfetamina/sangue , Cocaína/análogos & derivados , Cocaína/sangue , Diazepam/sangue , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/instrumentação , Gossypium , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metanfetamina/sangue , Sefarose/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Manejo de Espécimes
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109894, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408788

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently, hair straightening has become a regular hair treatment for women but likewise for men. Several studies have shown that thermal straightening has an influence on the concentration of ethyl glucuronide and of drugs of abuse content in hair. Heat treatment of hair may decrease concentrations of cocaine (COC) and of cocaethylene (CE) in hair and increase concentrations of benzoylecgonine (BZE). The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of thermal straightening on anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), a known cocaine smoking marker, in hair. METHOD: 42 positive COC hair samples were treated in vitro with iron plates heated to 200°C. During this treatment one lock of hair was put sequentially 30 times in contact with a hair straightener during 2s, the other lock was not treated. The hair samples were analyzed by a validated GC/MS method for AEME, COC and its metabolites BZE, norcocaine (NC), ecgonine methyl ester (EME) and CE. RESULTS: After treatment, a median increase of concentrations was observed for AEME (110.3%) and BZE (27.6%) whereas a median decrease was found for COC (56.9%), NC (46.7%), EME (33.3%) and CE (41.7%). The median BZE/COC ratio of 0.6 in not treated hair increased to 1.5 in treated hair. CONCLUSION: Regarding our in vitro results, AEME may be produced by thermal hair straightening. Therefore, the presence of AEME in hair should not be used as an irrefutable prove of cocaine smoking. Our study shows that for the interpretation of AEME results in hair, potential heat treatment of hair should be considered. A ratio BZE/COC higher 1 appears to be a good marker to identify thermal treatment of hair before collection. Finally, thermal straightening should be documented during hair collection and should also be considered for the interpretation of COC results in hair.


Assuntos
Cocaína/análogos & derivados , Cocaína/análise , Preparações para Cabelo , Cabelo/química , Entorpecentes/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/diagnóstico , Toxicologia Forense , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(658): 1394-1396, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411829

RESUMO

Since the nineties, we note a diversification of recreational drugs and an increase in intoxications requiring medical care. From cannabis to cocaine through the New Psychoactive Substances, the aim of this article is to focus on Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), lysergic diethylamid acid (LSD) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA), three substances that we are confronted with in our emergency rooms and review the effective care to provide in case of intoxication.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Oxibato de Sódio , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recreação , Oxibato de Sódio/efeitos adversos
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(34): 737-744, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465320

RESUMO

From 2013 to 2017, the number of opioid-involved overdose deaths (opioid deaths) in the United States increased 90%, from 25,052 to 47,600.* This increase was primarily driven by substantial increases in deaths involving illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) or fentanyl analogs† mixed with heroin, sold as heroin, or pressed into counterfeit prescription pills (1-3). Methamphetamine-involved and cocaine-involved deaths that co-involved opioids also substantially increased from 2016 to 2017 (4). Provisional 2018§ estimates of the number of opioid deaths suggest a small decrease from 2017. Investigating the extent to which decreases occurred broadly or were limited to a subset of opioid types (e.g., prescription opioids versus IMF) and drug combinations (e.g., IMF co-involving cocaine) can assist in targeting of intervention efforts. This report describes opioid deaths during January-June 2018 and changes from July-December 2017 in 25¶ of 32 states and the District of Columbia participating in CDC's State Unintentional Drug Overdose Reporting System (SUDORS).** Opioid deaths were analyzed by involvement (opioid determined by medical examiner or coroner to contribute to overdose death) of prescription or illicit opioids,†† as well as by the presence (detection of the drug in decedent) of co-occurring nonopioid drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine, and benzodiazepines). Three key findings emerged regarding changes in opioid deaths from July-December 2017 to January-June 2018. First, overall opioid deaths decreased 4.6%. Second, decreases occurred in prescription opioid deaths without co-involved illicit opioids and deaths involving non-IMF illicit synthetic opioids (fentanyl analogs and U-series drugs) (5). Third, IMF deaths, especially those with multiple illicit opioids and common nonopioids, increased. Consequently, IMF was involved in approximately two-thirds of opioid deaths during January-June 2018. Notably, during January-June 2018, 62.6% of all opioid deaths co-occurred with at least one common nonopioid drug. To maintain and accelerate reductions in opioid deaths, efforts to prevent IMF-involved deaths and address polysubstance misuse with opioids must be enhanced. Key interventions include broadening outreach to groups at high risk for IMF or fentanyl analog exposure and overdose. Improving linkage to and engagement in risk-reduction services and evidence-based treatment for persons with opioid and other substance use disorders with attention to polysubstance use or misuse is also needed.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Analgésicos Opioides/química , Analgésicos Opioides/classificação , Benzodiazepinas/análise , Cocaína/análise , Humanos , Metanfetamina/análise , Mortalidade/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Forensic Sci Int ; 303: 109924, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid overdose crisis is especially pronounced in Maine. The Diversion Alert Program (DAP) was developed to combat illicit drug use and prescription drug diversion by facilitating communication between law enforcement and health care providers with the goal of limiting drug-related harms and criminal behaviors. Our objectives in this report were to analyze 2014-2017 DAP for: (1) trends in drug arrests and, (2) differences in arrests by offense, demographics (sex and age) and by region. METHODS: Drug arrests (N=8193, 31.3% female, age=33.1±9.9) reported to the DAP were examined by year, demographics, and location. RESULTS: The most common substances of the 10,064 unique charges reported were heroin (N=2203, 21.9%), crack/cocaine (N=945, 16.8%), buprenorphine (N=812, 8.1%), and oxycodone (N=747, 7.4%). While the overall number of arrests reported to the DAP declined in 2017, the proportion of arrests involving opioids (heroin, buprenorphine, or fentanyl) and stimulants (cocaine/crack cocaine, or methamphetamine), increased (p<.05). Women had significantly increased involvement in arrests involving sedatives and miscellaneous pharmaceuticals (e.g. gabapentin) while men had an elevation in stimulant arrests. Heroin accounted for a lower percentage of arrests among individuals age >60 (6.6%) relative to young-adults (18-29, 22.3%, p<.0001). Older-adults had significantly more arrests than younger-adults for oxycodone, hydrocodone, and marijuana. CONCLUSION: Heroin had the most arrests from 2014 to 2017. Buprenorphine, fentanyl and crack/cocaine arrests increased appreciably suggesting that improved treatment is needed to prevent further nonmedical use and overdoses. The Diversion Alert Program provided a unique data source for research, a harm-reduction tool for health care providers, and an informational resource for law enforcement.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Buprenorfina , Cocaína , Feminino , Fentanila , Redução do Dano , Heroína , Humanos , Hidrocodona , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Maine/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxicodona , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(8): 1433-1436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366880

RESUMO

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays critical roles in the development of cocaine addiction. Numerous studies have reported about the effects of cocaine on neuronal and synaptic activities in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area, which are brain regions associated with cocaine addiction; however, a limited number of studies have reported the effect of cocaine on mPFC neuronal activity. In this study, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices, we present that under the condition where synaptic transmission is enhanced by increasing extracellular K+ concentration, cocaine significantly reduced the frequency but not amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. These findings suggest that cocaine exposure could be a trigger to induce hypofrontality, which is related to the compulsive craving for cocaine use.


Assuntos
Cocaína/farmacologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(7)2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352378

RESUMO

A 45-year-old man, a regular cocaine user, presented with confusion and unusual behaviour to the emergency room. On examination he was unable to perform simple tasks or follow commands. He was treated for possible central nervous system infection. MRI of the brain showed multiple bilateral T2 hyperintense periventricular and deep white matter foci, best appreciated on FLAIR with contrast enhancement. He continued deteriorating, eventually becoming catatonic with extensor posturing and increased tone, requiring intensive therapy unit management. Repeat MRIs were also noted to show worsening changes. He was treated for a presumed inflammatory leucoencephalopathy with intravenous methylprednisolone, immunoglobulins, as well as plasmapheresis. After 2 weeks, the patient started to show clinical improvement with eventual transfer to a rehabilitation hospital. A year after his first presentation, the patient scored 30 out of 30 on the MMSE and his neurological examination was normal.


Assuntos
Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Confusão/induzido quimicamente , Leucoencefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Confusão/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Leucoencefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Leucoencefalopatias/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmaferese , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124284, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310985

RESUMO

This study has as main objective assessing the toxicity of crack-cocaine combined with different scenarios of ocean acidification on fertilization rate and embryo-larval development of Echinometra lucunter sea urchin. Effects on early life stages were assessed at five different concentrations (6,25 mg.L-1; 12,5 mg.L-1; 25 mg.L-1; 50 mg.L-1 and 100 mg.L-1) of crack-cocaine at four different pH values (8.5; 8.0; 7.5; 7.0). The pH values were achieved using two different methodologies: adding hydrochloric acid (HCl) and injecting carbon dioxide (CO2). The fertilization test did not show significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) compared with control sample at pH values 8.5; 8.0 and 7.5. Results of embryo-larval assays showed a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of crack-cocaine at pH values tested (8.5, 8.0, 7.5) as 58.83, 10.67 and 11.58 mg/L-1 for HCl acidification and 58.83, 23.28 and 12.57 mg/L-1 for CO2 enrichment. At pH 7.0 the effects observed in fertilization rate and embryo development were associated with the acidification. This study is the first ecotoxicological assessment of illicit drug toxicity in aquatic ecosystems at different ocean acidification scenarios.


Assuntos
Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouriços-do-Mar/embriologia , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Oceanos e Mares
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 141-148, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271983

RESUMO

Illicit drugs and their metabolites have been identified as emerging aquatic pollutants. Cocaine (COC) is one of the most used illicit drug worldwide. After human consumption, COC enters the aquatic ecosystems, where it is commonly detected in ng L-1 concentration range. Although a number of studies have shown that the exposure to environmental concentrations of COC can induce diverse biochemical, molecular and histological effects on aquatic organisms, the information of COC-induced behavioral alterations is scant. Thus, the present study aimed at exploring both biochemical and behavioral effects induced by the exposure to two environmental concentrations (50 ng L-1 and 500 ng L-1) of COC on the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. Specimens were exposed to selected COC concentrations for 21 days and the effects on the oxidative status, including the amount of reactive oxygen species and the activity of antioxidant (SOD, CAT and GPx) and detoxifying (GST) enzymes, and swimming activity were investigated after 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment, while effects on reproductive success was assessed after 21-days only.. Exposure to COC induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species and a modulation of the activity of defense enzymes. Moreover, COC affected the swimming behavior and altered the reproductive success of treated specimens. Our results highlighted that environmental concentrations of COC can cause adverse effects at different levels of the biological hierarchy in a zooplanktonic species, confirming the potential threat due to this illicit drug for the aquatic community.


Assuntos
Cocaína/toxicidade , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Daphnia/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2451-2471, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we reviewed translational studies concerned with environmental influences on the rewarding effects of heroin versus cocaine in rats and humans with substance use disorder. These studies show that both experienced utility ('liking') and decision utility ('wanting') of heroin and cocaine shift in opposite directions as a function of the setting in which these drugs were used. Briefly, rats and humans prefer using heroin at home but cocaine outside the home. These findings appear to challenge prevailing theories of drug reward, which focus on the notion of shared substrate of action for drug of abuse, and in particular on their shared ability to facilitate dopaminergic transmission. AIMS: Thus, in the second part of the paper, we verified whether our findings could be accounted for by available computational models of reward. To account for our findings, a model must include a component that could mediate the substance-specific influence of setting on drug reward RESULTS: It appears of the extant models that none is fully compatible with the results of our studies. CONCLUSIONS: We hope that this paper will serve as stimulus to design computational models more attuned to the complex mechanisms responsible for the rewarding effects of drugs in real-world contexts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Heroína/administração & dosagem , Modelos Psicológicos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/fisiologia , Neurociências , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1603: 61-66, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262514

RESUMO

A simple procedure based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) has been proposed for the extraction of dichloropane in oral fluids and its determination by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Extraction conditions such as type of sorbent (octyl and octadecyl silica), sample pH, number of sample loadings, and elution volume were evaluated to obtain the most appropriate values. Dichloropane was extracted from saliva samples using C8 MEPS, loading with 100 µL sample (adjusted to pH 7) in 4 cycles, washing with 100 µL deionized water, and eluting with 50 µL 2-propanol in 10 cycles. The proposed MEPS procedure has been validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, and precision. A limit of detection of 30 µg L-1 was obtained for dichloropane determination in saliva. The analysis of field and synthetic saliva samples spiked with dichloropane at concentration levels from 250 to 750 µg L-1 provided relative recoveries between 85 and 110%, using the proposed MEPS-IMS procedure. Field oral fluid samples were collected from healthy individuals, blind-spiked from 92 to 278 µg L-1, and analysed by IMS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, being the results obtained from both methods statistically comparable. Thus, the proposed MEPS-IMS procedure involves a simple, sensitive, and accurate analysis of dichloropane in saliva.


Assuntos
Cocaína/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Saliva/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Cocaína/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção
20.
Neuron ; 103(1): 1-3, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271753

RESUMO

The infralimbic prefrontal cortex serves complex roles in controlling drug-seeking behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Cameron et al. (2019) provide new insights into engagement and function of the infralimbic cortex â†’ nucleus accumbens corticostriatal pathway in the incubation of cocaine craving.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína , Cocaína , Comportamento de Procura de Droga , Animais , Fissura , Motivação , Neurônios , Núcleo Accumbens , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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