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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e017520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533795

RESUMO

We investigated the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in pigs raised in the Northeast of Pará, Brazil. At Study I, convenience sampled 151 pigs at two slaughterhouses, with and without state inspection; and Study II, which assessed 159 pigs with probabilistic sampling from nine pig farms. Serological analysis was performed using indirect fluorescent antibody test for T. gondii and N. caninum with a cutoff of 64 and 50, respectively. Overall, 6.77% pigs were seropositive for T. gondii and 5.16% for N. caninum. In Study I, pigs slaughtered with and without state inspection presented similar occurrence for both coccidia (p>0.05). Study II found an association between N. caninum seropositivity and sludge discarded into the soil, feeding pigs with animal-based protein, subsistence system, and absence of nipple drinkers. No association was found for T. gondii. Pigs from Pará are a potential source of T. gondii infection to humans. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to report anti-N. caninum antibodies in the serum of pigs in Pará State, Brazilian Amazon.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Neospora , Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e020820, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533797

RESUMO

Livestock in the Amazon has grown significantly and, although neosporosis in cattle has been reported worldwide, there is no information about N. caninum in production systems in the state of Amazonas. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle, their spatial distribution and the risk factors associated with N. caninum infection in the state of Amazonas. Questionnaires were applied to farmers to assess risk factors associated with N. caninum infection. Blood samples were collected from 1,073 animals on 47 farms in 33 municipalities in the four Amazonian subpopulations. IgG anti-N.caninum antibodies were detected by the indirect fluorescence test, with a general prevalence of 30.2%, being seropositive in 43 farms (91.5%), with prevalence ranging from 2.2% to 69.2%. The highest number of high density points was found in subpopulation 3 (municipality of Apuí and other municipalities on the Madeira River and affluent). It was concluded that N. caninum is present with high seroprevalence values, when compared to other cattle producing states in the Amazon region of Brazil. The identified factors can be used as risk indicators so that control measures can be implemented to prevent infection by N. caninum in these herds.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e023020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605388

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is considered to be one of the main causes of abortion among cattle. The present survey was conducted in the municipality of Rolim de Moura, Rondônia State, Brazil. A questionnaire that investigates the epidemiological aspects of neosporosis was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with the animal-level and herd-level prevalence in dairy cattle. A total of 416 bovine blood samples were collected from 30 farms, and N. caninum antibody levels were measured by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). Analysis of dairy cattle serum samples revealed the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies to be 47.36% (n = 197). Risk factors associated with N. caninum infection were the management system and access locations of dogs. The results of the present survey indicated that infection of dairy cattle with N. caninum is widespread in the studied region of Western Amazon, which has implications for prevention and control of neosporosis in this region. Therefore, integrated control strategies and measures are recommended to prevent and control N. caninum infection in dairy cattle. In addition, direct contact between dairy cattle, dogs and wild animals, which can influence the epidemiology of neosporosis, should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/transmissão , Coccidiose/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Neospora/imunologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e028520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605391

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify members of the Sarcocystidae family in naturally infected wild birds at a rescue center in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The heart and brain of 44 wild birds were evaluated by bioassay in mice to detect T. gondii, and extracted DNA was used for nested PCR of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene to detect members of the Sarcocystidae family. The positive samples were sequenced, assembled, edited and compared with sequences deposited in GenBank. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from six (13.6%) out of 44 birds. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was identified in 10/44 (22.7%) of the birds. The amplified sequences exhibited 100% similarity with the DNA of the ME49 strain of T. gondii. Sarcocystis DNA (99% similarity) was identified in 5/44 (11.4%) of the birds. T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. are common in wild birds in Minas Gerais, Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Coccidiose , Sarcocystidae , Animais , Bioensaio , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves , Brasil , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Sarcocystidae/genética , Sarcocystis/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
5.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 373-384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128863

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is the most economically impactful enteric protozoan disease of animals including cattle. A year (March 2018 to February 2019) study was conducted on cattle in Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria with the objective of determining the prevalence, intensity of infection, diversity of Eimeria species, co-infection patterns and risk factors associated with the enteric protozoan infection in cattle. To address this, faecal samples from 478 cattle of different age groups, breeds and sex were subjected to the floatation technique, the McMaster counting technique and sporulation procedure. One hundred and eighty-six (38.91%) of the sampled cattle were positive, and 8 different species were identified (Eimeria bovis, E. zuernii, E. auburnensis, E. cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. canadensis, E. bukidnonensis and E. alabamensis) with E. bovis (25.94%) and E. zuernii (23.43%) been the most prevalent. Eimeria oocysts were detected all through the year. The intensity of Eimeria species among infected cattle ranged between 200-12900 oocyst per gram of faeces. Following univariate analysis, breed, age, sex, physiological status, faecal consistency and PCV were significantly (p<0.05) associated with Eimeria infection. Multivariate analysis revealed that breed, age and physiological status were the significant risk factors associated with eimeriosis. The present study constitutes the first attempt to analyse the prevalence, intensity, diversity and epidemiological risk factors involved in bovine eimeriosis in North-Central Nigeria. It is envisaged that the data obtained will facilitate better control and prevention measures for Eimeria infection among cattle in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Fezes , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027425

RESUMO

Dogs are hosts of the protozoans Toxoplasma gondii, which causes an important public health disease, and Neospora caninum. Studies that have evaluated toxoplasmosis and neosporosis for prolonged periods in dog populations are rare. We analyzed infection by both parasites in a domestic dog population over three consecutive years in São Paulo state, Brazil. In the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years of collection, 181, 193 and 172 domiciles were visited, and blood samples of 331, 371 and 348 dogs were collected for antibody serology, respectively. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in each year was 27.2%, 22.5% and 43.9%, respectively, and that of N. caninum was 7.8%, 4.8% and 6.8%, respectively. The incidence rates for T. gondii in the 2nd and 3rd collections were 13.2% and 30.0%, and those for N. caninum were 3.3% and 4.4%, respectively. Positive and negative serological conversions for both agents occurred at high frequencies during the study period. This study reveals the canine population's serological profile and demonstrates the constant exposure of dogs to the investigated pathogens, indicating the need for prevention and control measures in the region.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Doenças do Cão , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/sangue , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Incidência , População Rural , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
7.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 41, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Similar to the situation in other European countries, Danish wild boars may harbour a wide range of pathogens infectious to humans and domestic pigs. Although wild boars must be kept behind fences in Denmark, hunting and consumption of the meat may cause zoonotic transmission. Moreover, most infections of wild boars are transmissible to domestic pigs, which may have important economic consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Danish wild boars were infected with bacteria and parasites transmissible to humans or domestic pigs: Brucella suis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., lungworms and gastrointestinal parasites, especially Ascaris suum. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these important pathogens in Danish wild boars. RESULTS: Wild boars from eight enclosures were analysed over a 5-year period. All tested wild boars were negative for B. suis (n = 240), MRSA (n = 244), Salmonella spp. (n = 115) and Trichinella spp. (n = 232), while eight parasite genera were identified in the faeces (n = 254): Ascaris suum, Capillaria sp., Cystoisospora suis, Eimeria spp., Metastrongylus sp. (lungworm), Strongyloides ransomi, Trichuris suis and strongylid eggs, i.e. strongyles not identified to the genera. Eimeria spp. and Metastrongylus sp. had the highest prevalence (92.3 and 79.5%, respectively) and were identified in wild boars from all eight enclosures, while the remaining parasite genera were present more sporadically. CONCLUSIONS: Wild boars from Denmark constitute a low risk of transmitting B. suis, MRSA, Salmonella spp. and Trichinella spp. to humans or domestic pigs, while economically important parasites transmissible to domestic pigs are highly prevalent in the wild boar population.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3469-3479, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827104

RESUMO

Amphibians are among the most threatened vertebrate groups in the world, and the main causes include climate change, habitat destruction, and emerging diseases. Herein, we investigated the occurrence and characterized molecularly Apicomplexa in anurans from southeastern Brazil. Forty individuals from seven anuran species were sampled in São Paulo state. In the molecular analyses, one Leptodactylus latrans and one Rhinella diptycha were positive in PCR assays for species of Hepatozoon. Two L. latrans were also positive for coccidian infections (Lankesterella sp. and an unidentified coccidian species). Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA clustered the sequences detected in anurans from the present study with Hepatozoon spp. detected in reptiles and other anurans from Brazil, albeit they were separate from Hepatozoon haplotypes detected in frogs from Africa and North America. Our study showed, for the first time, the molecular detection of Lankesterella sp. and another coccidian in L. latrans. Additionally, co-infection by different species of Hepatozoon haplotypes and an unidentified coccidian in anurans from Brazil was documented.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Apicomplexa/classificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520089

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 379 horses to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in Jordan using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Five variables, namely locality (n=10), climatic zone (n=4), age group (n=3), gender, and breed were tested as risk factors for Neospora-immunoglobulin (Ig)G seropositivity at four cutoff titers (1:50, 1:200, 1:400, and 1:800) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 122 (32%; 95% CI: 28, 37) sera samples had anti-Neospora-IgG at a cutoff titer of 1:50. Increased Neospora-IgG seropositivity was found in horses in three localities (Madaba, Zarka, and Petra) and was associated with the following variables: cool temperate climate; age >14 years; and female gender. Seropositivity was found among horses from Madaba at all cutoff titers, Zarka at titers >1:200, and Petra at titers <1:200. Cool temperate climate was associated with titers <1:400. Horses aged >14 years were found to be associated with seropositivity at titers ≥1:200. Female gender was associated with high seropositivity at >1:800.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2679-2686, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588173

RESUMO

Rodents and other micromammals constitute important reservoirs of infectious diseases; their role in the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. still needs clarification. In the present study, we analyzed by PCR and Sanger sequencing methods the presence of specific parasite DNA within brain and heart tissues of 313 individuals of five synanthropic small mammal species (Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus spretus, M. musculus, Rattus rattus, and Crocidura russula) collected in Barcelona metropolitan area (NE Spain). In addition, PCR-RFLP and microsatellites were also used as tools for genotypic characterization of T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. Specific DNA of T. gondii, N. caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. was detected in 0.3% (n = 1), 1.3% (n = 4), and 3.8% (n = 12) of the animals, respectively. No mixed infections were observed. Crocidura russula stood out as the main host for Sarcocystis spp. Toxoplasma gondii-specific DNA detected in a house rat was genetically characterized by PCR-RFLP, presenting type II and III alleles (SAG1 [II], SAG3 [II], GRA6 [II], c22-8 [III], Apico [III]). Also, unsuccessful DNA sequencing and microsatellite typing were attempted in N. caninum-positive samples, which suggested a lack of PCR specificity and open avenues to speculate the host competence of rodents for N. caninum. Likewise, Sarcocystis spp. identity was studied by alignment and phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and 28S rRNA sequences from the 14 positive samples. It resulted in at least three unknown organisms closely similar (95.7-100% cox1-sequence homology) to Sarcocystis pantherophisi from the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) (KU891603), suggesting together with 28S rRNA sequences analyses, three Sarcocystis sp. with a life cycle conformed by rodents as intermediate host (IH) and snakes as definitive hosts (DH) infecting the periurban micromammals surveyed. Prevalence figures found in this first survey carried out in Spain agree with other international studies focused on periurban areas. Further surveys should be conducted in farms and their surroundings in order to unravel the role of wild micromammals in the epidemiology of such protozoan parasites affecting our livestock, and therefore human population.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Sarcocystidae/genética , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Mamíferos/classificação , Encistamento de Parasitas , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Sarcocystidae/classificação , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 406-410, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579665

RESUMO

New World flying squirrels, Glaucomys spp., are nocturnal arboreal sciurid rodents that have been previously surveyed for coccidial parasites. To date, 4 species of Eimeria have been reported from 2 species of Glaucomys. Here we report 2 species of eimerians from southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) and the endemic Prince of Wales flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons). Oocysts of Eimeria dorneyi Levine and Ivens were found to be passing in the feces of 4 G. s. griseifrons from Alaska and a new species of Eimeria was present in feces from 6 G. volans from Arkansas. Oocysts of Eimeria hnidai n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, measure 23.7 × 13.7 µm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.7; a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent but polar granule(s) are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal-elongate and measure 11.8 × 4.9 µm, L/W 2.2; Stieda body is present but sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of small indistinct granules along the edge or in the center of the sporocyst. This is the first coccidian reported from G. volans from Arkansas as well as the initial coccidian (E. dorneyi) reported from G. s. griseifrons from Alaska. We also provide a summation of the coccidia known from North American flying squirrels.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sciuridae/parasitologia , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Arkansas/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia
12.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 312-315, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330280

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and incidence of Neospora caninum infection in dogs that are in close contact with dairy cattle and to identify possible risk factors associated with the infection in this population. Twenty-four dogs located in 8 different dairy farms of Aguascalientes, Mexico, were evaluated for a 6-mo period. Once a month a sample of serum and a sample of peripheral blood was collected. The serum was used to detect antibodies against N. caninum by means of the indirect immunofluorescence technique, and the blood was used to detect parasite's DNA. The association between seroprevalence and possible risk factors was estimated using logistic regression. The prevalence of anti-N. caninum antibodies was 54% in the first month, 62% in the last month, and the incidence was 8.69%. One farm had no positive cases. Antibody titers ranged from 1:50 to 1:800. Parasite DNA was not detected in any of the samples. Only the age (>6 yr) of the dogs was identified as a risk factor for infection by N. caninum (P ≤ 0.05).


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Neospora , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bovinos , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Incidência , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Neospora/genética , Neospora/imunologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
13.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(2): 263-283, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327035

RESUMO

Chelonians are increasingly challenged by anthropogenic threats and disease. This article summarizes recent literature and clinical experiences regarding 4 emerging infectious diseases in turtles and tortoises: ranaviruses, cryptosporidiosis, intranuclear coccodiosis of Testudines, and Emydomyces testavorans.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Répteis/microbiologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Onygenales/fisiologia , Ranavirus/fisiologia , Répteis/parasitologia , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e019119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236334

RESUMO

Serological screening of 199 serum samples from Dromedary camels-from different cities in Saudi Arabia-was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies against two cyst-forming coccidian parasites, namely Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 68 (34.2%) samples, while those against N. caninum were present in 33 (16.6%) samples. The highest seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was reported in samples from Taif (51.2%), while the lowest seroprevalence was reported in samples from Riyadh and Hofuf (15.1%). The highest seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies was reported in samples from Jizan (35.9%) while the lowest was reported in samples from Taif (2.4%). A total of 47 male and 21 female camels exhibited antibodies against T. gondii , while 19 male and 14 female camels showed antibodies against N. caninum . Concurrent detection of both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies was observed in 18 camels. It has been demonstrated that T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies are prevalent in camels from different cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Camelus/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
15.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 97­99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199000

RESUMO

This paper focuses on parasites of the genus Eimeria in rabbits kept in two backyard farms ­ from Poland (herd A) and Ukraine (herd B). The concentration McMaster technique and sporulation was applied to determine the level of infection, as well as to identify the species composition. The Eimeria sp. oocysts were present in all collected samples (prevalence = 100%), and four to nine coccidian species were identified in the herd A and B, respectively. Eimeria media was the most common species, and the presence of the most pathogenic E. intestinalis and E. flavescens was observed in both studied rabbitries. The results obtained suggest that coccidiosis may cause a serious risk for rabbits kept in backyard farms, therefore prevention guidelines in relation to the backyard breeding are crucial to be developed.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Coelhos/parasitologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(4): 494-496, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147622

RESUMO

Up to now, four coccidian species have been identified in Rallidae (Aves: Gruiformes): Eimeria mongolica, E. alakuli, E. paludosa and E. porphyrulae. Here, we described an Eimeria species, E. paludosa, from a common gallinule (Gallinula galeata) in Mexico. Oocysts were ovoid and wall pitted single-layered. A prominent micropyle was present, the oocyst residuum absent and the polar granule was present. On histological examination of tissues, endogenous stages (meronts, microgametocytes and macrogametocytes) were seen in the epithelial cells of the small intestine (upper and lower intestine). In addition to a new locality, this is the first description of E. paludosa from G. galeata and is the third description of a coccidian infecting Rallidae in the Americas.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , México/epidemiologia , Oocistos/citologia
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 176: 104913, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066027

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite with worldwide distribution, which primarily causes disease in dogs and cattle. It has been recognized as an important cause of epidemic and endemic abortion in cattle around the world. There is no study to demonstrate the country level picture of the disease in Iran and estimate the extent of the problem, quantitatively. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to systematically review the observational studies on bovine neosporosis in Iran and estimate an overall serologic prevalence of the infection in the cattle population. Search for all published reports on N. caninum in Iran was conducted from inception until September 2018. Major English (PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct) and Persian (IranDoc, SID, Iranmedex, and Magiran) electronic database sources were used for this study. After removing duplicated articles, 128 documents remained. Unrelated articles (89) were excluded after primary screening and 39 articles were evaluated for eligibility. Finally, 37 studies from 33 articles were recognized as eligible and were included in the present work. The author screened the studies and extracted the data twice, carefully. Based on the meta-analysis, the overall serologic prevalence of N. caninum in 10,967 cattle with 2619 positive ones was 23.6 % with 95 % CI: 19.8-27.9 %. The random effect model was used for meta-analysis because the Cochran Q value (795.10, df = 36, P < 0.001) and Higgins index (I2 = 95.47 %) showed statistically significant heterogeneity. In subgroup meta-analysis, abortion status of the animal and geographical location of the study showed significant association with serologic prevalence, while age and breed did not have significant associations. No publication bias was detected, and sensitivity analysis showed stability of the overall estimate after excluding any individual study. It could be concluded that N. caninum is widespread in cattle population in Iran and the time is right to implement national level educational and control programs for it.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/virologia , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1306-1310, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956072

RESUMO

The black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) is a forest bird species critically endangered of extinction. Enclosed aviary breeding is among the measures taken to protect the species. Complex factors can affect its reproduction success, including coccidiosis. In this article, corticosterone level (as a reliable biomarker of stress in birds) and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were determined in male black grouse kept in aviary breeding center before, during, and after the reproductive season (called tooting). The correlation between those parameters was also analyzed. The corticosterone level was measured with noninvasive method in fecal samples in an immunoassay. The prevalence of Eimeria spp. was determined by the qualitative (Fülleborn's flotation) and quantitative method (McMaster's method as modified by Raynaud). Results show the occurrence of 3 species of Eimeria spp. in males: Eimeria lyruri, Eimeria nadsoni, and Eimeria nonbrumpti. Infestation with E. lyruri was chronic in nature. A co-invasion of E. lyruri, E. nadsoni, and E. nonbrumpti was observed during (prevalence 60%) and after the tooting (prevalence 40%). The study showed no statistical changes in the oocysts per 1 g of feces (CORTl) and oocysts per 1 g of feces (OPG) in assays I-III and absence of correlation between CORTl and OPG. The results of this experiment do not support the hypothesis that chronic infestation with Eimeria spp. can induce chronic stress in grouse. But may suggest that males of black grouse are susceptible to infestation with other species of Eimeria spp. during mating season. The knowledge of the level of individual stress and parasitic infestation can be used to take protective actions for this bird species, especially to achieve higher survival rate and bird reproduction rate. Tangible effects will include an assessment of the relationship between individual susceptibility and chronic environmental stress caused by coccidia.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Eimeria/fisiologia , Galliformes , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Fezes/química , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reprodução , Estações do Ano
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 1093-1100, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938888

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to perform a phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. infecting Philodryas patagoniensis in Uruguay. Twenty-five road-killed specimens of P. patagoniensis from ten departments were obtained. Samples of blood and/or heart tissue were taken. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was carried out amplifying a specific target region of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. Eighteen out of twenty-five samples were positive to Hepatozoon spp., which gave an overall prevalence of 72%. Phylogenetic analyses with the obtained sequences were carried out to determine the relationship with closely related species found in the region. The results revealed that samples were split into two clades with a high bootstrap support. Clade I was formed with Hepatozoon spp. sequences obtained in this study from P. patagoniensis, Hepatozoon cuestensis from Crotalus durissus terrificus and Hepatozoon musa from Philodryas nattereri, and Hepatozoon spp. retrieved from Cerdocyon thous, Hemidactylus mabouia, and Phyllopezus pollicaris from Brazil, respectively. Clade II was grouped with Hepatozoon cevapii and Hepatozoon massardii, both species described for C. d. terrificus from Brazil. This is the first report of Hepatozoon spp. in snakes from Uruguay.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Colubridae/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Eucoccidiida/genética , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Uruguai/epidemiologia
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 7, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about parasitic infections is crucial information for animal health, particularly of free-ranging species that might come into contact with livestock and humans. METHODS: We investigated the seroprevalence of three tissue-cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti) in 506 individuals of 12 wildlife species in Namibia using in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (indirect ELISAs applying purified antigens) for screening and immunoblots as confirmatory tests. We included six species of the suborder Feliformia, four species of the suborder Caniformia and two species of the suborder Ruminantia. For the two species for which we had most samples and life-history information, i.e. cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, n = 250) and leopards (Panthera pardus, n = 58), we investigated T. gondii seroprevalence in relation to age class, sex, sociality (solitary, mother-offspring group, independent sibling group, coalition group) and site (natural habitat vs farmland). RESULTS: All but one carnivore species (bat-eared fox Otocyon megalotis, n = 4) were seropositive to T. gondii, with a seroprevalence ranging from 52.4% (131/250) in cheetahs to 93.2% (55/59) in African lions (Panthera leo). We also detected antibodies to T. gondii in 10.0% (2/20) of blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus). Adult cheetahs and leopards were more likely to be seropositive to T. gondii than subadult conspecifics, whereas seroprevalence did not vary with sex, sociality and site. Furthermore, we measured antibodies to N. caninum in 15.4% (2/13) of brown hyenas (Hyaena brunnea) and 2.6% (1/39) of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas). Antibodies to B. besnoiti were detected in 3.4% (2/59) of African lions and 20.0% (4/20) of blue wildebeest. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that Namibian wildlife species were exposed to apicomplexan parasites at different prevalences, depending on parasite and host species. In addition to serological work, molecular work is also needed to better understand the sylvatic cycle and the clear role of wildlife in the epidemiology of these parasites in southern Africa.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystidae/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Carnívoros/sangue , Carnívoros/parasitologia , Coccidiose/sangue , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/sangue , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
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