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1.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3459-3468, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659452

RESUMO

Bovine besnoitiosis (Besnoitia besnoiti) is an emerging parasitic disease of cattle in Europe. This study reports a case of bovine besnoitiosis in a dairy farm housing 217 cattle in Italy. A serological screening was performed on the whole herd using the recommended approach of ELISA and confirmatory Western Blot. Seropositive animals were clinically examined to reveal symptoms and lesions of besnoitiosis. Risk factors and the effects of the parasite infection on reproductive and productive performances were evaluated. Histopathology and molecular analyses on tissues from a slaughtered cow affected by the chronic phase of the disease were carried out. An overall seroprevalence of 23.5%, which increased up to 43.5% considering only cows, was recorded. Clinical examination of 33 of the seropositive cows evidenced the presence of tissue cysts in at least one of the typical localizations (sclera, vulva, or skin) in 25 animals. Statistical analysis did not evidence any significative impact of the parasite infection on herd efficiency; however, a decrease of productive parameters was recorded in cows showing cutaneous cysts. Concerning the chronically affected cow, histopathology revealed B. besnoiti tissue cysts in the skin of the neck, rump, hind legs, eyelid and vulva, in the muzzle, in mucosal membranes of the upper respiratory tract, and in the lungs. Parasite DNA was detected also in masseter muscles, tonsils, mediastinal lymph nodes, liver, cardiac muscle, aorta wall, ovaries, uterus, and vulva. Bovine besnoitiosis continues to spread in the Italian cattle population. Breeders and veterinarians should be aware of this parasitic disease, and control programs should be developed based on surveillance through a diagnostic procedure including both clinical examination and laboratory tests.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Reprodução , Sistema Respiratório/parasitologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Sarcocystidae/genética , Sarcocystidae/imunologia , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystidae/fisiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Útero/parasitologia , Útero/patologia
2.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 267-273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599543

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains a serious concern of great economic impact on domestic animals including rabbits. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, species diversity, and associated risk factors of rabbit coccidiosis in Ilorin, Kwara State Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined using the floatation technique (positive samples were sporulated for identification of the different Eimeria species). 169 out of 215 (78.6%,) rabbits were found to be infected with Eimeria species. A total of seven Eimeria species (Eimeria coecicola, Eimeria irresidua, Eimeria perforans, Eimeria magna, Eimeria intestinalis, Eimeria stiedai and Eimeria flavescens) were identified. Of these, Eimeria coecicola was the most prevalent (48/215; 22.3%), while E. flavescens (8/215; 3.7%) was the least prevalent. Weaners (80.0%) were more infected than bunnies (79.1%) and adult (77.5%). Females had a higher infection rate (79.4%) than males (77.4%). Californian breed were more infected (84.9%) compared to Chinchila (83.7%), Dutch breed (80.9%), and New Zealand White (63.6%). Rabbits kept in the deep litter housing system had higher prevalence rate (95.2%) compared to those raised in the battery cage system (71.9%). Coccidiosis was more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season. This study concludes that Eimeria infections of rabbit is endemic in Ilorin, Kwara State with breeds and housing type been significant risk factors associated with the infection. This study provides the baseline information as the first report on the different Eimeria species affecting rabbits in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Coelhos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 816-820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618304

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are Apicomplexan intracellular protozoan parasites that affect numerous animal species, thus leading to severe diseases and economic losses, depending on the vertebrate species involved. The role of the avian species in maintaining and transmission of these coccidia has been studied for several years as they tend to serve as a potential source of infection for mammals and humans. The present study aimed to assess the serological exposure of Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) to T. gondii and N. caninum. Between 2010 and 2013, 41 free-ranging Orinoco geese were captured in the Araguaia River, Brazil. The presence and titration of IgY antibodies to both coccidia were assayed via indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). While IgY antibodies for N. caninum were present in 5 animals, with titers of 20, the antibodies for T. gondii were found in 35 animals, with titers ranging from 20 to 640. Considering that the Orinoco goose's meat is consumed by the local population in the studied area, it may represent an important source of T. gondii infection for humans. Due to its migratory behavior, this goose may play a pivotal role in the natural dispersion of both parasites. Furthermore, molecular studies are required for genotyping the isolates of T. gondii that occurs in this avian species.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Gansos/parasitologia , Neospora/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
4.
Parasitol Int ; 73: 101975, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421267

RESUMO

This work reports the occurrence of coccidia of the genus Calyptospora in fishes from the eastern Amazon. Fish were collected on flood plains in the municipality of Macapá, State of Amapá, Brazil. Fresh squash preparations of liver, heart and gallbladder were examined under light microscope. Positive samples of Geophagus proximus and Hoplias malabaricus were used to detect parasites by PCR with Calyptospora-specific primers mRF and mrR, which amplify a region of the 18S rRNA gene. Oocysts were observed in 55% of 130 fishes examined. Parasite prevalence varied according to feeding habits, and was 100% in carnivores, 74% in omnivores (invertivores and detritivores) and 0% in herbivores. Variation in the frequency of parasitized organs showed 100% in the liver, 30% in the gallbladder, and 9% in the heart. The sequences obtained from G. proximus and H. malabaricus were identical and showed 99% similarity to Calyptospora serrasalmi. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of Calyptospora in 10 new species of fish from the region of the eastern Brazilian Amazon. The results demonstrate the occurrence of C. serrasalmi in the region and the research provides new primers for the diagnosis of Calyptospora spp.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , Animais , Brasil , Caraciformes , Ciclídeos , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Dieta , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 383-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390432

RESUMO

This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 403-409, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390435

RESUMO

To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
7.
Vet Ital ; 55(2): 183-187, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274182

RESUMO

The cuniculture has become an important source of animal protein in many countries. The coccidiosis is the most common parasitic disease of the rabbits and is responsible for severe economic losses for breeders. Rabbit coccidiosis is caused by 11 species of the genus Eimeria, which vary considerably in terms of their morphology and pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence of Eimeria spp in backyard farms from Mexico during annual seasons. Cross-sectional sampling was performed in young rabbits (20 to 60 days of age) with diarrhea history, from three municipalities located in the south-east region from the State of Mexico. Flotation and Mc Master techniques were performed; oocysts were sporulated and measured for morphometric identification. The highest prevalence of Eimeria was found in autumn (75%) in Temamatla and winter (88%) in Amecameca, being the lower prevalence in spring (5%) in Temamatla. In terms of their pathogenicity  E. itestinalis was the more pathogen found in this study, being the annual prevalence of 11.3%. It is important to continue with studies of prevalence in other regions of the State of Mexico, in order to understand the pattern of presentation and distribution of the Eimeria spp infection.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
8.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105044, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173736

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan infecting many domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the brain tissues of wild birds collected in Hunan province of China were examined by N. caninum specific nested PCR, targeting the Nc-5 gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The prevalence of N. caninum was detected in 15.5% (37/239) of wild birds, including 20.5% (9/44) of the examined olive-backed pipit Anthus hodgsoni, 18.3% (24/131) of the examined tree sparrows Passer montanus, 7.9% (3/38) of the examined chestnut bunting Emberiza rutila and 3.8% (1/26) of the examined yellow-breasted bunting E. aureola. Phylogenetic analyses showed that N. caninum from different hosts and geographical origins are genetically diverse and can be further classified into two distinct groups. Our findings indicated that wild birds are potential source of N. caninum for other animals. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum infection in wild birds in China, which provides a foundation for the prevention and control of this parasite in China and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/genética , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
9.
Parasite ; 26: 36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198175

RESUMO

Currently, information on the occurrence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in tissues of rabbits in China is lacking. In this study, brain and heart samples from 470 slaughtered domestic rabbits were collected in Henan Province, Central China. The occurrence rate of T. gondii and N. caninum DNA detected by nested PCR was 2.8% and 2.1%, respectively. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the frequency of the two parasite infections in relation to sex, breed, and region. Three out of 13 T. gondii-positive samples were completely or partially genotyped at 11 genetic markers using PCR-RFLP, and one was identified as ToxoDB genotype #9. For N. caninum, three different sequences at the ITS1 region and two genotypes at the MS5 microsatellite locus were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic characterization of N. caninum isolates from rabbits.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Carne/parasitologia , Neospora/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Coração/parasitologia , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Coelhos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
10.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2257-2262, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177405

RESUMO

The New England cottontail rabbit (NEC, Sylvilagus transitionalis) population has decreased dramatically in New York, USA, and the role of parasites in limiting the population has never been examined. The closely related and sympatric eastern cottontail rabbit (EC, Sylvilagus floridanus) was introduced into the range of NEC by humans and is currently thriving. This study aimed to investigate gastrointestinal parasites of the NEC and the EC and compare their parasite communities. Fecal pellets from 195 NEC and 125 EC were collected from the Hudson Valley, New York, in the winter of 2013-2014. Centrifugal fecal floats were performed in Sheather's sugar solution, and parasite ova and cysts were examined microscopically to identify gastrointestinal parasites present. For all pellets combined (n = 320), 91% were found to harbor at least 1 parasite species, with Eimeria species being the most common. Genetic analysis of pellets using microsatellite DNA identified 248 individual rabbits, with parasite prevalence (94%) similar to the prevalence estimate based on all pellets (91%). EC samples had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) parasite species richness (1.73, range 0-4) than NEC (1.20, range 0-3). EC and NEC shared 3 moderate to high (9-89%) prevalence parasites, in which EC prevalence was consistently higher. One parasite species was only found in NEC, and two were only found in EC, but the majority of these were of low abundance, precluding further statistical analyses.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Parasitos/classificação , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Meio Ambiente , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , New York/epidemiologia , Óvulo , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Dinâmica Populacional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Simpatria
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 194, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining the infectious cause of abortion in cattle is difficult. This case-control study was set up to investigate the infectious causes of abortion by determining the seroprevalence of three reproductive pathogens in dairy cattle in Ecuador and their association with abortion: Brucella abortus, Neospora caninum and Coxiella burnetii. RESULTS: Ninety-five blood samples were obtained from cows that had experienced a mid- or late gestation abortion of their first calf and seventy-seven samples from a control group of cows with the same age that did not experience abortion problems. No antibodies were detected for B. abortus in any of the serum samples, but a high seroprevalence for both C. burnetii (52.9%) and N. caninum infection (21.5%) was found in group of cows. The seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in cattle that had experienced abortions was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the seroprevalence in the control cows on one of the cattle farms, but no association between abortion and seropositivity for C. burnetii was found. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Neosporosis plays an important role in the epidemiology of abortion on one cattle farm, but that Q fever is apparently not an important cause for abortion in this setting.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neospora/imunologia , Gravidez , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 294, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. In the last few years, the interest in vector-borne pathogens in cats has increased. However, studies on feline vector-borne pathogens on tropical islands are lacking. Islands differ from continental countries because they have an enclosed population of animals, with all year presence of the vectors and, most often, without vector control measures. This study focused on the molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of vector-borne pathogens in autochthonous cats with a mixed indoor-outdoor lifestyle from Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 80 asymptomatic cats, representing almost a quarter of the total cat population of the island. The presence of DNA of protozoa of the genus Hepatozoon and bacteria belonging to family Anaplasmataceae and to genus Bartonella was assessed by PCR and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with infection. For feline hepatozoonosis, a worldwide dataset of Hepatozoon felis sequences retrieved from mammal species and vectors along with Hepatozoon spp. sequences retrieved from felids was generated, phylogenetically analyzed and the geographical and host distribution was assessed. RESULTS: Hepatozoon felis genotype I was identified in 12 (15%) cats from Maio Island whereas none of the cats were PCR positive for the other pathogens tested. No significant association of H. felis infection with age, sex, location or presence of vectors was observed by statistical analysis in Cape Verde's cats. Phylogenetic analysis on the worldwide dataset of feline Hepatozoon sequences showed two significant distinct clades for H. felis genotype I and II. Different geographical distributions were assessed: H. felis genotype I was the only genotype found in Africa and has been reported worldwide, with the exception of Japan and Brazil where only H. felis genotype II has been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of H. felis genotype I in cats in Maio Island highlights the need to further investigate the significance of H. felis genotypes and to clarify the epidemiological aspects of this infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/genética , Genótipo , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Bartonella/genética , Cabo Verde/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Eucoccidiida/patogenicidade , Ilhas , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Clima Tropical
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 215-220, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215607

RESUMO

Our objective was to identify the direct and indirect presence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle and their aborted fetuses from Lima, Peru. A total 219 blood samples obtained from dairy cattle with records of spontaneous abortion were collected to detect antibodies against N. caninum in serum with indirect ELISA and search for risk-factor associations. 68 fetal aborted tissue samples of these cows were analyzed by PCR, indirect ELISA and histopathology assay to detect N. caninum presence. The prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Univariate analysis was performed using the chi-squared test. Among the 68 aborted fetuses collected, 10 (15%) were positive in at least two diagnostic tests. Among 219 serum samples, 46.6% (95% CI: 40.0%-53.3%) were positive. Cows with 4 years or older (PR: 7.10; 95% CI: 4.89-10.67) and multiparous (PR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.11-2.80) were found to be more likely to possess N. caninum antibodies. This study detects presence of N. caninum in dairy cattle and their aborted fetus from Lima valley, suggesting biosecurity management improve to neosporosis control.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/complicações , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Neospora/genética , Neospora/imunologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 245-257, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215610

RESUMO

This is a cross-sectional study to assess the presence of antibodies in ruminants against selected pathogens associated with reproductive disorders in cattle in four Brazilian states, including the zoonotic agent Coxiella burnetii. The used tests were Virus Neutralization Assay for IBR and BVD, Microscopic Agglutination Test for Leptospira spp., Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) for C. burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma vivax. Seropositivity for C. burnetii was 13.7% with titers from 128 to 131,072; 57.8% for BoHV-1, with titers between 2 and 1,024; 47.1% for BVDV-1a, with titers from 10 to 5,120; 89.2% for N. caninum; 50% for T. vivax; and 52.0% for Leptospira spp., with titers between 100 to 800 (the following serovars were found: Tarassovi, Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Copenhageni, Wolffi, Hardjo, Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae); 19.6% for T. gondii with titer of 40. This is the first study that has identified C. burnetii in cattle associated with BoHV and BVDV, N. caninum, Leptospira spp., T. gondii and T. vivax. Thus, future studies should be conducted to investigate how widespread this pathogen is in Brazilian cattle herds.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/complicações , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Leptospirose/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Aborto Animal , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/diagnóstico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coccidiose/complicações , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Endometrite/etiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Febre Q/complicações , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Trypanosoma vivax/imunologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia
15.
Infez Med ; 27(2): 168-174, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205040

RESUMO

Opportunistic parasites are still important agents causing morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particularly those living with HIV/AIDS. Few studies in Mexico have attempted to determine the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites causing diarrhea in immunocompromised patients. A study was conducted to determine the intestinal parasites in HIV-positive and HIV-negative immunocompromised patients with diarrhea admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Monterrey, Mexico, from 2014 to 2015. Stool samples were examined for trophozoites, cysts, and eggs using the EGRoPe sedimentation-concentration technique and special techniques (modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, modified trichrome stain). A total of 56 patients were included. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitism was 64% (36/56); 22/36 patients were HIV-positive. Prevalence of opportunistic parasites was 69% in HIV-infected patients compared to 44% in HIV-negative patients (P = 0.06). Microsporidia were the most frequently identified parasites (24/36, 67%), followed by Cryptosporidium sp. (6/36, 17%), Sarcocystis sp. (4/36, 11%), Cystoisospora belli (3/36, 8%), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (1/36, 3%). Overall prevalence rates of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis were 43% and 11%, respectively. Among HIV-infected patients, prevalence rates of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis were 48% and 14%, respectively. We also report the first cases of intestinal sarcocystosis in Mexico, all in HIV-infected patients. In conclusion, microsporidia and coccidia are major parasitic agents causing diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, particularly HIV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , México , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas/parasitologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(7): 1783-1800, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228088

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is one of the main infectious agents that cause reproductive disorders in cattle. However, knowledge about the prevalence and causal factors of bovine neosporosis is needed in order to establish control measures. The purpose of this study was to estimate the pooled prevalence and determine the risk factors of bovine neosporosis using meta-analytic methods. Searches for data on N. caninum seroprevalence and potential risk factors were conducted in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciElo databases. The random effects model was used for the meta-analysis of the included studies. The pooled prevalence of N. caninum in cattle was 24% (95% confidence interval (CI), 19-29) in North and Central America, 24% (95% CI, 20-28) in South America, 18% (95% CI, 14-21) in Asia, 15% (95% CI, 12-18) in Europe, 13% (95% CI, 11-16) in Africa, and 8% (95% CI, 4-14) in Oceania. A significant correlation was found between N. caninum infection and abortion in cows (odds ratio (OR) = 2.66, 95% CI, 1.97-3.59). The following risk factors were signicantly associated with N. caninum seroprevalence: presence of dogs on the farm (OR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.40-5.80) and the type of cattle production system, with dairy cattle being more susceptible to bovine neosporosis (OR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.16-2.19) than beef cattle. The adoption of measures to prevent the dissemination of N. caninum in cattle herds is suggested, aiming to reduce the economic losses incurred to the dairy and beef industry.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
J Parasitol ; 105(3): 395-400, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059381

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is a common disease of camels, and camels are important for the economy of Asia and the Arabian Peninsula. Little is known regarding the prevalence of coccidian parasites in camels in Egypt. Fecal samples collected from the rectums of 200 camels at the Cairo slaughterhouse were processed using the sucrose flotation technique. Eimeria species oocysts were found in 38%. Three Eimeria species were identified: Eimeria cameli-like in 31%, Eimeria rajasthani in 18%, and Eimeria dromedarii in 14%. The morphology of E. rajasthani and E. dromedarii oocysts was identical to that in literature. However, there was great variability in size and structure among E. cameli oocysts; oocysts were 70-100 µm long and truncate to ovoid. Four morphotypes (types 1 to 4) were recognized. Types 1 and 2 oocysts had similar truncate ovoid shape and were dark brown, but their shape indices were different. Both types could be easily distinguished from type 3 (elongate ovoid and light brown). All oocysts were enclosed in a transparent outer covering (capsule), although this capsule was barely seen in types 3 and 4. An extension from the capsule situated in front of the micropyle, referred to as polar cap-like structure (PCL), was characteristic for types 1 and 2. The PCL of type 1 resembled the crown, while in type 2 it looked like a small thickening with a smooth top. The PCL was absent in types 3 and 4 oocysts. The latter was found only in a single oocyst. Experimental infections with E. cameli oocysts and molecular studies are needed to determine whether the monotypes described here are different species or strain variations or both.


Assuntos
Camelus/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/ultraestrutura , Fezes/parasitologia , Oocistos/ultraestrutura , Prevalência
18.
Parasite ; 26: 32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145075

RESUMO

Although Neospora caninum is an important veterinary pathogen, veterinarians in various areas including in Mainland China lack a full understanding of neosporosis distribution in dog populations. This study aims to determine the emergence of anti-N. caninum antibodies in canine populations classified based on breeders, herdsmen, and huntsmen in northeast mainland China. In addition, the risk factors associated with seropositivity were explored. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was performed on canine serum to determine seroprevalence. Logistic regression models were used to collect and analyze individual and management data, in order to determine high-reliability predictors of seroprevalence as well as the level of anti-N. caninum antibodies. Among the 476 dogs tested, 95 (20%) were seropositive. Mixed breed (OR 1.53), former strays (OR 1.38), dogs living on cattle farms (OR 2.30), hunting dogs (OR 1.22) as well as raw meat feeding (OR 1.66) were correlated (p < 0.05) with N. caninum infection. Interestingly, the seropositivity of dogs on cattle farms was higher (28%) than that of those (24.8%) living in breeding facilities (p < 0.05). A large number of seropositive dogs were found on cattle farms in the study region, suggesting horizontal transmission between dogs and cattle. Therefore, this source of infection should be studied further, and should be a strong consideration in differential diagnoses of dogs raised on cattle farms.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Fazendas , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(4): 929-934, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078466

RESUMO

We determined the prevalence of infection and genetic identity of Hepatozoon spp. harbored by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks in Taiwan. A total of 1082 ticks were collected from dogs and DNA extraction was performed from individual tick specimens. Hepatozoon infection was detected by performing a nested-PCR assay based on the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene. The genetic identity of detected Hepatozoon was identified by gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Hepatozoon infection was detected in nymphs, males and females of R. sanguineus s. l. ticks with an infection rate of 20.8%, 22.8% and 29.4%, respectively. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Hepatozoon spp. of Taiwan were genetically affiliated to the same clade within the genospecies of H. canis and can be discriminated from other genospecies of H. americanum and H. felis. Intraspecies analysis based on the genetic distance (GD) values indicates a lower level (GD < 0.005) genetic divergence within the same genospecies of H. canis detected in Taiwan, Brazil and Spain. Interspecies analysis also reveals a higher heterogeneity of Taiwan strains distinguished from other genospecies of H. felis (GD > 0.040) and H. americanum (GD > 0.056). This study provides the first molecular evidence of H. canis detected and identified in various stages of R. sanguineus s. l. ticks in Taiwan. Detection of H. canis in unfed male ticks may imply the possible mechanism of transstadial survival in R. sanguineus s. l. ticks. Further investigations on Hepatozoon spp. harbored by various vector ticks in Taiwan may illustrate the epidemiological significance of this parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/genética , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/parasitologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Masculino , Ninfa/parasitologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(6): 1226-1227, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107232

RESUMO

Low antibody titers to Neospora caninum have been reported in humans, but infection has not been confirmed. We used N. caninum-specific PCR to test 600 clinical samples from patients with toxoplasmosis signs but Toxoplasma gondii-negative PCR results. We did not detect N. caninum DNA, demonstrating it is an unlikely opportunistic zoonotic agent.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário , Neospora/genética , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Espanha/epidemiologia
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