Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.117
Filtrar
1.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 319, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian coccidiosis is an important parasitic disease that has serious adverse effects on the global poultry industry. The extensive use of anticoccidial drugs has resulted in an increase in drug resistance. Ethanamizuril (EZL) is a novel triazine with high anticoccidial activity. METHODS: We compared oocyst production and sporulation between EZL-sensitive (S) and EZL-resistant Eimeria tenella strains (R10 and R200) and used label-free quantitative proteomics to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between these strains. RESULTS: We generated two EZL-resistant E. tenella strains: strain R10, which was induced using a constant dose of 10 mg EZL/kg poultry feed, and strain R200, which was generated by gradually increasing the EZL dosage to 200 mg EZL/kg poultry feed. With an increase in resistance, the total oocyst output decreased, but the percentage of sporulation did not change significantly. We identified a total of 7511 peptides and 1282 proteins, and found 152 DEPs in the R10 strain versus the S strain, 426 DEPs in the R200 strain versus the S strain and 494 DEPs in the R200 strain versus the R10 strain. When compared with the S strain, 86 DEPs were found to have consistent trends in both resistant strains. The DEPs were primarily involved in ATP and GTP binding, invasion, and membrane components. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses of the DEPs suggested that they are involved in transcription and translation processes. Protein-protein interaction network analysis of the 86 DEPs showed that 10 proteins were hubs in the functional interaction network (≥ 8 edges) and five of them were ribosomal proteins. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicate that the resistance mechanisms of E. tenella against EZL might be related to the transcriptional and translational processes, especially in the factors that inhibit the growth of parasites. The DEPs found in this study provide new insights into the resistance mechanisms of E. tenella against EZL. Further research on these potential targets holds promise for new chemotherapeutic approaches for controlling E. tenella infections.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Oocistos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Proteômica , Triazinas/farmacologia , Triazinas/uso terapêutico
2.
Parasitol Int ; 91: 102641, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933035

RESUMO

Parasitic infections such as Strongylida and Eimeria still represent a major health problem of dairy cattle impacting their health, welfare, and productivity. In view of the scarcity of data on risk factors contributing to the spread of parasitic infections in cattle breeding, an epidemiological study in intensive dairy farms in northern Italy was planned. 495 animals (lactating and dry cows, heifers, and calves) from 19 farms were enrolled in the study. Individual fecal samples were analyzed by a quantitative copromicroscopic analysis to detect the number of Strongylida eggs or Eimeria oocysts per gram of faeces (EPG/OPG). Data concerning management, sanitary and biosecurity measures were collected using a questionnaire; a management measures score (MMS) was also calculated. The possible influence of risk factors on Strongylida and Eimeria was thus assessed by statistical analysis using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). Eimeria spp. was the most frequently detected parasitic taxon (herd and individual prevalence: 89.5% and 46.2%, respectively), followed by Strongylida (herd and individual prevalence: 63.1% and 16.6%, respectively). The presence of Strongylida resulted associated to the productive category (p-value = 0.028), with heifers and dry cows at higher risk of infection than lactating cows and calves, and to the MMS (p-value = 0.007). Higher prevalence values were recorded in farms with intermediate or low MMS compared to those with optimal MMS. As regard Eimeria infection, a greater effect of MMS on OPG was recorded in calves when compared to those recorded in heifers (OR = 0.228, p-value = 0.003) and dry cows (OR = 0.241, p-value = 0.009). Gastrointestinal parasitic infections still remain an underestimated problem in intensive dairy cattle breeding. MMS may help in the choice of strategies aimed at minimizing the impact of parasites on animal health, thus improving the productivity of the entire herd.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Gastroenteropatias , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Lactação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(10): 1345-1351, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922919

RESUMO

Intestinal coccidiosis caused by Eimeria protozoan species is an economically important disease, especially in poultry and cattle. Anti-coccidial drugs commonly used for controlling coccidiosis are toltrazuril (TTZ) and diclazuril (DCZ). In this study, the efficacies of TTZ and DCZ were compared using a murine model, and the effect of these treatments on the induction of acquired resistance was evaluated. Male C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with 1,000 sporulated E. vermiformis oocytes and treated with TTZ or DCZ. The recommended TTZ dose for cattle (15 mg/kg) completely prevented oocyte excretion. But, mice required 5 mg/kg of DCZ, which is five times the recommended dose for cattle, to reduce oocyte excretion. In E. vermiformis re-infection, TTZ (15 mg/kg) and DCZ (5 mg/kg) treatments did not interfere with the development of acquired resistance. Bodyweight gain was significantly higher in the TTZ-treated group than in the control (untreated/infected) group and the DCZ-treated group, and no significant difference in bodyweight gain was observed between the TTZ-treated group and the healthy (uninfected/untreated) group. Analysis of T lymphocyte subsets in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes indicated that the relative populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were reduced in the DCZ-treated and control (untreated/infected) groups, suggesting there was immunosuppression during the infection. However, no reductions in T cell populations were observed in the TTZ-treated group. The results indicated that an optimal anti-coccidial drug is one that can completely break the parasite life cycle in the host animal.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Coccidiostáticos , Eimeria , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nitrilas , Triazinas/farmacologia , Triazinas/uso terapêutico
4.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 251: 111508, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963548

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been widely used for gene editing in organisms. Gene deletion of the ku80/ku70 complex can improve the efficiency of gene replacement in Arabidopsis thaliana, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Toxoplasma gondii, which remained elusive in Neospora caninum. Here, we knock out the ku80 gene in Nc1 strain by using CRISPR/Cas9, detect the growth rate and virulence of NcΔku80. Then we compare the efficiency of gene replacements between NcΔku80 and Nc1 strains by transfected with the same HA-tagged plasmids, and the percentage of HA-tagged parasites was investigated by IFA. The results showed that gene targeting efficiency was increased in the NcΔku80 strain via double crossover at several genetic loci, but its growth rate and virulence were unaffected. In conclusion, the NcΔku80 strain can be used as an effective strain for rapid gene editing of N. caninum.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Edição de Genes/métodos , Humanos , Neospora/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Virulência/genética
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 250, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941299

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is an important global chickens' disease which can cause serious economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Little is known about the extent of infection or diversity, of the causative agent Eimeria spp., in Algeria. A priority, therefore, is to determine the prevalence and species composition to inform strategies on treatments and control measures. Samples were collected from 187 broiler farms, located in 7 Northeastern Algerian provinces (Jijel, Constantine, Skikda, Mila, Setif, Batna, Bordj bou-Arreridj), and Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 PCR (ITS1-PCR) was used to determine the prevalence and composition of Eimeria species in chickens. The survey revealed the presence of all seven species of Eimeria at different prevalences (E. maxima (69%), E. acervulina (68.4%), E. necatrix (11.2%), E. tenella (8%), E. praecox (4.3%), E. mitis (2.1%), E. brunetti (2.1%). Multiple infections, with up to 4 different Eimeria species present on a single farm, were the most frequent situation in our samples (51.9% mixed infections versus 47.6% single infections). All farms revealed infected samples, and we conclude that this parasite is a significant problem in these provinces.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/genética , Fazendas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e005622, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946612

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. sporulated oocysts in calves from 26 Municipalities in the Central Zone of the State of Veracruz, Mexico, (2) to identify the Eimeria spp. infecting calves, and (3) to identify the risk factors associated with the presence of Eimeria spp. in tropical cattle. A total of 930 individual fecal samples were analyzed by using the McMaster technique; then, oocysts were maintained in 2.5% potassium dichromate to allow sporulation. The general prevalence of calves with Eimeria spp. oocysts was 39.7% (370/930). Of a total of 10 identified species, Eimeria canadensis was the most observed, followed by Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. The statistical analysis showed an association between the age of the calves (5 to 9 months), the presence of other animals, the physiographic regions and the restricted type of husbandry with the presence of Eimeria spp. in calves (P<0.05). Protective risk factors, such as: routine coprological analysis was also associated with a decrease in infection. These data demonstrate the presence of coccidia in cattle from the State of Veracruz, additionally to the necessary measures that must be taken to control this parasitosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , México/epidemiologia , Oocistos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Vis Exp ; (185)2022 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938815

RESUMO

Protozoan parasites infect humans and many warm-blooded animals. Toxoplasma gondii, a major protozoan parasite, is commonly found in HIV-positive patients, organ transplant recipients and pregnant women, resulting in the severe health condition, Toxoplasmosis. Another major protozoan, Neospora caninum, which bears many similarities to Toxoplasma gondii, causes serious diseases in animals, as does Encephalomyelitis and Myositis-Polyradiculitis in dogs and cows, resulting in stillborn calves. All these exhibited similar nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases (NTPase). Neospora caninum has a NcNTPase, while Toxoplasma gondii has a TgNTPase-I. The enzymes are thought to play crucial roles in propagation and survival. In order to establish compounds and/or extracts preventing protozoan infection, we targeted these enzymes for drug discovery. The next step was to establish a novel, highly sensitive, and highly accurate assay by combining a conventional biochemical enzyme assay with a fluorescent assay to determine ADP content. We also validated that the novel assay fulfills the criteria to carry out high-throughput screening (HTS) in the two protozoan enzymes. We performed HTS, identified 19 compounds and six extracts from two synthetic compound libraries and an extract library derived from marine bacteria, respectively. In this study, a detailed explanation has been introduced on how to carry out HTS, including information about the preparation of reagents, devices, robot arm, etc.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Neospora , Robótica , Toxoplasma , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Cães , Feminino , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hidrolases , N-Glicosil Hidrolases , Nucleosídeos , Polifosfatos , Gravidez
8.
Parasitol Res ; 121(9): 2733-2738, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900601

RESUMO

Among the 11 species of Eimeria in rabbits, some of which are known to be pathogenic and cause enteritis, E. stiedae induces severe liver lesions resulting in elevated mortality. Unlike in other countries, the incidence and prevalence of the parasites in rabbits have not been reported in Japan. In the present study, we histopathologically analyzed hepatic coccidiosis in a rabbit and attempted several primers to genetically identify the parasites and investigated the prevalence of Eimeria species at the same farm. In the liver of the affected rabbit, we observed fibrosis and edema around multiple bile ducts and epithelial cell hyperplasia of the bile ducts. Large numbers of developing parasites of Eimeria spp., mainly oocysts, were present in the bile ducts. PCR and sequencing analyses with the published primers for Cyclospora and Eimeria spp. were used to successfully identify the parasites in the liver as E. stiedae. The oocysts of Eimeria spp. were detected in 13 out of 20 fecal samples collected from other rabbits at the farm, and five Eimeria spp. (E. perforans, E. flavescens, E. exigua, E. magna, and E. vejdovskyi) were genetically confirmed. Our results provide the first indication that Eimeria spp., including highly pathogenic species, are present in Japan and the primer set used herein can be a useful tool for the identification of rabbit Eimeria spp.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Oocistos , Coelhos
9.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(3): 1343-1353, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eimeria spp. are coccidian protozoan parasites of domestic and wild animals. Pelecaniform birds are hosts of some Eimeria spp., however, from the family Threskiornithidae only one eimerian species is recorded, Eimeria bazi Chauhan et Bhatia, 1970 which was described from red-naped ibises Pseudibis papillosa (Temminck, 1824) in India. In this study, in turn, this species is morphologically and molecularly identified from buff-necked ibises Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783) in Brazil. PURPOSE: This study aimed to report E. bazi from buff-necked ibises T. caudatus in southeastern Brazil, revealing the worldwide distribution of this coccidian species, in addition to providing preliminary genotypic identification via sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. METHODS: A total of 73 fecal samples were collected from a flock of buff-necked ibises, which remained on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro-UFRRJ) from March 2019 to August 2020. Fecal samples were processed by the Sheather's method to recover oocysts. The morphological and morphometrical studies of the oocysts were performed using an optical microscope and graphic editing software. Molecular analysis was performed by sequencing of the COI gene, and the phylogenetic analysis was based in the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood estimates. RESULTS: Forty-five fecal samples were positive for oocysts identified as E. bazi. This oocysts are ovoidal, 26.2 × 18.9 µm, with smooth to slightly rough wall, c.1.7 µm thick. Micropyle robust and protruding, sometimes with a polar body attached. Oocyst residuum absent, but one or two small polar granules are present. Sporocysts ovoidal to lemon-shaped, 14.2 × 8.7 µm. The Stieda body is knob-like to rounded and sub-Stieda body is absent or vestigial. Sporocyst residuum is composed of granules often membrane-bound. Sporozoites are vermiform, with refractile bodies. This morphology was consistent with the original description of E. bazi from P. papillosa in India. Molecular analysis at the COI gene exhibited low similarity with coccidians sequenced for the same genic region deposited in GenBank, sitting E. bazi separately on the cladogram. CONCLUSIONS: The morphological and molecular studies support the identification of E. bazi from T. caudatus in South America, thus revealing the wide distribution of this eimerian species in the world provided by migratory birds and/or with intercontinental distribution.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Aves , Brasil , Núcleo Caudado , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Oocistos , Filogenia
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e006422, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830149

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to find out the diversity of Eimeria species in cattle herds in the semiarid region of Brazil. Forty cattle fecal samples were collected from 20 farms in the Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil, and examined by centrifugation-floatation technique in sucrose solution. From each positive animal, 20 oocysts were photographed and measured. Infection by Eimeria spp. was detected in 17.12% (137/800) of the samples analyzed. All the farms had at least one animal that was positive for Eimeria spp. (100%; 20/20). In total, 2740 coccidia were photographed and measured. The species detected were: Eimeria bovis (35.1%); Eimeria canadensis (17.48%); Eimeria auburnensis (14.7%); Eimeria ellipsoidalis (9.7%); Eimeria zuernii (7.22%); Eimeria brasiliensis (4.56%); Eimeria bukidnonensis (3.97%); Eimeria illinoisensis (2.91%); Eimeria wyomingensis (1.42%); Eimeria alabamensis (1.27%); Eimeria cylindrica (0.76%); Eimeria pellita (0.54%); Eimeria ildefonsoi (0.21%); and Eimeria subspherica (0.07%). It was concluded that cattle in the semiarid region of Brazil were parasitized by 14 species of Eimeria. It is thinked that the sanitary management employed, as well as the system used for raising these animals, is the crucial point that leads to high rates of infection in this region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência
11.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 150: 69-83, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35833546

RESUMO

Marine mammals, regarded as sentinels of aquatic ecosystem health, are exposed to different pathogens and parasites under natural conditions. We surveyed live South American fur seals Arctocephalus australis and South American sea lions Otaria flavescens in Uruguay for Leptospira spp., canine distemper virus (CDV), Mycobacterium spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum. Samples were collected from 2007 to 2013. The seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. was 37.6% positive, 50.9% negative, and 11.5% suspect for A. australis (n = 61) while for O. flavescens (n = 12) it was 67% positive, 25% negative, and 8% suspect. CDV RNA was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Most animals tested seropositive to tuberculosis antigens by WiZo ELISA (A. australis: 29/30; O. flavescens: 20/20); reactivity varied with a novel ELISA test (antigens MPB70, MPB83, ESAT6 and MPB59). Seroprevalence against N. caninum and T. gondii was 6.7 and 13.3% positive for O. flavescens and 0 and 2.2% positive for A. australis respectively. To evaluate possible sources of infection for pinnipeds, wild rats Rattus rattus and semi-feral cats Felis catus were also tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii respectively. Water samples tested for Leptospira revealed saprofitic L. bioflexa. Pathogenic Leptospira were detected in the kidneys of 2 rats, and cats tested positive for T. gondii (100%). These results represent a substantial contribution to the study of the health status of wild pinnipeds in Uruguay.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Doenças do Gato , Coccidiose , Otárias , Leptospira , Doenças dos Roedores , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Gatos , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Ecossistema , Ratos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Uruguai/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Protistol ; 85: 125895, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689877

RESUMO

Avian coccidiosis is a common disease caused by Eimeria spp. In the genus Eimeria, the species Eimeria tenella is an obligate intracellular parasite that invades mostly chicken cecal epithelial cells. The 14-3-3 protein is one of the most common adaptor proteins. It is involved in regulating protein phosphorylation and is associated with phosphorylated proteins to regulate signal transduction. Previous reports have shown that 14-3-3 protein has a direct regulatory effect on calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) activity by interacting with CDPKs. In this study, the characteristics of the E. tenella 14-3-3 protein including transcription and translation analyses, localization in different developmental stages etc were analyzed. The interaction between E. tenella 14-3-3 (Et14-3-3) and E. tenella calcium-dependent protein kinase 4 (EtCDPK4) which is a critical molecule in E. tenella invasion of host cells was verified by Bimolecular Fluorescent Complimentary (BiFC), Co-Immunoprecipitation (co-IP), and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down. The transcription and translation levels were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. The results showed that the mRNA transcription level of Et14-3-3 was highest in the sporozoite, and the translation level was higher in the unsporulated oocyst than in the other stages. Indirect immunolocalization found that Et14-3-3 was located mainly at the anterior of sporozoites and on the surface of second-generation merozoites. As the sporozoites developed in cells, the fluorescence intensity of Et14-3-3 gradually darkened. BiFC results showed green fluorescence under microscopy in 293T cells co-transfected with pBiFC-VN155-Et14-3-3 and pBiFC-VC155-EtCDPK4. Co-IP and GST pull-down showed that Et14-3-3 interacted with EtCDPK4, which is consistent with the BiFC results. These results indicated that Et14-3-3 had significant interactions with EtCDPK4. Co-localization of Et14-3-3 with EtCDPK4 in sporozoites revealed that they were located in the same position. The secretion assay results indicated that Et14-3-3 was a secreted protein but was not secreted from micronemes. These results lay the foundation for further research on the mechanism of action of EtCDPK4 with Et14-3-3 and the functions of Et14-3-3 in the lifecycle of E. tenella.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Eimeria , Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria tenella/genética , Eimeria tenella/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esporozoítos/metabolismo
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 213, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eimeria coccidiosis is a significant intestinal parasitic disease, which can lead to weight loss, disease and even death of many animals. At present, there is no information about the prevalence of Eimeria among the world's endangered species of Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify an unknown Eimeria genus in the Père David's deer in Dafeng Milu National Nature Reserve, China. RESULTS: A new Eimeria species is described from Père David's deer. Sporulated oocysts (n = 54) are pyriform, with a rough, yellowish brown, 2-layered oocyst wall (2.5 µm thick). A numerous small granules are dispersed randomly on the wall. Oocysts measured 41.2 (39.2-42.8) µm × 29.5 (27.9-30.5) µm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.4. Oocyst residuum, a polar granule and a polar cap are absent. The micropyle (3.5 µm wide) is present. Sporocysts are spindle shaped, 18.2 (16.5-20.0) µm × 10.5 (9.8-11.9) µm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.7 (1.5-1.9). A thin convex Stieda body is present and the sporocyst residuum is composed of numerous small granules less than 2.0 µm in diameter dispersed randomly. Each sporocyst contained 2 comma-shaped sporozoites in head-to-tail arrangement. A nucleus is located immediately anterior to the posterior, strong refractive and subspherical refractile body (~ 8 µm). Molecular analysis was conducted at the 18S, ITS-1 and COI loci. CONCLUSION: Based on the morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of coccidian parasite, which is named Eimeria davidianusi after its host, the Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus).


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Cervos , Eimeria , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Oocistos
14.
Exp Parasitol ; 239: 108309, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764121

RESUMO

Hepatozoon spp. are blood protozoans that can infect snakes. Infections with these parasites are found in more than 200 snake species and are considered to be the most frequent hemogregarines in snakes. In this study, a total of 73 dead snakes in captivity conditions, belonging to six different species, which were collected between June 2018 to October 2020 from different parts of Iran, were examined for the presence of blood parasites with microscopy and molecular methods. DNA was extracted from the removed heart, and PCR was done with two pairs of primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene. By microscopy, Hepatozoon spp. were detected in the heart blood of 29 out of the 73 (39.72%) snakes. From these 29 positive samples, eight were found to be positive using the PCR method. This study aimed to report for the first time the molecular characteristics of Hepatozoon spp. infecting venomous terrestrial snakes in Iran.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eucoccidiida , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/genética , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Serpentes/parasitologia
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 238: 108268, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513005

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite related to abortion in cattle, goats and sheep. The life cycle of N. caninum is characterized by the time-coordinated secretion of proteins contained in micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules, allowing the active invasion and the adaptation of the parasite in the cell environment. Thus, the proteins of the secretome have the potential to be considered as targets for N. caninum control. Despite the importance of neosporosis in the livestock-related economy, no commercial treatment is available. Furthermore, the process of invasion, propagation and immune evasion are not completely elucidated. In this study, we initiated the characterization of NCLIV_011700 of N. caninum, a protein with low sequence identity to NcROP15 or TgROP15 (<15%). Our goal was the detection and molecular characterization of the NCLIV_011700, once homology (with low identity >20%) was observed within the Apicomplexa. The NCLIV_011700 sequence was aligned and compared to the closer apicomplexan homologues (ROP15 from N. caninum, T. gondii, Hammondia hammondi, Cystospores suis), including the predicted domains. In general, the NCLIV_011700 demonstrated low identity with ROP15 of apicomplexan (<20%) and had a ubiquitin domain. On the other side, the NCLIV_011700 homologues were composed of a non-cytoplasmic domain, suggesting different functions between NcROP15 (or homologues) and NCLIV_011700 during the parasite life cycle. Moreover, the NCLIV_011700 was amplified by PCR, ligated to a pET28a plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant form of NCLIV_011700 was purified in a nickel-Sepharose resin and applied for polyclonal antibody production in mice. The antiserum against NCLIV_011700 (anti-rNCLIV_011700) was used to localize the native form of the protein using Western blot and confocal microscopy. Also, the NCLIV_011700 antiserum partially inhibited the parasite adhesion/invasion process, indicating an active role of the protein in the N. caninum cycle. Thus, the initial NCLIV_011700 characterization will contribute to enlarging the comprehension of N. caninum, aiming at the future development of tools to control the parasite infection/propagation.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Western Blotting , Bovinos , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Cabras , Camundongos , Neospora/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas , Ovinos
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e002222, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613151

RESUMO

Eimeria species have importance to calves because of the economic losses. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Eimeria that affect calves and the risk factors associated with its natural infection. Fecal samples (387) were collected from dairy farms in the southern Agreste of Pernambuco. The feces were evaluated using the Gordon & Whitlock technique and were cultured in 2.5% potassium dichromate for sporulation of oocysts. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated to assess risk factors. Eimeria spp. were detected in 50.65% (196/387) of the samples. Eleven species were identified, being Eimeria bovis (26.64%; 548/2057), Eimeria zuernii (19.69%; 405/2057) and Eimeria ellipsoidalis (14.49%; 298/2057) those more frequent. Small herds (OR = 1.93), calves aged up to six months (OR = 2.12), absence of manure pit (OR = 7.52), fortnightly cleaning (OR = 4.71), collective calf pens (OR = 3.26), manual milking (OR = 2.16) and absence of veterinary care (OR = 2.28) were considered to be risk factors. The data revealed pathogenic species in more than 50% of the farms. Thus, the importance of adopting sanitary measures to reduce the spread of these protozoa in herds should be done, because of economic losses associated with its infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268903, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neospora caninum (N. caninum) is known to be a major cause of reproductive failure in cattle herds around the world. Therefore, the current comprehensive study was performed to estimate the global prevalence of N. caninum infection in bovines that had an abortion and aborted fetuses. METHODS: In this study, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Scopus, and ProQuest databases were systematically searched for relevant studies up until November 4, 2021. Pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using a random effect model. Other analyzes performed on the data of this study include sensitivity analysis, publication bias test, and quality assessment. RESULTS: The final analyses included 71 studies conducted on 2965 abortive cattle and 4805 aborted fetuses. The overall prevalence rates of N. caninum infection in bovines that had an abortion were 47% and 1% using serological and molecular methods. Furthermore, overall prevalence rates of N. caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses globally were 35% (95% CI: 8%-62%) and 43% (95% CI: 35%-52%) using serological and molecular methods. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed the high prevalence of N. caninum infection in bovines that had an abortion and aborted fetuses. It is hoped that the results of this study will help prevent abortion in bovines around the world and encourage further studies to determine the impact of this parasite on the occurrence of abortion that may help reduce the economic damage caused by abortion worldwide.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Gravidez
18.
Parasitol Int ; 89: 102587, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452797

RESUMO

Although Brazil is a hotspot for snake species, there is a lack of information on the biodiversity of haemoparasites infecting these hosts. Thus, the present study aimed to bring new insights on the diversity of species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) infecting Brazilian snakes from the Midwest and Southeast regions. The snakes were captured from 2018 to 2020 from the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, and São Paulo. Three to five blood smears were made and the remaining blood sample was stored for further molecular analysis. Moreover, histopathological slides of the organs were stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Regarding molecular diagnosis, PCR was performed targeting different regions of the 18S rRNA gene of apicomplexan parasites. From the 13 free-living snakes screened, ten (76.92%) were found infected with Hepatozoon spp. Based on morphological and morphometric tools, five different morphotypes of species of Hepatozoon gamonts were detected. Molecular data and phylogenetic analysis support the morphological data, identifying five species of Hepatozoon from snakes, of which three species belong to previously described species, Hepatozoon cevapii, Hepatozoon cuestensis, and Hepatozoon quagliattus, with a genetic similarity of 100% (based on the 18S rRNA genetic marker). The present study identifies and describes two new species of Hepatozoon, Hepatozoon annulatum sp. nov. infecting the snake Leptodeira annulata and Hepatozoon trigeminum sp. nov. infecting the snake Oxyrhopus trigeminus. Thus, based on morphological and molecular data the present study provides new insights on haemogregarine diversity infecting Brazilian snakes from the Midwest and Southeast regions.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa , Coccidiose , Eucoccidiida , Parasitos , Animais , Apicomplexa/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/genética , Parasitos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Serpentes/parasitologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 121(6): 1735-1748, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362740

RESUMO

Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite, is the etiological agent of neosporosis, a disease that leads to neurological symptoms in dogs and abortion in cattle. Vaccine or drug treatments for neosporosis remain to be determined. Therefore, it is of undeniable relevance to investigate new molecules involved in the parasite's successful survival within the host cell. The aim of this study was to characterize the N. caninum peroxiredoxin (NcPrx), an enzyme involved in the redox system of the parasite. The NcPrx amino acid sequence showed high identity and similarity compared to homologues representatives of Apicomplexa phylum. The recombinant NcPrx (rNcPrx) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (BL21) with the predicted molecular weight (22 kDa), and the identity of monomer and dimer forms of rNcPrx was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Native and recombinant NcPrx were detected by ELISA and western blot, using the polyclonal anti-rNcPrx serum. Multiphoton analysis showed that NcPrx is localized in tachyzoite cytosol. H2O2 treatment increased the rNcPrx dimerization in vitro, and associated with the in silico data, we suggest that NcPrx belongs to typical 2-Cys Prx group (AhpC/Prx1 family). rNcPrx also increased the H2O2 clearance and protected plasmidial DNA under oxidative conditions. Finally, H2O2 increased the NcPrx dimerization in intracellular and extracellular tachyzoites suggesting that it is enrolled in H2O2 clearance and sensing in N. caninum.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bovinos , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Cães , Feminino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Gravidez
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 203: 105620, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366534

RESUMO

Neosporosis is a worldwide infectious disease caused by the obligate intracellular parasite protozoan Neospora caninum (N. caninum), which has a heteroxenous life cycle and affects a wide range of warm-blooded animals, especially canines and cattle. Here, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the overall seroprevalence and potential risk factors for N. caninum infection among cattle in China. The VIP Chinese Journal Databases (VIP), PubMed, WanFang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and ScienceDirect databases were employed for a comprehensive search for relevant studies published from 2011 to 2020. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled seroprevalence estimated with 95% confidence intervals. The pooled N. caninum seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to be 12.2%. The highest seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in cattle was in Southern China (20.9%), while the lowest seroprevalence was in Northwest China (9.4%). The seroprevalence of N. caninum in the sub-group 2016 or later (10.2%) was lower than that in 2012-2015 (20.7%) and before 2012 (17.2%). Yaks were the least infected species of cattle (7.3%; Yellow cattle 18.1%; Buffalo 7.8%; Dairy cattle 21.5%). Cattle aged > 5 years had higher seroprevalence (20.7%) than that aged 3-5 years (10.7%) and < 3 years (14.2%). In season subgroups, the lowest N. caninum seroprevalence was found in summer (21.3%). Free ranging cattle had a 27.2% seroprevalence of N. caninum, which was higher than 7.8% in stall-feed cattle. The seroprevalence of N. caninum in female (22.6%) cattle was higher than in males (13.4%). Meanwhile, the prevalence was higher as increased parity and abortion. The results indicated that N. caninum infection in cattle was widely distributed in China. We recommend that more attention should be paid to the management of sanitary conditions for breeding in the areas with rich and warm water sources. In addition, it would appear to be prudent and feasible to selectively cease breeding for N. caninum seropositive animals in herds with low prevalence and farmers should not feed aborted fetuses to dogs on farm.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Doenças do Cão , Neospora , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...