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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027425

RESUMO

Dogs are hosts of the protozoans Toxoplasma gondii, which causes an important public health disease, and Neospora caninum. Studies that have evaluated toxoplasmosis and neosporosis for prolonged periods in dog populations are rare. We analyzed infection by both parasites in a domestic dog population over three consecutive years in São Paulo state, Brazil. In the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years of collection, 181, 193 and 172 domiciles were visited, and blood samples of 331, 371 and 348 dogs were collected for antibody serology, respectively. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in each year was 27.2%, 22.5% and 43.9%, respectively, and that of N. caninum was 7.8%, 4.8% and 6.8%, respectively. The incidence rates for T. gondii in the 2nd and 3rd collections were 13.2% and 30.0%, and those for N. caninum were 3.3% and 4.4%, respectively. Positive and negative serological conversions for both agents occurred at high frequencies during the study period. This study reveals the canine population's serological profile and demonstrates the constant exposure of dogs to the investigated pathogens, indicating the need for prevention and control measures in the region.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Doenças do Cão , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/sangue , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Incidência , População Rural , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
2.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 41, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Similar to the situation in other European countries, Danish wild boars may harbour a wide range of pathogens infectious to humans and domestic pigs. Although wild boars must be kept behind fences in Denmark, hunting and consumption of the meat may cause zoonotic transmission. Moreover, most infections of wild boars are transmissible to domestic pigs, which may have important economic consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Danish wild boars were infected with bacteria and parasites transmissible to humans or domestic pigs: Brucella suis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., lungworms and gastrointestinal parasites, especially Ascaris suum. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these important pathogens in Danish wild boars. RESULTS: Wild boars from eight enclosures were analysed over a 5-year period. All tested wild boars were negative for B. suis (n = 240), MRSA (n = 244), Salmonella spp. (n = 115) and Trichinella spp. (n = 232), while eight parasite genera were identified in the faeces (n = 254): Ascaris suum, Capillaria sp., Cystoisospora suis, Eimeria spp., Metastrongylus sp. (lungworm), Strongyloides ransomi, Trichuris suis and strongylid eggs, i.e. strongyles not identified to the genera. Eimeria spp. and Metastrongylus sp. had the highest prevalence (92.3 and 79.5%, respectively) and were identified in wild boars from all eight enclosures, while the remaining parasite genera were present more sporadically. CONCLUSIONS: Wild boars from Denmark constitute a low risk of transmitting B. suis, MRSA, Salmonella spp. and Trichinella spp. to humans or domestic pigs, while economically important parasites transmissible to domestic pigs are highly prevalent in the wild boar population.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107978, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853633

RESUMO

One hundred and twenty one-day-old chukar partridges were randomly divided into eight groups which received diets with different supplementations. There were four unchallenged groups. One group received salinomycin (50 ppm), two groups received cinnamaldehyde (CINN) (100 and 200 mg/kg of diet), and another one received only the basal diet from the 1st to the 31st day. There were also four corresponding groups orally challenged by 3 × 105Eimeria kofoidi sporulated oocysts at the 21st day. Three samplings were done at the 24th, 26th, and 31st days of rearing for pathological and biochemical assessments. Fecal samples were daily taken to check the pattern of oocyst shedding from the 26th to 31st day. The body weight of birds was measured at 21st and 31st days. Along with the in vivo experiment, an in vitro sporulation inhibition test was carried out. The in vitro results showed that CINN decreased sporulation rate at 1 and 0.5 mg/ml. In vivo, it was found that CINN did not prevent the oocyst shedding. Furthermore, the histopathological findings revealed that CINN and salinomycin had no effect on infection establishment. However, our findings showed that CINN (200 mg/kg of diet) could enhance the body weight and improve antioxidant status. Although our results did not support the in vivo anticoccidial activity of CINN, it had a promising potential to improve antioxidant status and body weight in the chukar partridge.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Galliformes/parasitologia , Acroleína/farmacologia , Acroleína/uso terapêutico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves/tratamento farmacológico , Peso Corporal , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/parasitologia , Galliformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Piranos/farmacologia , Piranos/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Esporos de Protozoários/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos de Protozoários/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3469-3479, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827104

RESUMO

Amphibians are among the most threatened vertebrate groups in the world, and the main causes include climate change, habitat destruction, and emerging diseases. Herein, we investigated the occurrence and characterized molecularly Apicomplexa in anurans from southeastern Brazil. Forty individuals from seven anuran species were sampled in São Paulo state. In the molecular analyses, one Leptodactylus latrans and one Rhinella diptycha were positive in PCR assays for species of Hepatozoon. Two L. latrans were also positive for coccidian infections (Lankesterella sp. and an unidentified coccidian species). Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA clustered the sequences detected in anurans from the present study with Hepatozoon spp. detected in reptiles and other anurans from Brazil, albeit they were separate from Hepatozoon haplotypes detected in frogs from Africa and North America. Our study showed, for the first time, the molecular detection of Lankesterella sp. and another coccidian in L. latrans. Additionally, co-infection by different species of Hepatozoon haplotypes and an unidentified coccidian in anurans from Brazil was documented.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Apicomplexa/classificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3729-3737, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779020

RESUMO

A new Eimeria species is described from a common bronzewing pigeon (Phaps chalcoptera) (Latham, 1790) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria chalcoptereae n. sp. (n = 30) are subspheroidal, 22-25 × 21-24 (23.5 × 22.6) µm; length/width (L/W) ratio 1.0-1.1 (1.04) µm. Wall bi-layered, 1.0-1.4 (1.2) µm thick, outer layer smooth, c.2/3 of total thickness. Micropyle barely discernible. Oocyst residuum is absent, but 2 to 3 small polar granules are present. Sporocysts (n = 30) ellipsoidal, 13-14 × 7-8 (13.5 × 7.2) µm; L/W ratio 1.8-2.0 (1.88). Stieda body present, flattened to half-moon-shaped, 0.5 × 2.0 µm; sub-Stieda present, rounded to trapezoidal, 1.5 × 2.5 µm; para-Stieda body absent; sporocyst residuum present, usually as an irregular body consisting of numerous small granules that appear to be membrane-bound. Sporozoites vermiform, with a robust refractile body and centrally located nucleus. Isolated Eimeria oocysts were analysed at the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) loci. Analyses revealed that Eimeria chalcoptereae n. sp. shared the highest number of molecular features with an Eimeria sp. previously identified from a domestic pigeon in Australia (KT305927-29), with similarities at these three loci of 98.53%, 97.32% and 94.93%, respectively. According to morphological and molecular analysis, the isolated coccidian parasite is a new species of Eimeria named Eimeria chalcoptereae n. sp. after its host, the common bronzewing pigeon (Phaps chalcoptera) (Columbiformes: Columbidae) (Latham, 1790).


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae/parasitologia , Eimeria/citologia , Eimeria/genética , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Oocistos/citologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Esporozoítos/citologia , Austrália Ocidental
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764795

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with 100ppm sodium monensin or 0.15% of a blend of functional oils (cashew nut oil + castor oil) on the intestinal microbiota of broilers challenged with three different Eimeria spp. The challenge was accomplished by inoculating broiler chicks with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, and Eimeria maxima via oral gavage. A total of 864, day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly assigned to six treatments (eight pens/treatment; 18 broilers/pen) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed of three additives (control, monensin or blend), with or without Eimeria challenge. Intestinal contents was collected at 28 days of age for microbiota analysis by sequencing 16s rRNA in V3 and V4 regions using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Taxonomy was assigned through the SILVA database version 132, using the QIIME 2 software version 2019.1. No treatment effects (p > 0.05) were observed in the microbial richness at the family level estimated by Chao1 and the biodiversity assessed by Simpson's index, except for Shannon's index (p < 0.05). The intestinal microbiota was dominated by members of the order Clostridiales and Lactobacillales, followed by the families Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, regardless of treatment. When the controls were compared, in the challenged control group there was an increase in Erysipelotrichaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae, and a decrease in Ruminococcaceae. Similar results were found for a challenged group that received monensin, while the blend partially mitigated this variation. Therefore, the blend alleviated the impact of coccidiosis challenge on the microbiome of broilers compared to monensin.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/dietoterapia , Anacardium/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/dietoterapia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/imunologia , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Masculino , Oocistos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ricinus/química
7.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2885-2895, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715344

RESUMO

Chicken coccidiosis is a protozoan parasitic disease that leads to considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. In this study, we used invasive Lactobacillus plantarum (L.P) expressing the FnBPA protein as a novel bacterial carrier for DNA delivery into epithelial cells to develop a live oral DNA vaccine. A fusion DNA vaccine co-expressing EtMIC2 and chicken IL-18 (chIL-18) was constructed and then delivered to the host by invasive L.P. Its efficacy against Eimeria tenella challenge was evaluated in chickens by examining the relative weight gain rate; caecal lesion score; OPG; anti-coccidial index (ACI); levels of EtMIC2 antibody, FnBPA, IL-4, IL-18, IFN-γ and SIgA; and proliferation ability and percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ splenocytes. The experimental results showed that chickens immunized with invasive L.P carrying the eukaryotic expression vector pValac-EtMIC2 (pValac-EtMIC2/pSIP409-FnBPA) had markedly improved immune protection against challenge compared with that of chickens immunized with non-invasive L.P (pValac-EtMIC2/pSIP409). However, invasive L.P co-expressing EtMIC2 with the chIL-18 vector exhibited the highest protection efficiency against E. tenella. These results indicate that invasive Lactobacillus-expressing FnBPA improved humoural and cellular immunity and enhanced resistance to E. tenella. The DNA vaccine delivered by invasive Lactobacillus provides a new concept and method for the prevention of E. tenella.


Assuntos
Antígeno 12E7/metabolismo , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/genética , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Ganho de Peso
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3023-3031, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725320

RESUMO

Hepatozoon canis is a hemoprotozoan organism that infects domestic and wild carnivores throughout much of Europe. The parasite is mainly transmitted through the ingestion of infected ticks containing mature oocysts. The aims of the present survey were to determine the prevalence of H. canis in hunting dogs living in Southern Italy and to assess potential infection risk factors. DNA extracted from whole blood samples, collected from 1433 apparently healthy dogs living in the Napoli, Avellino, and Salerno provinces of Campania region (Southern Italy), was tested by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to amplify H. canis. Furthermore, the investigated dog population was also screened by qPCR for the presence of Ehrlichia canis, a major tick-borne pathogen in Southern Italy, in order to assess possible co-infections. Two hundred dogs were H. canis PCR-positive, resulting in an overall prevalence of 14.0% (CI 12.2-15.9). Breed category (P < 0.0001), hair coat length (P = 0.015), and province of residence (P < 0.0001) represented significant risk factors for H. canis infection. The presence of H. canis DNA was also significantly associated with E. canis PCR positivity (P < 0.0001). Hunting dogs in Campania region (Southern Italy) are frequently exposed to H. canis, and the infection is potentially associated with close contact with wildlife. Further studies are needed to assess the pathogenic potential of H. canis, as well as the epidemiological relationships between hunting dogs and wild animal populations sharing the same habitats in Southern Italy.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Eucoccidiida/genética , Eucoccidiida/fisiologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia
9.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 428-437, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603417

RESUMO

Commonly found in backyard and commercial poultry production, coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, presents a self-limiting intestinal infection based on the number of ingested oocysts. Heat stress (HS) is one of the major environmental stressors in poultry, predisposing broiler chickens to immunosuppression and rendering them susceptible to diseases. There are suggestions that HS reduces Eimeria oocyst shedding in chickens; however, the relationship between HS and coccidiosis is not well elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature on viability, morphology, infectivity, and development of Eimeria tenella in vitro, and merozoite production and oocyst shedding in vivo. In vitro exposure of sporozoites to 55 C for at least 60 min reduced sporozoites viability as shown by morphological changes and rendering them unable to invade Mardin-Darbi bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Intracellular development of merozoites was significantly reduced by an increase in 2 C in the optimal temperature of incubation in vitro. Most importantly, the induction of HS in the live chickens caused significantly lower lesion scores, reduced merozoite production, and oocyst shedding, resulting in a much less severe disease outcome.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Ceco/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eimeria tenella/patogenicidade , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/complicações , Temperatura Alta , Merozoítos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Merozoítos/fisiologia , Esporozoítos/fisiologia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3315-3326, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699938

RESUMO

Haemogregarina species are apicomplexan blood parasites infecting vertebrates such as fish, lizards, and turtles. Due to the high morphological similarity of the erythrocytic stages infecting host species, it has always been a challenge to identify the true diversity of these parasites. Therefore, taxonomic studies are presently based on the combination of morphological and molecular data. In Tunisia, two species of Haemogregarina have been reported within the freshwater turtle Mauremys leprosa (Geoemydidae) for more than 40 years. Since M. leprosa occurs in the same aquatic environments as Emys orbicularis (Emydidae) in Tunisia, our objectives were to assess parasite diversity and specificity on the basis of both morphological and molecular approaches. The turtles were surveyed and sampled across six aquatic areas of Tunisia. Among the 39 specimens of M. leprosa and seven of E. orbicularis that were trapped and investigated, the presence of haemogregarines was detected in the blood of turtles only at sites where leeches were observed. Three 18S variants were identified, which corresponded to three distinct Haemogregarina species, among which one was identified as Haemogregarina stepanowi. The two other species that were detected are likely new to science. Because we show the occurrence of more than one blood parasite species within a single host specimen, our study provides the first report of coinfection with molecularly distinct Haemogregarina spp.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/genética , Água Doce/parasitologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Sanguessugas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Tartarugas/classificação
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107901, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525007

RESUMO

Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) has caused severe economic loss in chicken production, especially after the forbidden use of antibiotics in feed. Considering the drug resistant problem caused by misuse of chemoprophylaxis and live oocyst vaccines can affect the productivity of chickens, also it has the risk to reversion of virulence, the development of efficacious, convenient and safe vaccines is still deeply needed. In this study, the EtMic2 protein of E. tenella was anchored on the surface of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) NC8 strain. The newly constructed strain was then used to immunize chickens, followed by E. tenella challenge. The results demonstrated that the recombinant strain could provide efficient protection against E. tenella, shown by increased relative body weight gains, percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, humoral immune response and inflammatory cytokines. In addition, decreased cecum lesion scores and fecal oocyst shedding were also observed during the experiment. In conclusion, this study proves the possibility to use L. plantarum as a vessel to deliver protective antigen to protect chickens against coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Antígeno 12E7/imunologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Ceco/parasitologia , Coccidiose/economia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Eimeria tenella/química , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-2/sangue , Intestinos/imunologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Vacinas Sintéticas
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2139-2147, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476061

RESUMO

Coccidian parasites of fish have received considerably less attention than their terrestrial counterparts, and within piscine hosts, most studies have focused on freshwater fish. The present study aimed to describe oocyst morphology, phylogenetic affinities, and the impacts of coccidian parasites infecting the internal organs of a commercially valuable marine fish, the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), captured off the Portuguese coast. As part of the phylogenetic analysis, sequences from coccidians infecting the pout (Trisopterus luscus) and the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias) were included, and the oocyst morphology of the coccidians infecting the former was also reported. Results showed that the prevalence of coccidiosis in the blue whiting was very high (> 82%), occurring in all analyzed organs, despite being more abundant in the liver. A significant negative correlation was found between the abundance of the parasites in the liver and host condition index (p < 0.05), which indicates a negative effect on the fitness of this host. Phylogenetic analyses of the parasites found in all three species examined identified three different species of Goussia, closely related to Goussia clupearum. Adding to previous research, we propose the existence of a fourth group of Goussia, the clupearum type, able to infect multiple organs and phylogenetic related with G. clupearum.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeriidae/classificação , Eimeriidae/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gadiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeriidae/citologia , Eimeriidae/genética , Fígado/parasitologia , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/citologia , Oocistos/genética , Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Portugal , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia
13.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 123-129, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550611

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. are important intestinal pathogens of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Anticoccidial feed additives, chemicals, and ionophores have traditionally been used to control Eimeria infections in broiler production. Thus, the trend toward antibiotic-free and organic production requires new approaches to coccidiosis prevention. Two not mutually exclusive methods are the use of plant extracts with antiparasitic activity and manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by pre- and probiotics. In the present study, birds were inoculated with a combination of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. We profiled the jejunal microbiome at multiple time points postinfection to investigate the changes in jejunum microbiota and to identify the time point of the maximum difference between infected and noninfected birds. Additionally, we assessed the anticoccidial effects of two anecdotal treatment methods, green tea and apple cider vinegar, as well as amprolium. Green tea and apple cider vinegar had no effect on oocyst shedding, but green tea reduced the mild unspecific lesions in coccidia-infected birds; there was no influence on unspecific lesions in uninfected controls. Jejunal contents were collected on the day of the infection and 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 days postinfection (dpi) for investigation of the intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal (r)RNA gene sequencing. Comparison of the untreated-uninfected and the untreated-infected groups showed a maximum community dissimilarity of 10 dpi. From 4 days after infection, Clostridiales were significantly enriched at the expense of Lactobacillales in infected compared with uninfected birds. Interestingly, treatment with green tea prevented proliferation of Clostridiales induced by the coccidia and increased the relative abundance of Melainabacteria.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Ácido Acético/química , Amprólio/farmacologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiostáticos/química , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Jejuno/microbiologia , Malus/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Chá/química
14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2679-2686, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588173

RESUMO

Rodents and other micromammals constitute important reservoirs of infectious diseases; their role in the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. still needs clarification. In the present study, we analyzed by PCR and Sanger sequencing methods the presence of specific parasite DNA within brain and heart tissues of 313 individuals of five synanthropic small mammal species (Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus spretus, M. musculus, Rattus rattus, and Crocidura russula) collected in Barcelona metropolitan area (NE Spain). In addition, PCR-RFLP and microsatellites were also used as tools for genotypic characterization of T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. Specific DNA of T. gondii, N. caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. was detected in 0.3% (n = 1), 1.3% (n = 4), and 3.8% (n = 12) of the animals, respectively. No mixed infections were observed. Crocidura russula stood out as the main host for Sarcocystis spp. Toxoplasma gondii-specific DNA detected in a house rat was genetically characterized by PCR-RFLP, presenting type II and III alleles (SAG1 [II], SAG3 [II], GRA6 [II], c22-8 [III], Apico [III]). Also, unsuccessful DNA sequencing and microsatellite typing were attempted in N. caninum-positive samples, which suggested a lack of PCR specificity and open avenues to speculate the host competence of rodents for N. caninum. Likewise, Sarcocystis spp. identity was studied by alignment and phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and 28S rRNA sequences from the 14 positive samples. It resulted in at least three unknown organisms closely similar (95.7-100% cox1-sequence homology) to Sarcocystis pantherophisi from the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) (KU891603), suggesting together with 28S rRNA sequences analyses, three Sarcocystis sp. with a life cycle conformed by rodents as intermediate host (IH) and snakes as definitive hosts (DH) infecting the periurban micromammals surveyed. Prevalence figures found in this first survey carried out in Spain agree with other international studies focused on periurban areas. Further surveys should be conducted in farms and their surroundings in order to unravel the role of wild micromammals in the epidemiology of such protozoan parasites affecting our livestock, and therefore human population.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Sarcocystidae/genética , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Mamíferos/classificação , Encistamento de Parasitas , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Sarcocystidae/classificação , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2659-2666, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529297

RESUMO

Blood samples from 72 Ameiva ameiva lizards from Central Amazonian upland forests were collected, and thin smears of 40 (55.5%) animals were positive for gamonts of Hepatozoon with a mean level of intensity of infection of 14 parasites/2000 blood erythrocytes (0.73%). The gametocytes were found attached with host cells' nuclei, and their dimensions were 14.28 ± 1.05 µm in length and 4.50 ± 0.80 µm in width. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rRNA gene showed that the new sequences obtained from A. ameiva constitute a monophyletic sister clade to the Hepatozoon spp. from Brazilian snakes. Based on morphological features and new molecular data, we redescribe this hemogregarine as Hepatozoon ameivae. This study also provides the first molecular characterization of a Hepatozoon species from a Brazilian lizard.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Lagartos/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/citologia , Eucoccidiida/genética , Eucoccidiida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Carga Parasitária , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
16.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 406-410, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579665

RESUMO

New World flying squirrels, Glaucomys spp., are nocturnal arboreal sciurid rodents that have been previously surveyed for coccidial parasites. To date, 4 species of Eimeria have been reported from 2 species of Glaucomys. Here we report 2 species of eimerians from southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) and the endemic Prince of Wales flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons). Oocysts of Eimeria dorneyi Levine and Ivens were found to be passing in the feces of 4 G. s. griseifrons from Alaska and a new species of Eimeria was present in feces from 6 G. volans from Arkansas. Oocysts of Eimeria hnidai n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, measure 23.7 × 13.7 µm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.7; a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent but polar granule(s) are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal-elongate and measure 11.8 × 4.9 µm, L/W 2.2; Stieda body is present but sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of small indistinct granules along the edge or in the center of the sporocyst. This is the first coccidian reported from G. volans from Arkansas as well as the initial coccidian (E. dorneyi) reported from G. s. griseifrons from Alaska. We also provide a summation of the coccidia known from North American flying squirrels.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sciuridae/parasitologia , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Arkansas/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2549-2561, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562065

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on host cell apoptosis in the early infection of Eimeria tenella. Chicken cecal epithelial cells were treated with apoptosis-inducer Actinomycin D (Act D) or PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor LY294002 and then infected with E. tenella. Results demonstrated that the E. tenella-infected group had less apoptosis 4-8 h after the infection and more apoptosis 12-20 h after the infection than the control group. At 4-20 h after the infection, the apoptotic/necrotic rate and the Caspase-3 activity in the Act D + E. tenella group were lower (P < 0.01) than those in the Act D-treated group. The p-Akt and NF-κB contents in the E. tenella-infected group were higher (P < 0.01) than those in the control group 4-12 h after the infection. However, the bad content and the Caspase-9/3 activity were lower (P < 0.05) in the E. tenella-infected group than in the control group. Compared with the E. tenella-infected group, the LY294002 + E. tenella group showed decreased p-Akt content and increased apoptotic/necrotic rate, bad content, NF-κB expression, membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP) openness, and Caspase-9/3 activity. Thus, the early development of E. tenella could inhibit host cell apoptosis by downregulating the Caspase-3 activity. Upregulating this activity promoted apoptosis. In addition, activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibited the apoptosis of E. tenella host cells in the early infection by reducing the expression of the bad content, limiting the MPTP opening, and decreasing the Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 activities.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/parasitologia , Galinhas , Coccidiose/metabolismo , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/parasitologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2563-2577, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548739

RESUMO

Besnoitia besnoiti is an important obligate intracellular parasite of cattle which primarily infects host endothelial cells of blood vessels during the acute phase of infection. Similar to the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii, B. besnoiti has fast proliferating properties leading to rapid host cell lysis within 24-30 h p.i. in vitro. Some apicomplexan parasites were demonstrated to modulate the host cellular cell cycle to successfully perform their intracellular development. As such, we recently demonstrated that T. gondii tachyzoites induce G2/M arrest accompanied by chromosome missegregation, cell spindle alteration, formation of supernumerary centrosomes, and cytokinesis impairment when infecting primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC). Here, we follow a comparative approach by using the same host endothelial cell system for B. besnoiti infections. The current data showed that-in terms of host cell cycle modulation-infections of BUVEC by B. besnoiti tachyzoites indeed differ significantly from those by T. gondii. As such, cyclin expression patterns demonstrated a significant upregulation of cyclin E1 in B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC, thereby indicating parasite-driven host cell stasis at G1-to-S phase transition. In line, the mitotic phase of host cell cycle was not influenced since alterations of chromosome segregation, mitotic spindle formation, and cytokinesis were not observed. In contrast to respective T. gondii-related data, we furthermore found a significant upregulation of histone H3 (S10) phosphorylation in B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC, thereby indicating enhanced chromosome condensation to occur in these cells. In line to altered G1/S-transition, we here additionally showed that subcellular abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a marker for G1 and S phase sub-stages, was affected by B. besnoiti since infected cells showed increased nuclear PCNA levels when compared with that of control cells.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular , Sarcocystidae/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/parasitologia
19.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598889

RESUMO

The intracellular protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is incriminated to induce drastic economic losses in both livestock and pet animal industries. Neosporosis is primarily characterized by abortion in cattle and paralytic symptoms in dogs. Because there are no effective treatments or vaccines, diagnosis is critical for Neospora control. Thus, diversification of laboratory tests and specimens used for diagnosis of N. caninum is an essential scientific endeavor to judge and select the most appropriate diagnostic tool. Herein, we provide the first evidence for the utility of urine samples for demonstration of specific antibodies against N. caninum employing an experimentally infected murine model. Specific antibodies to recombinant N. caninum dense granule 7, surface antigen 1, and lysate antigen were assayed using different antibodies-based ELISAs. Urine based IgG ELISA efficiently discriminated between infected mice (acute or chronic infection), and those of non-infected mice. This effect was also noticed for IgG1 and IgG2a suggesting the utility of urine for assessment of T-helper 2- and T-helper 1-mediated immunities, respectively. In addition, reactivity of specific antibody in urine was also confirmed against parasites when indirect fluorescent antibody test was employed. Usefulness of urine as an additional clinical sample for Neospora diagnosis was confirmed via comparison with the relevant control non-infected and infected mouse sera as reference samples. Because of minimum invasiveness and ease of urine collection, this approach might offer new diagnostic opportunities for N. caninum either for the field or research purposes. However, further studies are required to extrapolate this preliminary study and results in the animal species of interest particularly in dogs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/urina , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Neospora/imunologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/urina , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/urina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20191107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520220

RESUMO

Eimeriosis is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria and infection affecting most domestic animal species. The aim of this research was to comprehend the impact of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on eimeriosis induced by Eimeria papillata in mouse jejunum, and how they work as antioxidants and anti-apoptotic agents against eimeriosis. The numbers of meronts, gamonts, and developing oocysts of E. papillata reduced after the infected mice were treated with the SeNPs. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and other oxidative stress-related molecules, such as glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were assayed. E. papillata was able to change the redox status of the jejunal cells; this was confirmed by the elevation of the MDA and NO levels, and the decrease of the GSH levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. SeNP treatment significantly reversed this disturbance of the redox status. The expression levels of the apoptotic markers Bax and caspase-3 in the jejunal samples were evaluated using qRT-PCR. The SeNPs decreased the Bax and caspase-3 expression after being administered to the E. papillata-infected mice. Collectively, the SeNPs demonstrated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities against murine eimeriosis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos
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